The highest-ranking bishops in Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Catholic Church, the Church of the East are termed patriarchs. The word is derived from Greek πατριάρχης, meaning "chief or father of a family", a compound of πατριά, meaning "family", ἄρχειν, meaning "to rule". A patriarch was a man who exercised autocratic authority as a pater familias over an extended family; the system of such rule of families by senior males is termed patriarchy. A patriarch has been the logical choice to act as ethnarch of the community identified with his religious confession within a state or empire of a different creed; the term developed an ecclesiastical meaning, within the Christian Church. The office and the ecclesiastical circumscription of a Christian patriarch is termed a patriarchate. Abraham and Jacob are referred to as the three patriarchs of the people of Israel, the period during which they lived is termed the Patriarchal Age; the word patriarch acquired its religious meaning in the Septuagint version of the Bible.
In the Catholic Church, the bishop, head of a particular autonomous Church, known in canon law as a Church sui iuris, is ordinarily a patriarch, though this responsibility can be entrusted to a Major Archbishop, Metropolitan, or other prelate for a number of serious reasons. Since the Council of Nicaea, the bishop of Rome has been recognized as the first among patriarchs; that Council designated three bishops with this'supra-Metropolitan' title: Rome and Antioch. In the Pentarchy formulated by Justinian I, the emperor assigned as a patriarchate to the Bishop of Rome the whole of Christianized Europe, except for the region of Thrace, the areas near Constantinople, along the coast of the Black Sea, he included in this patriarchate the western part of North Africa. The jurisdictions of the other patriarchates extended over Roman Asia, the rest of Africa. Justinian's system was given formal ecclesiastical recognition by the Quinisext Council of 692, which the see of Rome has, not recognized. There were at the time bishops of other apostolic sees that operated with patriarchal authority beyond the borders of the Roman Empire, such as the Catholicos of Selucia-Ctesephon.
Today, the patriarchal heads of Catholic autonomous churches are: The Bishop of Rome, as head of the Latin Catholic Church The Armenian Catholic Patriarch of Cilicia and head of the Armenian Catholic Church, formed 1740, recognised 1742 The Chaldean Catholic Patriarch of Babylon and head of the Chaldean Catholic Church, formed 1552, recognised 1553 The Coptic Catholic Patriarch of Alexandria and head of the Coptic Catholic Church, established 1824 The Maronite Catholic Patriarch of Antioch and all the East and head of the Maronite Catholic Church, established 685 The Melkite Greek Catholic Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East, of Alexandria and of Jerusalem, head of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church. However, differences exist in the mode of accession. Whereas the election of a major archbishop has to be confirmed by the pope before he may take office, no papal confirmation is needed for a newly elected patriarch before he takes office. Rather, a newly-installed patriarch is required to petition the pope as soon as possible for the concession of what is called ecclesiastical communion.
Furthermore, patriarchs who are created cardinals form part of the order of cardinal bishops, whereas major archbishops are only created cardinal priests. Titular patriarchs do not have jurisdiction over other Metropolitan bishops; the title is granted purely as an honor for various historical reasons. They take precedence after the heads of autonomous churches in full communion, whether pope, patriarch, or major archbishop; the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, established 1099. The Patriarch of the East Indies a titular patriarchal see, united to Goa and Daman, established 1886; the Patriarch of Lisbon, established 1716. The Patriarch of Venice, established 1451; the Patriarch of Aquileia – with rival line of succession moved to Grado - dissolved in 1752. The Patriarch of Grado – in 1451 merged with the Bishopric of Castello and Venice to form the Metropolitan Archdiocese of Venice; the Patriarch of the West Indies – a titular patriarchal see, vacant since 1963. The Latin Patriarch of Antioch – title abolished in 1964.
