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Pathetic fallacy

The phrase pathetic fallacy is a literary term for the attribution of human emotion and conduct to things found in nature that are not human. It is a kind of personification that occurs in poetic descriptions, for example, clouds seem sullen, when leaves dance, or when rocks seem indifferent; the British cultural critic John Ruskin coined the term in Modern Painters. Ruskin coined the term "pathetic fallacy" to attack the sentimentality, common to the poetry of the late 18th century, and, rampant among poets including Burns, Wordsworth and Keats. Wordsworth supported this use of personification based on emotion by claiming that "objects... derive their influence not from properties inherent in them... but from such as are bestowed upon them by the minds of those who are conversant with or affected by these objects." However Tennyson, in his own poetry, began to refine and diminish such expressions, introduced an emphasis on what might be called a more scientific comparison of objects in terms of sense perception.

The old order was beginning to be replaced by the new just as Ruskin addressed the matter, the use of the pathetic fallacy markedly began to disappear. As a critic, Ruskin proved influential and is credited with having helped to refine poetic expression; the meaning of the term has changed from the idea Ruskin had in mind. Ruskin's original definition is "emotional falseness", or the falseness that occurs to one's perceptions when influenced by violent or heightened emotion. For example, when a person is unhinged by grief, the clouds might seem darker than they are, or mournful or even uncaring. There have been other changes to Ruskin's phrase since he coined it: The particular definition that Ruskin used for the word fallacy has since become obsolete; the word fallacy nowadays is defined as an example of flawed reasoning, but for Ruskin and writers of the 19th century and earlier, "fallacy" could be used to mean a "falseness". In the same way, the word pathetic meant for Ruskin "emotional" or "pertaining to emotion".

Setting aside Ruskin's original intentions, despite this linguistic'rocky road', the two-word phrase has survived, though with a altered meaning. In his essay, Ruskin demonstrates his original meaning by offering lines of a poem: Ruskin points out that "the foam is not cruel, neither does it crawl; the state of mind which attributes to it these characters of a living creature is one in which the reason is unhinged by grief"—yet, Ruskin did not disapprove of this use of the pathetic fallacy: Now, so long as we see that the feeling is true, we pardon, or are pleased by, the confessed fallacy of sight, which it induces: we are pleased, for instance, with those lines... above quoted, not because they fallaciously describe foam, but because they faithfully describe sorrow. Ruskin intended that pathetic fallacy may refer to any "untrue" quality: as in the description of a crocus as "gold", when the flower is, according to Ruskin, saffron in color; the following, a stanza from the poem "Maud" by Alfred, Lord Tennyson, demonstrates what John Ruskin, in Modern Painters, said was an "exquisite" instance of the use of the pathetic fallacy: In science, the term "pathetic fallacy" is used in a pejorative way in order to discourage the kind of figurative speech in descriptions that might not be accurate and clear, that might communicate a false impression of a natural phenomenon.

An example is the metaphorical phrase "Nature abhors a vacuum", which contains the suggestion that nature is capable of abhorring something. There scientific ways to describe nature and vacuums. Another example of a pathetic fallacy is the expression, "Air hates to be crowded, when compressed, it will try to escape to an area of lower pressure." It is not accurate to suggest that air "hates" anything or "tries" to do anything. One way to express the ideas that underlie that phrase in a more scientific manner can be found and described in the kinetic theory of gases: effusion or movement towards lower pressure occurs because unobstructed gas molecules will become more evenly distributed between high- and low-pressure zones, by a flow from the former to the latter. Animism Anthropocentrism Anthropomorphism Figure of speech Morgan's Canon List of narrative techniques Ruskin, J. "Of the Pathetic Fallacy", Modern Painters III Abrams, M. H. A Glossary of Literary Terms, 7th edition.

