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Patriation was the political process that led to full Canadian sovereignty, culminating with the Constitution Act, 1982. The process was necessary because under the Statute of Westminster 1931, with Canada's agreement at the time, the British parliament had retained the power to amend Canada's Constitution Acts, to enact more for Canada at the request and with the consent of the Dominion; that authority was removed from the UK by the passing of the Canada Act 1982 on March 29, 1982, by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, as requested by the Parliament of Canada. Patriation was subsequently confirmed by the Constitution Act, 1982, part of the Canada Act 1982. A proclamation bringing the Constitution Act, 1982 into effect was signed by Elizabeth II, as Queen of Canada, then-Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau and then-Minister of Justice Jean Chrétien on April 17, 1982, on Parliament Hill, in Ottawa; the queen's constitutional powers over Canada were not affected by the act. Canada has complete sovereignty as an independent country and the Queen's role as monarch of Canada is distinct from her role as the British monarch or the monarch of any of the other Commonwealth realms.

The patriation process saw the provinces granted influence in constitutional matters and resulted in the constitution being amendable by Canada only and according to its amending formula, with no role for the United Kingdom. Hence, patriation is associated with the establishment of full sovereignty; the word patriation was coined in Canada as a back-formation from repatriation. Prior to 1982, power to amend the Canadian constitution was held by the Parliament of the United Kingdom; the term was first used in 1966 by Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson in response to a question in parliament: "We intend to do everything we can to have the constitution of Canada repatriated, or patriated." From 1867, the Constitution of Canada was contained in the British North America Act, 1867, other British North America Acts, which were passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Several Canadian prime ministers, starting with William Lyon Mackenzie King in 1927, had made attempts to domesticize the amending formula, but could not obtain agreement with the provincial governments as to how such a formula would work.

Thus after the Statute of Westminster granted Canada and other Commonwealth nations full legislative independence in 1931, Canada requested that the British North America Act, 1867, be excluded from the laws that were now within Canada's complete control to amend. The British North America Act, 1949, granted the Parliament of Canada limited power to amend the constitution in many areas of its own jurisdiction, without involvement of the United Kingdom; the constitution was amended in this manner five times: in 1952, 1965, 1974, twice in 1975. Negotiations continued sporadically between federal and provincial governments on the development of a new amending formula in which the United Kingdom would have no part. In the 1960s, efforts by the governments of Prime Ministers John Diefenbaker and Lester Pearson, including the Confederation of Tomorrow conference in Canada's centennial year, culminated in the Fulton–Favreau formula, but without Quebec's endorsement, the patriation attempt failed.

In 1968, Pearson was succeeded by Pierre Trudeau, who advocated patriation. He made several attempts, including the Victoria Charter in 1971 and more proposed amendments in 1978. At the 1978-79 conference, Trudeau prepared for the first time to provide some federal concessions with regard to the division of powers, including family law and resources. However, the other premiers balked, which led to speculation they were waiting to see if the more province-friendly Progressive Conservatives would win the coming federal election. In that campaign, the Liberals ran on constitutional change, including a speech at Maple Leaf Gardens in which Trudeau promised unilateral action if the premiers did not agree to patriation. Patriation was given a new impetus after the 1980 referendum on Quebec independence, before which Trudeau promised a new constitutional agreement if the majority of Quebecers voted "No". After a number of days of negotiation and the leak of the Kirby Memo which antagonized Quebec, by an "internal federal source", after provincial premiers consulted at the Chateau Laurier, drafted a list of 10 powers to be devolved to the provinces in exchange for consent to patriation.