The titular Latin Patriarch of Alexandria – title abolished in 1964. The Latin Patriarch of Constantinople – title abolished in 1964; the Latin Patriarchate of Ethiopia – 1555 to 1663, never effective, only held by Iberian Jesuits The pope can confer the rank of Patriarch withou
Hebron is a Palestinian city located in the southern West Bank, 30 km south of Jerusalem. Nestled in the Judaean Mountains, it lies 930 meters above sea level; the largest city in the West Bank, the second largest in the Palestinian territories after Gaza, it has a population of 215,452 Palestinians, between 500 and 850 Jewish settlers concentrated in and around the old quarter. Jews and Muslims all venerate the city of Hebron for its association with Abraham – it includes the traditional burial site of the biblical Patriarchs and Matriarchs, within the Cave of the Patriarchs. Judaism ranks Hebron as the second-holiest city after Jerusalem, while some Muslims regard it as one of the four holy cities; the Hebron Protocol of 1997 divided the city into two sectors: H1, controlled by the Palestinian Authority and H2 20% of the city, administered by Israel. All security arrangements and travel permits for local residents are coordinated between the Palestinian Authority and Israel via military administration of the West Bank.
The Jewish settlers have their own governing municipal body, the Committee of the Jewish Community of Hebron. Hebron is a busy hub of West Bank trade, generating a third of the area's gross domestic product due to the sale of limestone from quarries in its area, it has a local reputation for its grapes, limestone, pottery workshops and glassblowing factories, is the location of the major dairy-product manufacturer, al-Juneidi. The old city of Hebron features narrow, winding streets, flat-roofed stone houses, old bazaars; the city is home to the Palestine Polytechnic University. Hebron is attached to cities of ad-Dhahiriya, Yatta, the surrounding villages with no borders. Hebron Governorate is the largest Palestinian governorate, with a population of 600,364 as of 2010; the name "Hebron" traces back to two Semitic roots, which coalesce in the form ḥbr, having reflexes in Hebrew and Amorite and denoting a range of meanings from "colleague", "unite" or "friend". In the proper name Hebron, the original sense may have been alliance.
The Arabic term derives from the Qur'anic epithet for Abraham, Khalil al-Rahman "Beloved of the Merciful" or "Friend of God". Arabic Al-Khalil thus translates the ancient Hebrew toponym Ḥebron, understood as ḥaber. Archaeological excavations reveal traces of strong fortifications dated to the Early Bronze Age, covering some 24–30 dunams centered around Tel Rumeida; the city flourished in the 17th–18th centuries BCE before being destroyed by fire, was resettled in the late Middle Bronze Age. This older Hebron was a Canaanite royal city. Abrahamic legend associates the city with the Hittites, it has been conjectured that Hebron might have been the capital of Shuwardata of Gath, an Indo-European contemporary of Jerusalem's regent, Abdi-Kheba, although the Hebron hills were devoid of settlements in the Late Bronze Age. The Abrahamic traditions associated with Hebron are nomadic, may reflect a Kenite element, since the nomadic Kenites are said to have long occupied the city, Heber is the name for a Kenite clan.
In the narrative of the Hebrew conquest, Hebron was one of two centres under Canaanite control and ruled by the three sons of Anak, or may reflect some Kenite and Kenizzite migration from the Negev to Hebron, since terms related to the Kenizzites appear to be close to Hurrian, which suggests that behind the Anakim legend lies some early Hurrian population. In Biblical lore they are represented as descendants of the Nephilim; the Book of Genesis mentions that it was called Kirjath-arba, or "city of four" referring to the four pairs or couples who were buried there, or four tribes, or four quarters, four hills, or a confederated settlement of four families. The story of Abraham's purchase of the Cave of the Patriarchs from the Hittites constitutes a seminal element in what was to become the Jewish attachment to the land in that it signified the first "real estate" of Israel long before the conquest under Joshua. In settling here, Abraham is described as making his first covenant, an alliance with two local Amorite clans who became his ba’alei brit or masters of the covenant.
