Patiala is a city in southeastern Punjab, northwestern India. It is the administrative capital of Patiala district. Patiala is located around the Qila Mubarak, it was constructed by Sidhu Jat chieftain'Baba Ala Singh', who founded the royal dynasty of the Patiala State in 1763. In popular culture, the city remains famous for its traditional PatialaShahi turban, patiala salwar and Patiala peg. Patiala is located at 30.32°N 76.40°E / 30.32. It has an average elevation of 250 metres. During the short existence of PEPSU, Patiala served as its capital city. Patiala state was established in 1763 by Baba Ala Singh, who laid the foundation of the Patiala fort known as Qila Mubarak, around'which the present city of Patiala is built. After the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761 in which the Marathas were defeated by the Afghans, the writ of the Afghans prevailed throughout Punjab, it is at this stage. The Patiala state saw more than forty years of a ceaseless power struggle with the Afghan Durrani Empire, Maratha Empire and the Sikh Empire of Lahore.
In 1808, the Raja of Patiala entered into a treaty with the British against Sikh ruler Maharaja Ranjit Singh of Lahore in 1808, thus becoming collaborator in the grand empire building process by the British in, the sub-continent of India. Patiala became a 17-guns salute state during the British Raj; the rulers of Patiala such as Karam Singh, Narinder Singh, Mahendra Singh, Rajinder Singh, Bhupinder Singh, Yadvindra Singh were treated with respect and dignity by the British. The city of Patiala was designed and developed according to a plan akin to that of temple architecture, the first settlers of Patiala were the Hindus of Sirhind, who opened their business establishments outside the Darshani Gate; the royal house is now headed by Captain Amarinder Singh, the current Chief Minister of Punjab. The royals are considered political icons in east Punjab. Maharaja Karam Singh who ruled from 1813 to 1845 joined the British East India Company and helped the British during the First Anglo Sikh wars against the Sikh Empire of Maharajah Ranjit Singh of Punjab, larger and extended from Tibet Kashmir, plains of Punjab to Peshawar near the Afghan borders.
Kali Devi Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to Maa Kaali. The temple was built by the Sikh ruler of the Patiala State, Maharaja Bhupinder Singh, who financed the building of the temple in his capital and oversaw its installation in 1936. Legend has it that the Maharaja built the temple to protect the city from flooding and performed annual sacrifice at the temple. Bhupinder Singh ruled the princely state of Patiala from 1900 to 1938, he brought the 6-ft statue of Divine Mother Kali and Paawan Jyoti from Bengal to Patiala and offered the first Bali of a water buffalo to the temple. Because of the temple's beautiful structure, it has been declared a national monument; this large complex attracts devotees and Sikh, from distant places. A much older temple of Raj Rajeshwari is situated in the centre of this complex; the temple is situated opposite the Baradari garden at Mall Road. Devotees offer mustard oil, sweets, coconuts and chunnis, goats and liquor to the Divine Mother here; as an average estimate, devotees offer more than 60,000 liquor bottles during Navratras alone, which distributed to the beggars sitting outside the temple, goes into a'Sharab Kund' built on the temple's premises.
According to local tradition, supported by an old handwritten document preserved in the Gurdwara, one Bhag Ram, a Jhivar of Lehal, waited upon ninth Guru of Sikhs Guru Tegh Bahadur during his sojourn at Saifabad. He requested that the Guru might be pleased to visit and bless his village so that its inhabitants could be rid of a severe and mysterious sickness, their bane for a long time; the Guru visited Lehal on Magh sudi 5, 1728 Bikram/24 January 1672 and stayed under a banyan tree by the side of a pond. The sickness in the village subsided; the site where Guru Tegh Bahadur had sat came to be known as Dukh Nivaran meaning eradicator of suffering. Devotees have faith in the healing qualities of water in the Sarovar attached to the shrine, it is still believed. It is in the vicinity of Patiala Bus Station. Gurudwara Moti Baag is situated in the outerskirts of the Patiala City; when Shri Guru Teg Bahadur started his journey towards Delhi, he came here via Kiratpur Sahib, Bharatgarh Sahib, Roap Makar, Kabulpur etc.
Saint Saif Ali Khan was a great follower of Guru, To fulfil his wish Guru Sahib came to his Place Saifabad. The holly Guru stayed here for 3 Months. Saif Ali Khan Served the Guru with great devotion. In daytime Guru Teg Bahadur used to meditate on the Place inside the Qila and at the night time, he would come here. From here the Guru stayed in the Haveli of Muhamad Bakhshish. From there onward, Guru Sahib left towards Balbera; the Bahadurgarh Fort is 6 kilometres away from Patiala city. It is situated on the Patiala-Chandigarh road; the fort was constructed by mughal Nawab Saif Khan in 1658 A. D where Guru Teg Bahadur visited him and renovated by a Sikh ruler Maharaja Karam Singh in 1837; the construction of the entire fort was completed in eight years. A sum of ten lakh rupees was spent on its construction, it covers an area of 2 km2. The fort is enclosed within a moat; the circumference of the fort is
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As per the 1981–2010 climatological norm used in most other European countries, the climate in Budapest has shifted to an oceanic climate bordering a humid subtropical climate, with averages above 0 °C in the coldest month and above 22 °C in the warmest. Winter is the cloudiest time of year. Snowfall is frequent in most years; the spring months see variable conditions, with a rapid increase in the average temperature. Budapest's summer, lasting from June until September, is the warmest time of year. Sudden heavy showers occur in May and June; the autumn in Budapest is characterized by less rain than in summer and long sunny days. Spring is characterized by scattered showers; the temperature starts to rise markedly in April, highs reach the 25 °C mark at the end of the month, though short cold spells with lows in the 0–5 °C zone and ground frost may strike in mid-May. In the summer, prolonged heat waves with highs between 32–35 °C interchange with short cooler and wet periods following cold fronts from the West with highs between 18–25 °C.
Humidity is low in the summer, but may rise during more unsettled weather. In the residential suburbs, humidity is lower, leading to lower nighttime temperatures. In the asphalt jungle of Pest, temperatures above 25 °C at midnight are not uncommon. Thunderstorms, some of them violent with strong wind gusts and torrential rainfall, are not rare; the highest temperature recorded was 40.7 °C on July 20, 2007. Highs can stay above 20 °C until the end of October. Nights get colder and the first frost arrives in the second week of October. Short cool spells vary with the Indian Summer. November brings sometimes snow and a drastic fall in temperature. Winters are unpredictable. Westerly winds bring mild oceanic air with highs between 5–10 °C no frost and scattered rain or snow showers. Depressions moving in from the Mediterranean Sea can bring snowstorms with 20–40 cm falling in a single day, followed by cold air from Russia. Atlantic depressions and south wind can bring unusually warm weather with highs reaching 15 °C in January.
The Siberian high brings most years a sunny but cold period lasting for a week or two with lows in the −15–20 °C range. Anticyclones with centres above Western Europe produce cold inversion fog with no change in day and nighttime temperatures, they stay around or a bit under 0 °C; the fog can last for weeks. Mediterranean depressions moving above the inversion fog layer can bring a day or two of freezing rain