Buffalo, New York
Buffalo is a city in western New York state and the county seat of Erie County, on the eastern shores of Lake Erie at the head of the Niagara River. As of 2014, Buffalo is New York states 2nd-most populous city after New York City, the metropolitan area has a population of 1.13 million. After an economic downturn in the half of the 20th century, Buffalos economy has transitioned to sectors that include financial services, technology, biomedical engineering. Residents of Buffalo are called Buffalonians, the citys nicknames include The Queen City, The Nickel City and The City of Good Neighbors. The city of Buffalo received its name from a creek called Buffalo Creek. British military engineer Captain John Montresor made reference to Buffalo Creek in his journal of 1764, there are several theories regarding how Buffalo Creek received its name. In 1804, as principal agent opening the area for the Holland Land Company, Joseph Ellicott, designed a radial street and grid system that branches out from downtown like bicycle spokes similar to the street system he used in the nations capital. Although Ellicott named the settlement New Amsterdam, the name did not catch on, during the War of 1812, on December 30,1813, Buffalo was burned by British forces. The George Coit House 1818 and Samuel Schenck House 1823 are currently the oldest houses within the limits of the City of Buffalo, on October 26,1825, the Erie Canal was completed with Buffalo a port-of-call for settlers heading westward. At the time, the population was about 2,400, the Erie Canal brought about a surge in population and commerce, which led Buffalo to incorporate as a city in 1832. In 1845, construction began on the Macedonia Baptist Church, an important meeting place for the abolitionist movement, Buffalo was a terminus point of the Underground Railroad with many fugitive slaves crossing the Niagara River to Fort Erie, Ontario in search of freedom. During the 1840s, Buffalos port continued to develop, both passenger and commercial traffic expanded with some 93,000 passengers heading west from the port of Buffalo. Grain and commercial goods shipments led to repeated expansion of the harbor, in 1843, the worlds first steam-powered grain elevator was constructed by local merchant Joseph Dart and engineer Robert Dunbar. Darts Elevator enabled faster unloading of lake freighters along with the transshipment of grain in bulk from barges, canal boats, by 1850, the citys population was 81,000. At the dawn of the 20th century, local mills were among the first to benefit from hydroelectric power generated by the Niagara River, the city got the nickname City of Light at this time due to the widespread electric lighting. It was also part of the revolution, hosting the brass era car builders Pierce Arrow. President William McKinley was shot and mortally wounded by an anarchist at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo on September 6,1901, McKinley died in the city eight days later and Theodore Roosevelt was sworn in at the Wilcox Mansion as the 26th President of the United States. The Great Depression of 1929–39 saw severe unemployment, especially working class men
Fort Lee, New Jersey
Fort Lee is a borough at the eastern border of Bergen County, New Jersey, United States, in the New York City Metropolitan Area, situated atop the Hudson Palisades. The borough is the terminus of the George Washington Bridge and is located across the Hudson River from the Manhattan borough of New York City. Named for the site of an early American Revolutionary War military encampment, according to the United States Census Bureau, the borough had a total area of 2.888 square miles, including 2.541 square miles of land and 0.347 square miles of water. The borough is situated atop the escarpment of the Hudson Palisades on the peninsula between the Hackensack and Hudson rivers, the borough is bisected by the confluence of roads at GWB Plaza leading to the George Washington Bridge. Unincorporated communities, localities and place names located partially or completely within the borough include Coytesville, Palisade, the borough borders Cliffside Park, Edgewater, Englewood, Englewood Cliffs, Leonia, Palisades Park, Ridgefield. and the Washington Heights neighborhood of Upper Manhattan. It was during Washingtons retreat in November 1776 that Thomas Paine composed his pamphlet, The American Crisis and these events are recalled at Monument Park and Fort Lee Historic Park. Fort Lee was formed by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 29,1904, with the creation of Fort Lee, Ridgefield Township became defunct and was dissolved as of March 29,1904. The Fort Lee Police Department was formed under borough ordinance on August 9,1904, the history of cinema in the United States can trace its roots to the East Coast where, at one time, Fort Lee was the motion picture capital of America. The industry got its start at the end of the 19th century with the construction of Thomas Edisons Black Maria, in 1909, a forerunner of Universal Studios, the Champion Film Company, built the first studio. They were quickly followed by others who either built new studios or who leased facilities in Fort Lee, such notables as Mary Pickford got their start at Biograph Studios. With the offshoot businesses that sprang up to service, the film studios, however, just as the development of Fort Lee production facilities were gaining strength, Nestor Studios of Bayonne, New Jersey, built the first studio in Hollywood in 1911. Californias more hospitable and cost-effective climate led to the shift of virtually all filmmaking to the West Coast by the 1930s. At the time, Thomas Edison owned almost all the relevant to motion picture production. Television and film in New Jersey remains an important industry, since 2000, the Fort Lee Film Commission has been charged with celebrating the history of film in Fort Lee, as well as attracting film and television production companies to the borough. In 1957, market researcher James Vicary claimed that quickly flashing messages on a screen, in Fort Lee, had influenced people to purchase more food. Vicary coined the term subliminal advertising and formed the Subliminal Projection Company based on a six-week test, Vicary claimed that during the presentation of the movie Picnic he used a tachistoscope to project the words Drink Coca-Cola and Hungry. Eat popcorn for 1/3000 of a second at five-second intervals, Vicary asserted that during the test, sales of popcorn and Coke in that New Jersey theater increased 57. 8% and 18. 1% respectively. In 1962, Vicary admitted to lying about the experiment and falsifying the results, an identical experiment conducted by Henry Link showed no increase in cola or popcorn sales
Joseph P. Kennedy Sr.