The Hebron of the Bible was centered on what is now known as Tel Rumeida, while its ritual centre was located at Elonei Mamre. It is said to have been wrested from the Canaanites by either Joshua, said to have wiped out all of its previous inhabitants, "destroying everything that drew breath, as the Lord God of Israel had commanded", or the tribe of Judah as a whole, or Caleb the Judahite; the town itself, with some contiguous pasture land, is said to have been granted to the Levites of the clan of Kohath, while the fields of the city, as well as its surrounding villages were assigned to Caleb, who expels the three giants, Sheshai and Talmai, who ruled the city. The biblical narrative has King David called by God to relocate to Hebron and reign from there for some seven years, it is there that the elders of Israel come to him to make a covenant before Elohim and anoint him king of Israel. It was in Hebron again that Absalom has himself declared king and raises a revolt against his father David.
It became one of the principal centers of the Tribe of Judah and was classified as one of the six traditional Cities of Refuge. As is shown by the discovery at Lachish, the second most important Judean city after Jerusalem, of seals with the inscription lmlk Hebron, Hebron continued to constitute an important local economic centre, given i
Abraham Abram, is the common patriarch of the three Abrahamic religions. In Judaism, he is the founding father of the covenant of the pieces, the special relationship between the Jewish people and God; the narrative in Genesis revolves around the themes of land. Abraham is called by God to leave the house of his father Terah and settle in the land given to Canaan but which God now promises to Abraham and his progeny. Various candidates are put forward. Abraham purchases a tomb at Hebron to be Sarah's grave. Abraham marries Keturah and has six more sons; the Abraham story cannot be definitively related to any specific time, it is agreed that the patriarchal age, along with the exodus and the period of the judges, is a late literary construct that does not relate to any period in actual history. A common hypothesis among scholars is that it was composed in the early Persian period as a result of tensions between Jewish landowners who had stayed in Judah during the Babylonian captivity and traced their right to the land through their "father Abraham", the returning exiles who based their counter-claim on Moses and the Exodus tradition.
Terah, the ninth in descent from Noah, was the father of three sons: Abram and Haran. The entire family, including grandchildren, lived in Ur of the Chaldees. In his youth, Abram worked in Terah's idol shop. Haran was the father of Lot, thus Lot was Abram's nephew. Haran died in Ur of the Chaldees. Abram married Sarah, barren. Terah, with Abram and Lot departed for Canaan, but settled in a place named Haran, where Terah died at the age of 205. God had told Abram to leave his country and kindred and go to a land that he would show him, promised to make of him a great nation, bless him, make his name great, bless them that bless him, curse them who may curse him. Abram was 75 years old when he left Haran with his wife Sarai, his nephew Lot, the substance and souls that they had acquired, traveled to Shechem in Canaan. There was a severe famine in the land of Canaan, so that Abram and Lot and their households, traveled to Egypt. On the way Abram told Sarai to say that she was his sister, so that the Egyptians would not kill him.
When they entered Egypt, the Pharaoh's officials praised Sarai's beauty to Pharaoh, they took her into the palace and gave Abram goods in exchange. God afflicted Pharaoh and his household with plagues, which led Pharaoh to try to find out what was wrong. Upon discovering that Sarai was a married woman, Pharaoh demanded that Sarai leave; when they came back to the Bethel and Hai area, Abram's and Lot's sizable herds occupied the same pastures. This became a problem for the herdsmen; the conflicts between herdsmen had become so troublesome that Abram suggested that Lot choose a separate area, either on the left hand or on the right hand, that there be no conflict amongst brethren. Lot chose to go eastward to the plain of Jordan where the land was well watered everywhere as far as Zoar, he dwelled in the cities of the plain toward Sodom. Abram went south to Hebron and settled in the plain of Mamre, where he built another altar to worship God. During the rebellion of the Jordan River cities against Elam, Abram's nephew, was taken prisoner along with his entire household by the invading Elamite forces.