Fort Worth, Texas: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1999. ISBN 0-15-505452-X. Groden and Martin Kreiswirth; the Johns Hopkins Guide to Literary Theory and Criticism. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-8018-4560-2

Sonnet 146

Sonnet 146, which William Shakespeare addresses to his soul, his "sinful earth", is a pleading appeal to himself to value inner qualities and satisfaction rather than outward appearance. Q1 The speaker addresses his soul, which he pictures as a poor or empty interior, as opposed to his body, a gaudy exterior. Q2 He questions the soul's "large cost" lavished on a body. Q3 Continuing his financial metaphor, he urges the soul to turn the body's inevitable loss into the soul's gain. C Thus as death feeds on men, the soul can feed on death. Sonnet 146 is an Shakespearean sonnet; the English sonnet has three quatrains, followed by a final rhyming couplet. It follows the typical rhyme scheme of the form ABAB CDCD EFEF GG and is composed in iambic pentameter, a type of poetic metre based on five pairs of metrically weak/strong syllabic positions; the 14th line exemplifies a regular iambic pentameter: × / × / × / × /× / And Death once dead, there's no more dying then. / = ictus, a metrically strong syllabic position.

× = nonictus. The 4th line begins with a common metrical variant, the initial reversal: / × × / × / × / × / Painting thy outward walls so costly gay? An initial reversal occurs in line 3, in lines 6, 8, 9, 13. A mid-line reversal occurs in line 5; the metrical interpretations of the beginnings of lines 5 and 9 are dependent upon the rhetorical emphasis chosen. In line 5, any of the first three syllables could take the first ictus. In line 9 any of four readings is rhetorically possible: / × × / × / / × / × / × × / × / × / × / × / Then, live thou upon thy servant's loss, The relative frequency of initial reversals and regular lines, a characteristically Shakespearean use of metrical expectations to emphasize pronouns, suggest that readings with only an initial reversal or a regular meter may be the most appropriate; the sonnet is notable for its uncharacteristically religious tone and call for moral richness, whereas most sonnets treasure earthly qualities of beauty and love. In its vocabulary and vocative address to the soul the sonnet invites comparison with Psalm 146.

Although Michael West has persuasively argued that this sonnet is indebted to the medieval genre of poetic dialogues between soul and body, the extent to which sonnet presents conventional Christian arguments about the relationship between body and soul is a matter of considerable critical debate. John Crowe Ransom counters an older tradition of reading the sonnet in straightforward Christian terms by making the general observation that the "divine terms which the soul buys are not Christian: there are few words in the poem that would directly indicate a conventional religious dogma." B. C. Southam makes an effort to build on Ransom's passing remark in a more developed argument about the sonnet which seeks to show that Shakespeare's speaker is inspired more by a "humanist" philosophy that undermines a rigidly Christian "rigorous asceticism which glorifies the life of the body at the expense of the vitality and richness of sensuous experience." Southam's argument for an humanist poem is countered, in turn, by Charles Huttar, who attempts to bring the poem back into alignment with a certain Christian worldview: for example, Huttar claims that "these rebel powers" that "array" the soul in line 2 refer not to "the physical being" or body but rather to the lower powers of the soul itself, the passions or affections.

Understood in this way, the sentiment of the poem appears in accord with a certain Christian tradition that rejects "extreme asceticism". However, in a long discussion in his edition of the sonnets, Stephen Booth critiques both Southam and Huttar as engaging in "oversimplification" Booth tries to split the difference between these critical perspectives: "It is as unreasonable and unprofitable to argue that Sonnet 146 does not espouse an orthodox Christian position on the relative value of mortal and immortal considerations as it is to deny that the poem generates the ideational static that Ransom and Southam point out." In Booth's view, conventional Christian ideas and images "coexist" with contradictory un-Christian ideas and images: "the incompatible elements, points of view, responses... do not undergo synthesis". For Booth, Sonnet 146 contains multiple, sometimes conflicting, elements that cannot and should not be reduced to a singular, univocal argument about body and soul; the missing text at the beginning of line two is attributed to be a printing error, since in the earliest version of the sonnet the second line begins with a repetition of the last three words of the previous lines called an eye-skip error, which breaks the iambic pentameter.

Shakespeare's intention for the line is a subject of debate among scholars, with most modern scholars accepting the emendation, "feeding", based on internal evidence. Other guesses include "Thrall to", "Fool'd by", "Hemm'd by", "Foil'd by", "Fenced by", "Flatt'ring", "Spoiled by", "Lord of", "Pressed by". None of the "guesses" seem to work. "Feeding," for example, tends to "explain the joke," and does not let the poem build to the implication that the soul itself is culpable in man's struggle for spirit over the corporal self. A better foot would be "disrobe."