Joseph Patrick Joe Kennedy Sr. was an American businessman, investor, and politician known for his high-profile positions in United States politics. Kennedy was married to Rose Kennedy, three of their nine children attained distinguished political positions, President John F. Kennedy, Attorney General and Senator Robert F. Kennedy, and longtime Senator Edward M. Ted Kennedy. He was a member of the Democratic Party and of the Irish Catholic community. He was appointed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt to be the first chairman of the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission, and later directed the Maritime Commission. Kennedy served as the United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom from 1938 until late 1940, in the 1920s Kennedy made huge profits from reorganizing and refinancing several Hollywood studios, ultimately merging several acquisitions into Radio-Keith-Orpheum studios. His company, Somerset Importers, became the exclusive American agent for Gordons Gin, in addition, Kennedy purchased spirits-importation rights from Schenley Industries, a firm in Canada. He owned the largest office building in the country, Chicagos Merchandise Mart, giving his family an important base in that city, Kennedy allowed surgeons to perform a lobotomy on his daughter Rosemary Kennedy in 1941. Various reasons for the operation have been given, but it left her permanently incapacitated, Kennedy resigned under pressure shortly afterwards. In later years, Kennedy worked behind the scenes to continue building the financial and political fortunes of the Kennedy family, after a disabling stroke in 1961, Kennedy developed aphasia and lost all power of speech, but remained mentally intact. He was confined to a wheelchair until his death in 1969, Joseph Patrick Kennedy was born in Boston, Massachusetts. He was the son of businessman and politician Patrick Joseph P. J. Kennedy. He had a younger brother Francis, and two sisters, Mary and Margaret. All four of Joes grandparents had immigrated to Massachusetts in the 1840s to escape the Irish famine and he was born into a highly sectarian society, where Irish Catholics were excluded by upper-class Boston Brahmins. Boston Irish thus became active in the Democratic Party, which included P. J. P. J. Kennedy followed in the footsteps of older cousins by attending Harvard College. He focused on becoming a leader, working energetically to gain admittance to the prestigious Hasty Pudding Club. While at Harvard he joined the Delta Upsilon International fraternity and played on the baseball team, in 1937, he received an honorary degree in Doctor of Laws from Oglethorpe University. On October 7,1914, Kennedy married Rose Elizabeth Fitzgerald, honey Fitz Fitzgerald and Mary Josephine Josie Hannon. The marriage joined two of the citys most prominent political families, as Kennedys business success expanded, he and his family kept homes in the Boston area, suburban New York City, Hyannis Port, Massachusetts, and Palm Beach, Florida
Cecil B. DeMille
Cecil Blount DeMille was an American filmmaker. Between 1913 and 1956, he made a total of 70 features and he is acknowledged as a founding father of the cinema of the United States and the most commercially successful producer-director in film history. His films were distinguished by their scale and by his cinematic showmanship. He made silent films of every genre, social dramas, comedies, Westerns, farces, morality plays, DeMille began his career as a stage actor in 1900. He later moved to writing and directing stage productions, some with Jesse Lasky, DeMilles first film, The Squaw Man, was also the first feature film shot in Hollywood. Its interracial love story made it a hit and it put Hollywood on the map. The continued success of his productions led to the founding of Paramount Pictures with Lasky and his first biblical epic, The Ten Commandments, was both a critical and financial success, it held the Paramount revenue record for twenty-five years. In 1927 he directed The King of Kings, a biography of Jesus of Nazareth, the Sign of the Cross was the first sound film to integrate all aspects of cinematic technique. Cleopatra was his first film to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture, after more than thirty years in film production, DeMille reached the pinnacle of his career with Samson and Delilah, a biblical epic which did an all-time record business. Along with biblical and historical narratives, he directed films oriented toward neo-naturalism. He went on to receive his first nomination for the Academy Award for Best Director for his circus drama The Greatest Show on Earth and his last and most famous film, The Ten Commandments, is currently the sixth-highest-grossing film of all time, adjusted for inflation. He was also the first recipient of the Golden Globe Cecil B, DeMille Award, which was later named in his honor. There are several variants of DeMilles surname and his familys Dutch surname was originally spelled de Mil and then became de Mille. As an adult, he adopted the spelling DeMille for professional purposes, the family name de Mille was used by his children Cecilia, John, Richard, and Katherine. DeMilles brother William and his daughters, Margaret and Agnes, as well as DeMilles granddaughter, Cecilia de Mille Presley, Cecil Blount DeMille was born in Ashfield, Massachusetts, while his parents were vacationing there, and grew up in Washington, North Carolina. His father, Henry Churchill de Mille, was a North Carolina-born dramatist and lay reader in the Episcopal Church and his mother was Matilda Beatrice DeMille, whose parents were both of German Jewish heritage. She emigrated from England with her parents in 1871 when she was 18, Beatrice grew up in a middle-class English household. DeMilles mother was related to British politician Herbert Louis Samuel, DeMilles parents met as members of a music and literary society in New York
Alan Hale Sr.