The Elamite army came to collect the spoils of war, after having just defeated the king of Sodom's armies. Lot and his family, at the time, were settled on the outskirts of the Kingdom of Sodom which made them a visible target. One person who escaped capture told Abram what happened. Once Abram received this news, he assembled 318 trained servants. Abram's force headed north in pursuit of the Elamite army, who were worn down from the Battle of Siddim; when they caught up with them at Dan, Abram devised a battle plan by splitting his group into more than one unit, launched a night raid. Not only were they able to free the captives, Abram's unit chased and slaughtered the Elamite King Chedorlaomer at Hobah, just north of Damascus, they freed Lot, as well as his household and possessions, recovered all of the goods from Sodom, taken. Upon Abram's return, Sodom's king came out to meet with him in the Valley of Shaveh, the "king's dale". Melchizedek king of Salem, a priest of God Most High, brought out bread and wine and blessed Abram and God.
Abram gave Melchizedek a tenth of everything. The king of Sodom offered to let Abram keep all the possessions if he would return his people. Abram refused any deal from the king of Sodom, other than the share to which his allies were entitled; the voice of the Lord came to Abram in a vision and repeated the promise of the land and descendants as numerous as the stars. Abram and God made a covenant ce
Chronology is the science of arranging events in their order of occurrence in time. Consider, for example, the use of a timeline or sequence of events, it is "the determination of the actual temporal sequence of past events". Chronology is a part of periodization, it is a part of the discipline of history including earth history, the earth sciences, study of the geologic time scale. Chronology is the science of locating historical events in time, it relies upon chronometry, known as timekeeping, historiography, which examines the writing of history and the use of historical methods. Radiocarbon dating estimates the age of living things by measuring the proportion of carbon-14 isotope in their carbon content. Dendrochronology estimates the age of trees by correlation of the various growth rings in their wood to known year-by-year reference sequences in the region to reflect year-to-year climatic variation. Dendrochronology is used in turn as a calibration reference for radiocarbon dating curves.
The familiar terms calendar and era concern two complementary fundamental concepts of chronology. For example, during eight centuries the calendar belonging to the Christian era, which era was taken in use in the 8th century by Bede, was the Julian calendar, but after the year 1582 it was the Gregorian calendar. Dionysius Exiguus was the founder of that era, nowadays the most widespread dating system on earth. An epoch is the date. Ab Urbe condita is Latin for "from the founding of the City", traditionally set in 753 BC, it was used to identify the Roman year by a few Roman historians. Modern historians use it much more than the Romans themselves did. Before the advent of the modern critical edition of historical Roman works, AUC was indiscriminately added to them by earlier editors, making it appear more used than it was, it was used systematically for the first time only about the year 400, by the Iberian historian Orosius. Pope Boniface IV, in about the year 600, seems to have been the first who made a connection between these this era and Anno Domini.
Dionysius Exiguus’ Anno Domini era was extended by Bede to the complete Christian era. Ten centuries after Bede, the French astronomers Philippe de la Hire and Jacques Cassini, purely to simplify certain calculations, put the Julian Dating System and with it an astronomical era into use, which contains a leap year zero, which precedes the year 1. While of critical importance to the historian, methods of determining chronology are used in most disciplines of science astronomy, geology and archaeology. In the absence of written history, with its chronicles and king lists, late 19th century archaeologists found that they could develop relative chronologies based on pottery techniques and styles. In the field of Egyptology, William Flinders Petrie pioneered sequence dating to penetrate pre-dynastic Neolithic times, using groups of contemporary artefacts deposited together at a single time in graves and working backwards methodically from the earliest historical phases of Egypt; this method of dating is known as seriation.
