Fradique de Menezes
Fradique Bandeira Melo de Menezes was the President of São Tomé and Príncipe from 2003 to 2011. Menezes was born on the Portuguese colony of São Tomé in 1942, the son of a Portuguese man and a local woman, he attended high school in Portugal. He studied at the Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada in Lisbon and Free University of Brussels. Menezes is a successful businessman, he was Foreign Minister of São Tome and Príncipe from 1986 until 1987. He was elected President in July 2001 with about 55.2% of the vote, defeating Manuel Pinto da Costa, who received about 40%. Menezes took office on September 3, 2001, his eligibility as a candidate was questioned, since he held Portuguese citizenship, but he renounced this and his candidacy was approved. On July 16, 2003, while he was away in Nigeria, there was a military coup d'etat led by Fernando Pereira, but Menezes was restored to power on July 23, 2003, following an agreement. Menezes was re-elected on July 30, 2006, winning 60.58% of the vote and defeating Patrice Trovoada, son of former president Miguel Trovoada.
The discovery of a coup plot involving Christian Democratic Front leader Arlecio Costa was announced on February 12, 2009. Costa and more than 30 others were arrested. At a press conference on February 24, Menezes said that he was "touched" by the support of the security forces. President Menezes' address to the 63rd session of the United Nations General Assembly, September 26, 2008
Manuel Pinto da Costa
Manuel Pinto da Costa is a Santoméan economist and politician who served as the first President of São Tomé and Príncipe from 1975 to 1991. He again served as President from 2011 to 2016. Educated in East Germany, he is fluent in German; until the early 1990s the MLSTP maintained extensive relations with Angola and the MPLA, with Pinto da Costa himself having enjoyed a friendly relationship with José Eduardo dos Santos, the President of Angola, extending back to when they were both young men. In 1991, the legalisation of opposition political parties led to the country's first election under a democratic system. Pinto da Costa did not contest the election and instead announced; the MLSTP did not present an alternative candidate and Miguel Trovoada was elected unopposed. Despite his previous declaration, Pinto da Costa returned to contest elections in 1996, but was narrowly defeated, taking 47.26% of the vote, by Trovoada. In 2001, he ran against incumbent president Fradique de Menezes, who won a majority in the first round.
Pinto da Costa was elected leader of the MLSTP in May 1998. He resigned from the party in February 2005 and Guilherme Posser da Costa was elected to succeed him. In the July 2011 presidential election, he ran as an independent, he failed to receive the required majority. In a run-off round on 7 August, he defeated rival Evaristo Carvalho from the ruling party Independent Democratic Action, taking 53% of the votes. During the campaign, he focused on the need for political stability and promised to tackle widespread corruption, his bid was given the backing of most of the other major candidates, including former Prime Minister Maria das Neves, who claimed "Pinto da Costa's plan could bring more hope to our country". Some analysts, raised concerns that the former president's victory might trigger a return to the authoritarian rule seen during his previous period in power, he took office on 3 September 2011
Maria do Carmo Silveira
Maria do Carmo Trovoada Pires de Carvalho Silveira is a former Prime Minister of São Tomé and Príncipe who served from 8 Jun 2005 to 21 Apr 2006. She was educated as an economist at the University of Ukraine and was the third governor of São Tomé and Príncipe's Central Bank from 1999 to 2005, she succeeded Carlos Quaresma Batista de Sousa and was succeeded by Arlindo Afonso Carvalho and again from 2011 as the sixth governor succeeding Luís Fernando Moreira de Sousa, she served as Prime Minister and Minister of Planning and Finance São Tomé and Príncipe from 8 June 2005 to 21 April 2006. Silveira, the country's second female Prime Minister, is a member of the Movement for the Liberation of São Tomé and Príncipe-Social Democratic Party and was a member of the party executive board. Silveira declared that macroeconomic stability was her priority and made her mark by among others resolving the wage dispute with the unions in the public sector, securing assistance from the IMF and obtaining an agreement with Angola on cooperation in the oil sector.
Her term as Prime Minister ended after the 2006 parliamentary elections, when the opposition defeated the MLSTP-PSD, she was succeeded as Prime Minister by Tomé Vera Cruz in 2006. Politics of São Tomé and Príncipe
Libreville is the capital and largest city of Gabon, in western central Africa. The city is a port on the Komo River, near the Gulf of Guinea, a trade center for a timber region; as of 2013, its census population was 703,904. The area was inhabited by the Mpongwé tribe before the French acquired the land in 1839. In 1846, a Brazilian slave ship was captured by the French navy assisting the British Blockade of Africa, fifty-two of the freed slaves were resettled on the site, it became the chief port of French Equatorial Africa from 1934 to 1946, was the central focus of the Battle of Gabon in 1940. Libreville was named in imitation of Freetown, grew as a trading post and a minor administrative centre, reaching a population of 32,000 on independence in 1960. Since independence, the city has grown and now houses nearly half the national population, it is home to a shipbuilding industry, brewing industry, sawmills, exports raw materials such as wood and cocoa. The area was inhabited by the Mpongwé tribe long before the French acquired the land in 1839.