Trudeau, when presented with the document, refused to accept it and reiterated his threat that he would seek the House of Commons' approval to proceed with a unilateral amendment. Faced with Premier of Manitoba Sterling Lyon's charge that it would "tear the country apart", Trudeau responded that, if Canada could not have control of its own constitution and a charter when most provinces had their own, the country would deserve to be torn apart. Trudeau announced his belief that the premiers were dealing in bad faith and met with his caucus to propose a new course. After offering a wide range of options and proposing full reform, a Quebec MP shouted "Allons-y en Cadillac!". Taking the proposal to Cabinet, some ministers suggested using the maneuver to increase federal power over the economy, but Trudeau demurred, replying "we shouldn't upset the balance". On October 2, 1980, he announced on national television his intention to proc

The Sea and Cake

The Sea and Cake is an American indie rock band with a jazz influence, based in Chicago, United States. The group formed in the mid-1990s from members of The Coctails, Shrimp Boat, Tortoise. Starting with 1997's The Fawn, the group has relied on electronic sound sources, such as drum machines and synthesizers, to color its music, but has retained its distinctive post-jazz combo style; the band has shied away from preferring the album format. Contrary to his multi-instrumentalist role in Tortoise, John McEntire exclusively plays drums in The Sea and Cake. Members Sam Prekop, Archer Prewitt, John McEntire each have released solo albums; the cover art of The Sea And Cake's releases are paintings by member Eric Claridge and photographs by Prekop. Prewitt has been involved in doing graphic design. In 1995, the band contributed the song "The Fontana" to the AIDS benefit album Red Hot + Bothered produced by the Red Hot Organization; the band was on hiatus from 2004 to 2007. Their most recent album Any Day was released in May 2018.

Sam Prekop Archer Prewitt John McEntire All releases on Thrill Jockey Records. The Sea and Cake Nassau The Biz The Fawn Oui One Bedroom Everybody Car Alarm The Moonlight Butterfly Runner Any Day "Glad You're Right" Two Gentlemen "Window Lights" Glass A Brief Historical Retrospective Metro: The Official Bootleg Series, Volume 1 2010 Official website The Sea and Cake at AllMusic The Sea and Cake - Video Interview: "What is important to you?" Trouser Press entry Lazy-i Interview from February 2003 Interview with Centerstage Chicago March 2011 - Métronome / Interview with Sam Prekop

Ciriaco Morón Arroyo

Ciriaco Morón Arroyo is a Spanish philologist and professor. He took his bachelor's degree in Philosophy from the Pontifical University of Salamanca in 1957 and, in 1962, his doctorate from the University of Munich, where Heidegger was one of his early influences. From 1971 until his retirement, he was the Emerson Hinchliff Professor of Spanish Studies at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, he is an honorary researcher with the Discourse Analysis Group of the Human and Social Sciences Center at the Spanish National Research Council. He is a Doctor Honoris Causa in Humanities at Saint Joseph's University in Philadelphia, he is an expert on the methodology of the History of Ideas. He has written about authors and books from every period, but certain themes recur throughout his work: The epistemology of the Humanities, the Generation of'98, José Ortega y Gasset and the "Siglo de Oro". In 2013, he received the Menéndez Pelayo International Prize; the Humanities in the Age of Technology, Catholic Universities of America Press ISBN 0-8132-1074-7 El Sistema de Ortega y Gasset, Alcalá Sentido y Forma de La Celestina, Cátedra Nuevas Meditaciones del Quijote, Gredos Calderón: Pensamiento y Teatro, Sociedad Menéndez Pelayo ISBN 84-600-2758-9 El "Alma de España".

Cien Años de Inseguridad, Nobel ISBN 84-8753-186-5 Para Entender el Quijote, Rialp ISBN 84-321-3540-2 Dialnet: Complete list of works by Morón

David Gaines (basketball)

David "Smokey" Gaines is a retired American professional basketball player and coach. He played three games for the Kentucky Colonels during the 1967-68 American Basketball Association season after a four-year stint with the Harlem Globetrotters. Gaines attended LeMoyne-Owen College. After his playing days Gaines became a coach, serving as head coach for Detroit Mercy and San Diego State, he replaced Dick Vitale at the former school, coached Michael Cage and future Baseball Hall-of-Famer Tony Gwynn at the latter. He is Athletic Director for the Memphis City Schools. NBA stats @ Harlem Globetrotters Profile