Known wares discovered at strata in sometimes quite distant sites, the product of trade, helped extend the network of chronologies. Some cultures have retained the name applied to them in reference to characteristic forms, for lack of an idea of what they called themselves: "The Beaker People" in northern Europe during the 3rd millennium BCE, for example; the study of the means of placing pottery and other cultural artifacts into some kind of order proceeds in two phases and typology: Classification creates categories for the purposes of description, typology seeks to identify and analyse changes that allow artifacts to be placed into sequences. Laboratory techniques developed after mid-20th century helped revise and refine the chronologies developed for specific cultural areas. Unrelated dating methods help reinforce a chronology, an axiom of corroborative evidence. Ideally, archaeological materials used for dating a site should complement each other and provide a means of cross-checking. Conclusions drawn from just one unsupported technique are regarded as unreliable.
The fundamental problem of chronology is to synchronize events. By synchronizing an event it becomes possible to relate it to the current time and to compare the event to other events. Among historians, a typical need to is to synchronize the reigns of kings and leaders in order to relate the history of one country or region to that of another. For example, the Chronicon of Eusebius is one of the major works of historical synchronism; this work has two sections. The first contains narrative chronicles of nine different kingdoms: Chaldean, Median, Persian, Greek, Peloponnesian and Roman; the second part is a long table synchronizing the events from each of the nine kingdoms in parallel columns. The adjacent image shows two pages from the second section. By comparing the parallel columns, the reader can determine which events were contemporaneous, or how many years separated two different events. To place all the events on the same time scale, Eusebius used an Anno Mundi era, meaning that events were dated from the supposed beginning of t
Rachel was a Biblical figure, the favorite of Jacob's two wives, the mother of Joseph and Benjamin, two of the twelve progenitors of the tribes of Israel. Rachel's father was Laban, her older sister was Jacob's first wife. Her aunt Rebekah was Jacob's mother. Rachel is first mentioned in the Hebrew Bible in Genesis 29 when Jacob happens upon her as she is about to water her father's flock, she was the second daughter of Rebekah's brother, making Jacob her first cousin. Jacob had traveled a great distance to find Laban. Rebekah had sent him there to be safe from Esau. During Jacob's stay, he fell in love with Rachel and agreed to work seven years for Laban in return for her hand in marriage. On the night of the wedding, the bride was veiled and Jacob did not notice that Leah, Rachel's older sister, had been substituted for Rachel. Whereas "Rachel was lovely in form and beautiful", "Leah had tender eyes". Jacob confronted Laban, who excused his own deception by insisting that the older sister should marry first.
He assured Jacob that after his wedding week was finished, he could take Rachel as a wife as well, work another seven years as payment for her. When God "saw that Leah was unloved, he opened her womb", she gave birth to four sons. Rachel, like Rebecca, remained unable to conceive. According to Tikva Frymer-Kensky, "The infertility of the matriarchs has two effects: it heightens the drama of the birth of the eventual son, marking Isaac and Joseph as special. Bilhah gave birth to two sons that Rachel raised. Leah responds by offering her handmaid Zilpah to Jacob, names and raises the two sons that Zilpah bears. According to some commentaries and Zilpah are half-sisters of Leah and Rachel. After Leah conceived again, Rachel was blessed with a son, who would become Jacob's favorite child. Rachel's son Joseph was destined to be the leader of Israel's tribes between nationhood; this role is exemplified in the Biblical story of Joseph, who prepared the way in Egypt for his family's exile there. After Joseph's birth, Jacob decided to return to the land of Canaan with his family.
Fearing that Laban would deter him, he fled with his two wives and Rachel, twelve children without informing his father-in-law. Laban accused him of stealing his idols. Indeed, Rachel had taken her father's idols, hidden them inside her camel's seat cushion, sat upon them. Laban had neglected to give his daughters their inheritance. Not knowing that the idols were in his wife's possession, Jacob pronounced a curse on whoever had them: "With whoever you will find your gods, he will not live". Laban proceeded to search the tents of Jacob and his wives, but when he came to Rachel's tent, she told her father, "Let not my lord be angered that I cannot rise up before you, for the way of women is upon me". Laban left her alone. Near Ephrath, Rachel went into a difficult labor with Benjamin; the midwife told her in the middle of the birth. Before she died, Rachel named her son Ben Oni. Rashi explains that Ben Yamin either means "son of the right", since Benjamin was the only one of Jacob's sons born in Canaan, to the south of Paddan Aram.