Alan Hale Sr. Hale was born Rufus Edward Mackahan in Washington, D. C. He studied to be a singer and also had success as an inventor. Among his innovations were a sliding theater chair, the fire extinguisher. His first film role was in the 1911 silent movie The Cowboy, Hale played Hugh ONeill, Earl of Tyrone, in The Private Lives of Elizabeth and Essex, featuring in a pivotal confrontation with the Earl of Essex, portrayed by Flynn. Hale directed eight movies during the 1920s and 1930s and acted in 235 theatrical films, hales wife of over thirty years was Gretchen Hartman, a child actress and silent film player and mother of their three children. He was the father of actor Alan Hale Jr. best known as the Skipper on televisions Gilligans Island, father and son closely resembled one another, leading to occasional confusion after Hale Sr. s death when Hale Jr. dropped the Jr. from his name. In what may have been, in the instance, stunt casting, Hale Sr. Alan Hale Sr. played the character in 1939s Man in the Iron Mask, Alan Hale Sr. died in Hollywood, California on January 22,1950, following a liver ailment and viral infection. He is interred in the Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery in Glendale, Alan Hale Sr. at the Internet Movie Database Alan Hale Sr. at the Internet Broadway Database Alan Hale Sr. at Find a Grave
Ruth Roland was an American stage and film actress and film producer. Ruth Roland was born in San Francisco, California and her father managed a theatre, and she became a child actress who went on to work in vaudeville. She was hired by director Sidney Olcott who had seen her on stage in New York City and she appeared in her first film for Kalem Studios in 1909 and along with actress Gene Gauntier was soon billed as a Kalem Girl. She eventually was sent to Kalems West Coast studio, where she was the leading actress, aged 12, she was the youngest student at Hollywood High School, having attended the school around 1904 or 1905. Roland was Hollywood High Schools first homegrown movie star, Roland left Kalem and went on to even more fame at Balboa Films, where she was under contract from 1914–1917. In 1915 she appeared in a 14-episode adventure film serial titled The Red Circle, a shrewd businessperson, she established her own production company and signed a distribution deal with Pathé to make six new multi-episode serials that proved very successful. Between 1909 and 1927, Roland appeared in more than 200 films and she appeared in an early color feature film Cupid Angling made in the Natural Color process invented by Leon F. Douglass, and filmed in the Lake Lagunitas area of Marin County, California. Roland worked the business until 1930 when she made her first talkie. Although her voice worked well enough on screen, now entering her forties she returned to performing in theatre, making only one more film appearance. Roland was married to Lionel T, in 1929 she married fellow actor Ben Bard, who also had a stage acting background, and who ran a Hollywood acting school after they married. They were together until the end of Rolands life, Ruth Roland died of cancer in 1937, aged 45, in Hollywood and is interred near her husband, Ben Bard in the Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery in Glendale, California. For her contribution to the picture industry, Ruth Roland received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6220 Hollywood Boulevard on February 8,1960
The Perils of Pauline (1914 serial)
The Perils of Pauline is a 1914 American melodrama film serial shown in weekly installments, featuring Pearl White as the title character. Pauline has often cited as a famous example of a damsel in distress, although some analyses hold that her character was more resourceful. Pauline is menaced by assorted villains, including pirates and Indians, although each episode placed Pauline in a situation that looked sure to result in her imminent death, the end of each installment showed how she was rescued or otherwise escaped the danger. Despite popular associations, Pauline was never tied to railroad tracks in the series, the serial had 20 episodes, the first being three reels, and the rest two reels each. After the original run, it was reshown in theaters a number of times, sometimes in edited, shortened versions, today, The Perils of Pauline is known to exist only in a shortened 9-chapter version, released in Europe in 1916. In 2008 The Perils of Pauline was selected by the Library of Congress for preservation in the United States National Film Registry, as being culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant. The premise of the story was that Paulines wealthy guardian Mr. Marvin, upon his death, has left her inheritance in the care of his secretary, Mr. Koerner, until the time of her marriage. Pauline wants to wait a while before marrying, as her dream is to go out and have