A polyptych is a painting, divided into sections, or panels. A "diptych" is a two-part work of art. Polyptychs displayed one "central" or "main" panel, the largest of the attachments. Sometimes, as evident in the Ghent and Isenheim works, the hinged panels can be varied in arrangement to show different "views" or "openings" in the piece; the upper panels depict static scenes, while the lower register, the predella depict small narrative scenes. Polyptychs were most created by early Renaissance painters, the majority of whom designed their works to be altarpieces in churches and cathedrals; the polyptych form of art was quite popular among ukiyo-e printmakers of Edo period Japan. Some medieval manuscripts are polyptychs Carolingian works, in which the columns on the page are framed with borders that resemble polyptych paintings; the Stefaneschi Polyptych, c. 1320, by Giotto The Ghent Altarpiece, completed in 1432 by Hubert van Eyck and Jan van Eyck The Last Judgement 1435 by Stefan Lochner Polyptych of the Misericordia by Piero della Francesca Polyptych-of-Saint-Augustine by Piero della Francesca Beaune Altarpiece by Rogier van der Weyden Saint Augustine Polyptych by Perugino The Saint Vincent Panels by Nuno Gonçalves The Monte San Martino Altarpiece, by Carlo Crivelli St. Dominic Polyptych by Lorenzo Lotto The Isenheim Altarpiece by 1512–1516 Matthias Grünewald Cohen's Masterpiece from Bioshock is a quadriptych Polyptych

South Carolina Highway 763

South Carolina Highway 763 is a 13.8-mile-long state highway in the U. S. state of South Carolina. The highway connects Sumter, via Cane Savannah and Millwood. SC 763 begins at an intersection with SC 261 in Sumter County, it travels to paralleling railroad tracks along its way. At the intersection with Tillman Nursery Road, it begins traveling along the northern edge of the Manchester State Forest, it skirts along the edge of the forest for 1,500 feet. At the intersection with Bullett Road, SC 763 leaves Wedgefield proper and begins skirting along the northern edge of the town. At Burnt Gin Road, it begins to travel along another section of the state forest; the highway stays along the edge of the forest for just under 1,500 feet. When the highway crosses Cane Savannah Creek, it leaves Wedgefield and begins to travel along the northern edge of Cane Savannah, it crosses Hatchet Camp Branch. Just before it intersects St. Pauls Church Road, it curves to the northeast, leaves Cane Savannah, crosses over the railroad tracks it parallels from its southern terminus.

It travels through a small section of the city limits of Sumter. The highway enters Millwood, it travels in a more easterly direction and intersects the western terminus of SC 441. Just before Wildwood Avenue, it leaves re-enters Sumter, it turns left onto SC 120 just northeast of Millwood Elementary School. The two highways travel concurrently to the northeast, they split at Alice Drive. SC 763 crosses over Swan Lake. At Guignard Drive is an intersection with U. S. Route 521. At Washington Street, US 76 Business starts a concurrency with SC 763. Five blocks they intersect US 15, they split just north of Eastwood Park. SC 763 travels along the southern edge of East Sumter until it meets its northern terminus, a partial interchange with US 378; the entire route is in Sumter County. U. S. Roads portal United States portal Media related to South Carolina Highway 763 at Wikimedia Commons SC 763 South Carolina Hwy Index

Schwenksville, Pennsylvania

Schwenksville is a borough in Montgomery County, United States. The population was 1,385 at the 2010 census, it is notable for being located near the site of the Philadelphia Folk Festival. The borough was founded in 1684, when the Lenni-Lenape Indians ceded to William Penn the land along the Perkiomen Creek; the borough was named for George Schwenk, whose son, Jacob Schwenk, served in George Washington's army. The town was the inspiration for the protagonist in Catherine Gilbert Murdock's novel Dairy Queen; the Hall & Oates song "Perkiomen" was written about the Perkiomen Creek, which constitutes Schwenksville's eastern border. "Perkiomen" is Lenape for "muddy waters" and "where the cranberries grow." Schwenksville is the gateway to the Perkiomen Trail, a nineteen-mile section of the former Reading Railroad's Perkiomen Valley corridor. It now serves as a multi-use rail trail and was completed in 2003. Schwenksville is located at 40°15′23″N 75°27′54″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 0.4 square miles, of which, 0.4 square miles of it is land and 2.38% is water.