Rachel was buried on the road to Efrat, just outside Bethlehem, not in the ancestral tomb at Machpelah. Today a site claimed to be Rachel's Tomb, located between Bethlehem and the Israeli settlement of Gilo, is visited by tens of thousands of visitors each year.. The Rachel's tomb is told to be in the ancient city of Zelzah in the land of the Tribe of Benjamin. Mordecai, the hero of the Book of Esther, Queen Esther herself, were descendants of Rachel through her son Benjamin; the Book of Esther details Mordecai's lineage as "Mordecai the son of Yair, the son of Shimi, the son of Kish, a man of the right". The designation of ish yemini refers to his membership in the Tribe of Benjamin; the rabbis comment that Esther's ability to remain silent in the palace of Ahasuerus, resisting the king's pressure to reveal her ancestry, was inherited from her ancestor Rachel, who remained silent when Laban brought out Leah to marry Jacob. After the tribes of Ephraim and Benjamin were exiled by the Assyrians, Rachel was remembered as the classic mother who mourns and intercedes for her children.
Jeremiah 31:15, speaks of'Rachel weeping for her children'. This is interpreted in Judaism as Rachel crying for an end to her descendants' sufferings and exiles following the destruction by the Babylonians of the First Temple in ancient Jerusalem. According to the Midrash, Rachel spoke before God: "If I, a mere mortal, was prepared not to humiliate my sister and was willing to take a rival into my home, how could You, the eternal, compassionate God, be jealous of idols, which have no true existence, that were brought into Your home? Will You cause my children to be exiled on this account?" God accepted her plea and promised that the exile would end and the Jews would return to their land. In the second chapter of the Gospel of Matthew, this reference from Jeremiah is interpreted as a prediction of the Massacre of the Innocen
Cave of the Patriarchs
The Cave of the Patriarchs or Tomb of the Patriarchs, known to Jews as the Cave of Machpelah and to Muslims as the Sanctuary of Abraham, is a series of caves located in the heart of the old city of Hebron in the southern West Bank. According to the Abrahamic religions, the cave and adjoining field were purchased by Abraham as a burial plot. Over the cave stands a large rectangular enclosure dating from the Herodian-era. Byzantine Christians took it over and built a Basilica which after the Muslim conquest was converted into the Ibrahimi Mosque. Crusaders took over the site in the 12th century, but it was taken back by Saladin 1188 and reconverted into a mosque. Israel took control of the site in 1967, dividing the structure into a mosque. In 1994, the Hebron massacre occurred in which a Jewish settler killed 29 Muslims praying in the mosque; the Arabic name of the complex reflects the prominence given to Abraham in Islam. Outside biblical and Quranic sources there are a number of legends and traditions associated with the cave.
The site is considered by Jews to be the second holiest place in the world, after the Temple Mount. The etymology of the Hebrew name, Me'arat Machpelah, for the site is uncertain; the word Machpelah means "doubled", "multiplied" or "twofold" and Me'arat means "cave" so a literal translation would be "the double cave". The name could refer to the layout of the cave, thought to consist of two or more connected chambers; this hypothesis is discussed in the tractate Eruvin from the 6th century Babylonian Talmud which cites an argument between two influential rabbis and Shmuel, debating over the layout of the cave: Apropos this dispute, the Gemara cites similar disputes between Rav and Shmuel. With regard to the Machpelah Cave, in which the Patriarchs and Matriarchs are buried and Shmuel disagreed. One said: The cave consists of two rooms, one farther in than the other, and one said: It consists of a room and a second story above it. The Gemara asks: Granted, this is understandable according to the one who said the cave consists of one room above the other, as, the meaning of Machpelah, double.