String Trios, Op. 9 (Beethoven)

The three String Trios, Op. 9 were composed by Ludwig van Beethoven in 1797–98. He published them in Vienna with a dedication to his patron Count Johann Georg von Browne, they were first performed by the violinist Ignaz Schuppanzigh with two colleagues from his string quartet. According to the violinist and conductor Angus Watson, these were Franz Weiss on viola and either Nikolaus Kraft or his father Anton on cello; each of the trios consists of four movements: String Trio No. 3 in G major, Op. 9 No. 1 I. Adagio - Allegro con brio II. Adagio ma non tanto and cantabile III. Scherzo – Allegro IV. Presto String Trio No. 4 in D major, Op. 9 No. 2 I. Allegretto II. Andante quasi allegretto III. Menuetto – Allegro IV. Rondo – Allegro String Trio No. 5 in C minor, Op. 9 No. 3 I. Allegro con spirito II. Adagio con espressione III. Scherzo – Allegro molto e vivace IV. Finale – Presto Although this opus does not contain the most played works by Beethoven it was a significant milestone in his development as a composer.

At the time of publication the 28-year-old Beethoven regarded the trios as his best compositions. The trios can be seen as a part of the preparation for the upcoming string quartets, which became the leading genre among his chamber music; the musicologist Gerald Abraham has remarked that in terms of their style and aesthetic value the string trios of Op. 9 rank with Beethoven's first string quartets which ousted the trios from the concert halls. Beethoven composed no further trios after the first quartets were published in 1801; each trio is of four movements with sonata form in the first movements, suggesting that Beethoven did not intend them to be light chamber pieces. The most vigorous of the three trios is the G major, with the fast movements' thematic richness and symphonic elaborations in the first Allegro; the Adagio in E major resembles in its beauty and melancholic atmosphere other slow movements written by Beethoven at that time. The trio ends with a virtuoso Presto. Trio in D major is the most traditional piece in the opus.

It lacks the G major's symphonic effects but conveys a finely subtle chamber music with warm and intimate atmosphere. However the slow movement in D minor is the saddest piece in the opus; the last trio, in C minor, brings the most energy and novelty with passionate tone. C minor is one of Beethoven's most important keys. Three of his piano sonatas and the fifth symphony were written for instance; this trio invokes those works' power and peculiar character so typical of Beethoven. Dynamic effects, sharp contrasts in rhythm, harmonic confrontations among other means of music provide momentum and the tone of anxiety. By contrast, the Adagio brings peace and resignation in C major, with a more lively episode in E flat major in the middle of the movement. Both the Scherzo and the Finale continue the energetic storm of the first movement. 3 String Trios, Op. 9: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project Performance of String Trio Op. 9, No. 2 by the Musicians from Marlboro from the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in MP3 format

Theodor Körner (opera)

Leyer und Schwert is a patriotic opera in five acts composed by Wendelin Weißheimer to a libretto by Louise Otto-Peters. Known as Theodor Körner, the opera was composed in 1863/64 and premiered in Munich in 1872; the libretto is based on an episode in the life of soldier Theodor Körner. The libretto was written by Louise Otto-Peters, who had shown ardent interest in patriotic subjects as a youth, it depicts the last episode of Theodor Körner's life from the beginning of his military engagement until his death. Körner, a famous German poet during the Wars of Liberation against Napoleonic hegemony, was free of personal worries due to his professional success culminating in the appointment as k. k. Hoftheaterdichter, a playwright of the imperial court at the Burgtheater in Vienna, he nonetheless voluntarily joined the famous Lützow Free Corps as he wanted to deliver Germany from French dominance, writing to his father: "Yes, my dearest father, I want to become a soldier. I want to give up the newly acquired happy and carefree live joyously in order to fight for my fatherland if I have to spill my blood.