American missionaries from New England established a mission in Baraka, Gabon, on what is now Libreville, in 1842. In 1846, the Brazilian slave ship L'Elizia, carrying slaves from the Congo, was captured near Loango by the French navy, tasked with contributing the British Blockade of Africa. Fifty-two of the freed slaves were resettled on the site of Libreville in 1849, it was the chief port of French Equatorial Africa from 1934 to 1946, was the central focus of the Battle of Gabon in 1940. In 1910, French Equatorial Africa was created, French companies were allowed to exploit the Middle Congo, it soon became necessary to build a railroad that would connect Brazzaville, the terminus of the river navigation on the Congo River and the Ubangui River, with the Atlantic coast. As rapids make it impossible to navigate on the Congo River past Brazzaville, the coastal railroad terminus site had to allow for the construction of a deep-sea port, authorities chose the site of Ponta Negra instead of Libreville as envisaged.
Construction of the Congo–Ocean Railway began in 1921, Libreville was surpassed by the rapid growth of Pointe-Noire, farther down the coast. Libreville was named in imitation of Freetown, grew only as a trading post and a minor administrative centre to a population of 32,000 on independence in 1960, it only received its first bank branch when Bank of West Africa opened a branch in 1930. Since independence, the city has grown and now houses nearly half the national population. From north to south, major districts of the city are the residential area Batterie IV, Quartier Louis, Mont-Bouët and Nombakélé, Glass and Lalala, a residential area; the city's port and train station on the Trans-Gabon Railway line to Franceville lie in Owendo, south of the main built-up area. Inland from these districts lie poorer residential areas. North-west of Equatorial Guinea is where the city stands, labeling the city as a part of north-west Gabon. In terms of the country's surrounding boundaries, north is Cameroon, east is Congo, south-east is the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
It rides the shores of the South Atlantic Ocean, on the country's west coast for reference. Additionally, in terms of aquatic geography, the Komo River passes through the city and empties into the ocean; the Komo River stands as a potential hydroelectric source of power for the city which could generate supportive amounts of energy and power. Several city districts provide separate benefits throughout the city as well. In terms of nightlife, the Quartier Louis sector is most renowned. One of this zone's sides includes the coast, this influences the possible activities available in the area. Commercial areas within Libreville are housed in the Mont-Bouët and Nombakélé districts, which feature several shopping centers and stations selling purchasable goods. Oloumi contains much of the city's industry, integrating production separately from the districts that focus upon other aspects. Lalala and Batterie IV are residential and housing sectors, where much of the populace resides. Libreville features a tropical monsoon climate with a short dry season.
The city's wet season spans about nine months, with a great deal of rain falling during these months. Its dry season lasts from June through August, is caused by the cold Benguela Current reaching its northernmost extent and suppressing rainfall. Despite the lack of rain, Libreville remains cloudy during this time of year; as is common with many cities with this climate, average temperatures remain constant throughout the course of the year, with average high temperatures at around 29 °C. Libreville International Airport is the largest airport in Gabon and is located around 11 kilometres north of the city. National Taxis operate around the city; each district has a colour for its taxis and Libreville's is red. The National Society of Transport just launched the new taxis; the Gabonese Transport Company operates a bus service to all districts of Libreville. Sights in Libreville include: the National Museum of Arts and Traditions the French cultural centre St Marie's Cathedral, seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Libreville the carved wood church of St Michael, Nkembo the Arboretum de Sibang two cultural villagesLibreville's main market lies in Mont-Bouët.
Gabon's school of administration and school of law are in Librevi
São Tomé and Príncipe
São Tomé and Príncipe the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe, is an island country in the Gulf of Guinea, off the western equatorial coast of Central Africa. It consists of two archipelagos around the two main islands of São Tomé and Príncipe, about 140 kilometres apart and about 250 and 225 kilometres off the northwestern coast of Gabon, respectively; the islands were uninhabited until their discovery by Portuguese explorers in the 15th century. Colonised and settled by the Portuguese throughout the 16th century, they collectively served as a vital commercial and trade center for the Atlantic slave trade; the rich volcanic soil and close proximity to the Equator made São Tomé and Príncipe ideal for sugar cultivation, followed by cash crops such as coffee and cocoa. Cycles of social unrest and economic instability throughout the 19th and 20th centuries culminated in peaceful independence in 1975. São Tomé and Príncipe has since remained one of Africa's most democratic countries. With a population of 199,910, São Tomé and Príncipe is the second-smallest African sovereign state after Seychelles, as well as the smallest Portuguese-speaking country.