However, according to the one who said it consists of two rooms, one farther in than the other, in what sense is it Machpelah? Ordinary houses contain two rooms; the tractate continues by discussing another theory, that the name stems from it being the tomb of the three couples and Sarah, Isaac and Rebecca and Leah, considered to be the Patriarchs and Matriarchs of the Abrahamic religions: Rather, it is called Machpelah in the sense that it is doubled with the Patriarchs and Matriarchs, who are buried there in pairs. This is similar to the homiletic interpretation of the alternative name for Hebron mentioned in the Torah: "Mamre of Kiryat Ha'Arba, Hebron". Rabbi Yitzḥak said: The city is called Kiryat Ha'Arba, the city of four, because it is the city of the four couples buried there: Adam and Eve and Sarah, Isaac and Rebecca, Jacob and Leah. Another theory holds that Machpelah didn't refer to the cave but rather was a large tract of land, The Machpelah, at the end of which the cave was found.
This theory is supported by some Bible verses such as Genesis 49:30, "the cave in the field of Machpelah, near Mamre in Canaan, which Abraham bought along with the field as a burial place from Ephron the Hittite." The question over the right interpretation of Machpelah has been discussed extensively in various Biblical commentaries. According to Genesis 23:1–20, Abraham's wife Sarah dies in Kiryat Arba near Hebron in the land of Canaan at the age of 127, being the only woman in the Bible whose exact age is given, while Abraham is tending to business elsewhere. Abraham comes to mourn for her. After a while he speaks to the sons of Heth, he tells them that he is a foreigner in their land and requests that they give him a burial site so that he can bury his dead. The Hittites flatter Abraham, call him a Lord and mighty prince, say that he can bury his dead in any of their tombs. Abraham doesn't take them up on their offer and instead asks them to contact Ephron the Hittite, the son of Zohar, who lives in Mamre and owns the cave of Machpelah which he is offering to buy for "the full price".
Ephron slyly replies that he is prepared to give Abraham the field and the cave within it, knowing that it would not result in Abraham having a permanent claim to it. Abraham politely insists on paying for the field. Ephron replies that the field is worth four hundred shekels of silver and Abraham agrees to the price without any further bargaining, he proceeded to bury his dead wife Sarah there. The burial of Sarah is the first account of a burial in the Bible, Abraham's purchase of Machpelah is the first commercial transaction mentioned; the next burial in the cave is that of Abraham himself, who at the age of 175 years was buried by his sons Isaac and Ishmael. The title deed to the cave was part of the property of Abraham; the third burial was that of Isaac, by his two sons Esau and Jacob, who died when he was 180 years old. There is no mention of how or when Isaac's wife Rebecca died, only that she outlived her husband, but she is included in the list of those, buried in Machpelah in Jacob's final words to the children of Israel.
Jacob himself died at the age of 147 years. In the final chapter of Genesis, Joseph had his physicians embalm his father Jacob, before they removed him from Egypt to be buried in the cave of the field of Machpelah; when Joseph died in the last verse, he was embalmed. He was buried much in Shechem after the children of I
Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix was a French Romantic artist regarded from the outset of his career as the leader of the French Romantic school. As a painter and muralist, Delacroix's use of expressive brushstrokes and his study of the optical effects of colour profoundly shaped the work of the Impressionists, while his passion for the exotic inspired the artists of the Symbolist movement. A fine lithographer, Delacroix illustrated various works of William Shakespeare, the Scottish author Walter Scott and the German author Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. In contrast to the Neoclassical perfectionism of his chief rival Ingres, Delacroix took for his inspiration the art of Rubens and painters of the Venetian Renaissance, with an attendant emphasis on colour and movement rather than clarity of outline and modelled form. Dramatic and romantic content characterized the central themes of his maturity, led him not to the classical models of Greek and Roman art, but to travel in North Africa, in search of the exotic.