No one is too valuable for the death for the liberty and the honour of his nation, but many are not valuable enough." In 19th-century Germany, Körner hence became a national hero. Franz Liszt and Richard Wagner spoke appreciatively of this work. Ferdinand Lassalle, who had liked the libretto and was enthusiastic about the music, had offered to write Weißheimer a textbook on Florian Geyer, Thomas Munzer or the Bohemian Jan Žižka, but his death put an end to this idea. Wagner had written for Weißheimer a draft for the opera, Wieland the Blacksmith, but gave it back before scoring it. For the premiere of Theodor Körner at the Berlin Court Opera, Liszt began with the former artistic director Count von Redern. However, Count von Redern recommended Liszt to run the premiere on a different stage because Prince Louis Ferdinand was to play a role which would affect the Prussian royal family too strongly. For the premiere to be accommodated elsewhere it would be important to gain Wagner's support, for whom Wendelin had fought for many years.

But Wagner was too immersed in his own work to be of any help. Weißheimer's negotiations with Munich moved slowly but in 1872, his opera was premiered there. Leyer und Schwert is an opera in five acts and a prelude: „Deutschland muss siegen oder untergeh’n.“ — "Germany must be victorious or cease to exist."Three citizens talk about the current state of French-occupied Germany. As one of them starts to talk about liberation from foreign yoke, the others burst into fear. Subsequently, Major von Lützow appears, surrounded by a large crowd, reading a declaration by the king of Prussia that incites all citizens to enlist. Körner, one of the people encircling the major, starts to publicly support the appeal to deliver Germany from its enemies. Recognised by one of the three citizens from the beginning of the scene, Körner frenetically exalts liberty and joins the Freikorps. "Mich ruft die mich ruft das Vaterland. / Wenn sich das Volk erhebt, / So nehm auch ich das Schwert in meine Hand!“ — "Duty calls me, the fatherland.

/ When the people starts to fight, / I will draw the sword as well!"Toni, Körner's betrothed, awaits her fiancé who appears only to inform her that he must leave in order to fight for the liberation of Germany. In spite of her own patriotism, Toni tries to convince Körner that he can be a benefit to the fatherland in his role as a poet: „Diene der Kunst, du dienst der deutschen Sache.“ In the third scene of this act, several public officers appear and inform Theodor of his appointment as poet of the court in Vienna, thus providing new hope for Toni, but Körner decides that German art can only flourish if the German nation does, this must be ensured by the sword. After several farewell kisses, he leaves. "Hier kümmert niemand Rang und Stand: / Wir denken nur ans Vaterland." — "Here, no one cares for your rank or class: / We only think of the fatherland."The second act opens in a recruitment office where Elise von Ahlefeld-Lützow and Friedrich Friesen as well as two volunteers are present. Körner arrives and looks for Lützow, who appears in the second scene, accompanied by many of his soldiers, recognises him.

Both attend a church service. The scene and thereby the act end with a rendition of Luther's chorale "Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott". „Es kommt die Zeit zur guten Sache, / Zur Freiheit, zum Tyrannentod.“ — "The time for our good cause will come, / For liberty and tyrant's death."In a forest near Leipzig, Lützow's cavalry roams the area, looking for enemies to fight. The disappointment of the soldiers who in vain seek battle is aggrandized when they learn that a truce has been concluded. Lützow and his men reject it because they think that endless negotiations will be to the disadvantage of Germany. In lieu of debating, the war should be brought to an end by arms. However, the enemy attacks, thus breaking the armistice. Körner is hides himself so that no one finds him. Two civilians, Häusser and a farmer, have seen trace Körner's hideout back. Undetected by the French, they bring him to Häusser's house. „Der deutschen Frauen Opfermut / Errettet mir das Vaterland.“ — "The courage of German women / Saves the fatherland."There, Häusser's wife Johanna takes care of the unconscious soldier.

When Körner awakes, he learns what has thanks Johanna for her help. She replies. Indeed, Körner is th