adventures to prepare herself for becoming an author. Mr. Koerner, hoping to keep the money for himself. William Randolph Hearst was involved in plot development and he was also present at the premiere at Loews Broadway Theatre, on 23 March 1914. According to The Truth About Pearl White by Wallace E. Davis, E. A. McManus, head of the Hearst-Vitagraph service organization, was the person who proved how successful a serial could be. George B. Seitz tried to follow the pattern of The Adventures of Kathlyn. After retiring from law enforcement, former FBI Director William J, the Whartons also adapted Flynns experiences into a 20-part spy thriller titled The Eagles Eye, starring Baggot. Surviving chapters of Pauline are noteworthy for their unintentionally funny title cards and dialogue captions, filled with misspellings, poor punctuation, terrible grammar and this happened when Pathé, the theatrical distributor, exported the film to France. The film was recut and adapted for use, and all of the printed captions were translated into French. Later, when the American home-movie industry beckoned, the original English titles had been scrapped and these errors have also been blamed on Louis J. Gasnier, director and supervisor of the production. Gasnier, as explained by Crane Wilbur, made linguistic mistakes that confused the French-speaking crew, in either case, current prints of The Perils of Pauline contain these badly re-translated title cards. Thus, in The Pirates Treasure, Pauline detects a time-bomb and says, in the same episode, she spies one of the quaint locals and observes, Here is an original old man
Nanook of the North
In the tradition of what would later be called salvage ethnography, Flaherty captured the struggles of the Inuk man named Nanook and his family in the Canadian Arctic. The film has been considered the first feature-length documentary. Some have criticized Flaherty for staging several sequences, but the film is viewed as standing alone in its stark regard for the courage. The documentary follows the lives of an Inuk, Nanook, and his family as they travel, search for food, Nanook, his wife, Nyla, and their family are introduced as fearless heroes who endure rigors no other race could survive. The audience sees Nanook, often with his family, hunt a walrus, build an igloo, go about his day, in 1910 Flaherty was hired as an explorer and prospector along the Hudson Bay for the Canadian Pacific Railway. By 1916, Flaherty had enough footage that he began test screenings and was met with wide enthusiasm, however, in 1916, Flaherty dropped a cigarette onto the original camera negative and lost 30,000 feet of film. With his first attempt ruined, Flaherty decided to not only return for new footage, spending four years raising money, Flaherty was eventually funded by French fur company Revillon Frères and returned to the North and shot from August 1920 to August 1921. As a main character, Flaherty chose the celebrated hunter of the Itivimuit tribe, the full collaboration of the Inuit was key to Flahertys success as the Inuit were his film crew and many of them knew his camera better than he did. Flaherty has been criticized for deceptively portraying staged events as reality, Nanook was in fact named Allakariallak, while the wife shown in the film was not really his wife. According to Charles Nayoumealuk, who was interviewed in Nanook Revisited, on the other hand, while Flaherty made his Inuit actors use spears instead of guns during the walrus and seal hunts, the prey shown in the film were genuine, wild animals. The building of the igloo is one of the most celebrated sequences in the film, building an igloo large enough for a camera to enter resulted in the dome collapsing, and when they finally succeeded in making the igloo it was too dark for photography. In the Trade Post of the White Man scene, Nanook and his family arrive in a kayak at the trading post and one family member after another emerge from a small kayak, akin to a clown car at the circus. Going to trade his hunt from the year, including the skins of foxes, seals, the trader plays music on a gramophone and tries to explain how a man cans his voice. Bending forward and staring at the machine, Nanook puts his ear closer as the trader cranks the mechanism again, the trader removes the record and hands it to Nanook who at first peers at it and then puts it in his mouth and bites it. The scene is meant to be a one as the audience laughs at the naivete of Nanook. In truth, the scene was scripted and Allakariallak knew what a gramophone was. The film is not technically sophisticated, how could it be, with one camera, no lights, freezing cold, but it has an authenticity that prevails over any complaints that some of the sequences were staged. If you stage a walrus hunt, it still involves hunting a walrus, what shines through is the humanity and optimism of the Inuit