Friend and spiritual heir to Théodore Géricault, Delacroix was inspired by Lord Byron, with whom he shared a strong identification with the "forces of the sublime", of nature in violent action. However, Delacroix was given to neither sentimentality nor bombast, his Romanticism was that of an individualist. In the words of Baudelaire, "Delacroix was passionately in love with passion, but coldly determined to express passion as as possible." Together with Ingres, Delacroix is considered one of the last old Masters of painting, one of the few, photographed. Eugène Delacroix was born on 26 April 1798 at Charenton-Saint-Maurice near Paris, his mother was named the daughter of the cabinet-maker Jean-François Oeben. He had three much older siblings. Charles-Henri Delacroix rose to the rank of General in the Napoleonic army. Henriette married the diplomat Raymond de Verninac Saint-Maur. Henri was born six years later, he was killed at the Battle of Friedland on 14 June 1807. There are medical reasons to believe that Eugène's legitimate father, Charles-François Delacroix, was not able to procreate at the time of Eugène's conception.
Talleyrand, a friend of the family and successor of Charles Delacroix as Minister of Foreign Affairs, whom the adult Eugène resembled in appearance and character, considered himself as his real father. Throughout his career as a painter, he was protected by Talleyrand, who served successively the Restoration and king Louis-Philippe, as ambassador of France in Great Britain, by Talleyrand's grandson, Charles Auguste Louis Joseph, duc de Morny, half-brother of Napoleon III and speaker of the French House of Commons, his legitimate father, Charles Delacroix, died in 1805, his mother in 1814, leaving 16-year-old Eugène an orphan. His early education was at the Lycée Louis-le-Grand, at the Lycée Pierre Corneille in Rouen where he steeped himself in the classics and won awards for drawing. In 1815 he began his training with Pierre-Narcisse Guérin in the neoclassical style of Jacques-Louis David. An early church commission, The Virgin of the Harvest, displays a Raphael-esque influence, but another such commission, The Virgin of the Sacred Heart, evidences a freer interpretation.
It precedes the influence of the more colourful and rich style of the Flemish Baroque painter Peter Paul Rubens, fellow French artist Théodore Géricault, whose works marked an introduction to Romanticism in art. The impact of Géricault's The Raft of the Medusa was profound, stimulated Delacroix to produce his first major painting, The Barque of Dante, accepted by the Paris Salon in 1822; the work caused a sensation, was derided by the public and officialdom, yet was purchased by the State for the Luxembourg Galleries. Two years he again achieved popular success for his The Massacre at Chios. Delacroix's painting of the massacre at Chios shows sick, dying Greek civilians about to be slaughtered by the Turks. One of several paintings he made of this contemporary event, expressed the official policy for the Greek cause in their war of independence against the Turks, war sustained by English and French governments. Delacroix was recognized by the authorities as a leading painter in the new Romantic style, the picture was bought by the state.
His depiction of suffering was controversial, however, as there was no glorious event taking place, no patriots raising their swords in valour as in David's Oath of the Horatii, only a disaster. Many critics deplored the painting's despairing tone; the pathos in the depiction of an infant clutching its dead mother's breast had an powerful effect, although this detail was condemned as unfit for art by Delacroix's critics. A viewing of the paintings of John Constable and the watercolour sketches and art of Richard Parkes Bonnington prompted Delacroix to make extensive painted changes to the sky and distant landscape. Delacroix produced a second painting in support of the Greeks in their war for independence, this time referring to the capture of Missolonghi by Turkish forces in 1825. With a restraint of palette appropriate to the allegory, Greece Expiring on the Ruins of Missolonghi displays a woman in Greek costume with her breast bared, arms half-raised in an imploring gesture before the horrible scene: the suicide of the Greeks, who chose to kill themselves and destroy their city rather than surrender to the Turks.
A hand is seen at the bottom, the body having be