The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Schwenksville has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. General George Washington and the Continental Army camped in and around Schwenksville – September 26 to 29 and October 4 to 8, 1777 – prior to and following the October 4 Battle of Germantown. Washington's headquarters was at the Henry Kelly House, just southwest of the town that he called "Pawling's Mill." The bulk of the Army camped at Pennypacker Mills. The Borough was part of Perkiomen Township and home to the first copper mine in Pennsylvania. Ice harvesting was a major industry in the area. Several large icehouses were located along the creek, ice was shipped to Philadelphia. Mills devoted to grain and textiles were very prominent, evident by the existing historic structures, its location along the Perkiomen Creek made the Borough a great summer resort community during its early existence, Schwenksville was once home to The Perkiomen Inn, Spring Mountain House, The Woodside Inn.

It was home to the Schwenksville Union School District until amalgamation with the Perkiomen Joint School District to form Perkiomen Valley School District in 1969. Today the Borough is a residential community. Commercial and industrial businesses are located along the Main Street corridor. Schwenksville Elementary School; the Pennypacker Mansion and Sunrise Mill are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. As of the 2010 census, the borough was 94.9% White, 2.5% Black or African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 0.1% Native Hawaiian, 1.4% were two or more races. 2.7 % of the population were of Latino ancestry. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,693 people, 626 households, 326 families residing in the borough; the population density was 4,198.5 people per square mile. There were 662 housing units at an average density of 1,641.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 94.21% White, 2.84% African American, 1.12% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.59% from other races, 1.18% from two or more races.

Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.13% of the population. There were 626 households, out of which 25.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.0% were married couples living together, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 47.8% were non-families. 40.1% of all households were made up of individuals, 18.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.13 and the average family size was 2.91. In 2000, 17.7% of the population under the age of 18, with 26.5% from 18 to 24, 27.5% from 25 to 44, 15.2% from 45 to 64, 13.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females there were 88.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.2 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $44,514, the median income for a family was $55,000. Males had a median income of $37,566 versus $31,200 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $19,679. About 3.3% of families and 5.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.9% of those under age 18 and 12.2% of those age 65 or over.

Schwenksville has a city manager form of government with a five-member borough council. In 2007, Democrats took control of the borough council for the first time in the borough's history. Council consists of 2 Democrats, 2 Republicans, 1 Independent; the Borough has active Activity and Historical Committees. The goal of the Activity Committee is to plan and support various community activities to promote a sense of vitality in the community. Accordingly, Community Day was started in 2009 to promote the businesses and non-profit organizations in Schwenksville with a fun community event. Committee members may plan other events through the year as well; the Historic Committee was formed by the Borough for the purpose of exploring ways to save meaningful older buildings from being destroyed and to keep the rich history of Schwenksville intact for future generations. The borough is part of the Fourth Congressional Di

Miguel Ángel Prieto

Miguel Ángel Prieto Adanero is a race walker from Spain, who represented his native country at the 1992 Olympic Games in Barcelona, where he came tenth overall. He was a four-time Spanish indoor champion in the 5000 m walk and won the outdoor 20 km national title in 1990. Prieto was born in Segovia, made his international debut at the 1983 European Athletics Junior Championships, placing fifth in the 10,000 m walk, he came seventh in the 20 km race walk at the 1985 IAAF World Race Walking Cup went on to win a bronze medal in the event at the 1986 European Athletics Championships. He established himself as one of Spain's leading walkers, competing at the World Championships in Athletics in 1987 and 1991. Prieto won his second international medal at the 1989 Summer Universiade, where he was the silver medallist in the 20 km walk behind Italy's Walter Arena, he came 13th at the 1990 European Athletics Championships and finished one place lower than that at the 1991 IAAF World Race Walking Cup. He made a competitive return at the age of 46 at the 2011 European Race Walking Cup.

He managed 14th place in the 50 km event