Its people are predominantly with most practising Roman Catholicism. The legacy of Portuguese rule is visible in the country's culture and music, which fuse European and African influences. São Tomé and Príncipe is a founding member state of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries; the islands of São Tomé and Príncipe were uninhabited when the Portuguese arrived sometime around 1470. The islands were discovered by João de Pêro Escobar. Portuguese navigators explored the islands and decided that they would be good locations for bases to trade with the mainland; the dates of discovery are sometimes given as 21 December 1471, for São Tomé. Príncipe was named Santo Antão, changing its name in 1502 to Ilha do Príncipe, in reference to the Prince of Portugal to whom duties on the island's sugar crop were paid; the first successful settlement of São Tomé was established in 1493 by Álvaro Caminha, who received the land as a grant from the crown. Príncipe was settled in 1500 under a similar arrangement.
Attracting settlers proved difficult and most of the earliest inhabitants were "undesirables" sent from Portugal Jews. In time these settlers found the volcanic soil of the region suitable for agriculture the growing of sugar. By 1515, São Tomé and Príncipe had become slave depots for the coastal slave trade centered at Elmina; the cultivation of sugar was a labour-intensive process and the Portuguese began to enslave large numbers of Africans from the mainland. By the mid-16th century the Portuguese settlers had turned the islands into Africa's foremost exporter of sugar. São Tomé and Príncipe were taken over and administered by the Portuguese crown in 1522 and 1573, respectively. However, competition from sugar-producing colonies in the Western Hemisphere began to hurt the islands; the large enslaved population proved difficult to control, with Portugal unable to invest many resources in the effort. Sugar cultivation thus declined over the next 100 years, by the mid-17th century, the economy of São Tomé had changed.
It was now a transit point for ships engaged in the slave trade between the West and continental Africa. In the early 19th century, two new cash crops and cocoa, were introduced; the rich volcanic soils proved well suited to the new cash crop industry, soon extensive plantations, owned by Portuguese companies or absentee landlords, occupied all of the good farmland. By 1908, São Tomé had become the world's largest producer of cocoa, which remains the country's most important crop; the roças system, which gave the plantation managers a high degree of authority, led to abuses against the African farm workers. Although Portugal abolished slavery in 1876, the practice of forced paid labour continued. Scientific American magazine documented in words and pictures the continued use of slaves in São Tomé in its 13 March 1897 issue. In the early 20th century, an internationally publicized controversy arose over charges that Angolan contract workers were being subjected to forced labour and unsatisfactory working conditions.
Sporadic labor unrest and dissatisfaction continued well into the 20th century, culminating in an outbreak of riots in 1953 in which several hundred African laborers were killed in a clash with their Portuguese rulers. This "Batepá Massacre" remains a major event in the colonial history of the islands, its anniversary is observed by the government. By the late 1950s, when other emerging nations across the African Continent demanded their independence, a small group of São Toméans had formed the Movement for the Liberation of São Tomé and Príncipe, which established its base in nearby Gabon. Picking up momentum in the 1960s, events moved after the overthrow of the Caetano dictatorship in Portugal in April 1974; the new Portuguese regime was committed to the dissolution of its overseas colonies. In November 1974, their representatives met with the MLSTP in Algiers and worked out an agreement for the transfer of sovereignty. After a period of transitional government, São Tomé and Príncipe achieved independence on 12 July 1975, choosing as the first president the MLSTP Secretary General
Gabriel Arcanjo Ferreira da Costa is a Santoméan politician, Prime Minister of São Tomé and Príncipe from 12 December 2012 to 25 November 2014. He served as Prime Minister in 2002. Costa was Ambassador to Portugal from 2000 to 2002, he was appointed as Prime Minister to lead a coalition government in April 2002. However, he was sacked from that post on 27 September 2002 by President Fradique de Menezes after army unrest over two controversial promotions. On 3 December 2012, he was again appointed as Prime Minister by President Manuel Pinto da Costa, following the dismissal of Patrice Trovoada, who had lost his parliamentary majority
Evaristo do Espírito Santo Carvalho is a São Toméan politician, President of São Tomé and Príncipe since 3 September 2016. He was the Prime Minister of the country on two occasions, he was Prime Minister of São Tomé and Príncipe from 7 July 1994 to 25 October 1994 and again from 26 September 2001 to 28 March 2002. He is a member of the Independent Democratic Action party. Carvalho contested the 2011 São Toméan presidential election, while he was the speaker for the National Assembly, he had been supported in his campaign by current Prime Minister Patrice Trovoada. Carvalho finished second in the first round with 21.8 percent of the vote, behind former president, Manuel Pinto da Costa. Costa was victorious in the two person runoff election, with 52.9 percent of the vote. Carvalho subsequently became vice president of the ADI. In the July 2016 presidential election, Carvalho won the most votes but fell short of a majority with 49.8 percent, so a second round runoff was held a few weeks later. However, the incumbent president, withdrew from the 7 August runoff poll, alleging fraud in the July election.
This handed the presidency to Carvalho. He was inaugurated into the role on 3 September; the election process was well received internationally, with a United States Department of State press release stating that "This election is a yet another demonstration of Sao Tome and Principe’s long-standing commitment to democratic values. Through their exemplary conduct, the people of Sao Tome and Principe continue to serve as a beacon of democracy for other countries."