Constitution of Chile
The current Political Constitution of the Republic of Chile, approved by Chilean voters in a controversial plebiscite on September 11, 1980, under the military dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet effective March 11, 1981 effective 11 March 1990 and amended on August 17, 1989 and on September 22, 2005, in 1991, 1994, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2003, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010, replaced the earlier constitution of 1925. It is Chile's eighth constitution. According to law professor, Camel Cazor Aliste, the Constitution of 1980 has problems of legitimacy stemming from two facts. First, the writing commission was not representative of the political spectrum of Chile, its members were hand-picked by the dictatorship of Pinochet and deliberately excluded opponents of the regime. Secondly, the constitution "approval" was achieved through the controversial and government-controlled referendum of 1980. Reglamento para el arreglo de la Autoridad Ejecutiva Provisoria de Chile 1811 Reglamento Constitucional 1812 Reglamento para el gobierno Provisorio 1814 Constitución de 1818 Constitución de 1822 Constitución de 1823 Ensayo Federal de 1826 Constitución de 1828 Constitución de 1833 - Written among others by Mariano Egaña and Manuel José Gandarillas Reinterpreted after the 1891 Chilean Civil War augmenting the power of the National Congress of Chile Constitución de 1925 - Written among others by Arturo Alessandri Palma and José Maza Constitución de 1980 - Written among others by Jaime Guzmán Has been amended in 1989, 1991, 1994, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010.
Chilean transition to democracy Constitutional economics Constitutionalism Brief review of Chile's constitutional history - Chile's Library of Congress at Archive.today 2005 recasting of the 1980 Constitution at the Wayback Machine Official translation of the original 1980 Constitution Text of Chilean constitutions - Library of Congress of Chile at Archive.today Untying the knot www.constitutionnet.org
María Paz Bascuñán Aylwin known as Paz Bascuñán, is a Chilean theatre and television actress. Daughter of politicians and granddaughter of Chile's former president Patricio Aylwin, has more than two descents, being recognized in 2002 his Basque descent, she studied theater in Universidad Católica de Chile and made her debut in Cerro Alegre from canal 13. In 2001, she made an appearance in the telenovela Piel Canela from canal 13 together with the protagonist Benjamin Vicuña. In 2003, she switched to TVN with the telenovela Puertas Adentro, she took the role of the daughter of a businessman, Javiera Martinez, who falls in love with a normal guy Jonathan Cárdenas and she becomes pregnant, Los Pincheira, Los Capo, Cómplices, Corazón de María and more in Viuda Alegre. In theater she became famous with the show Esa relación tan delicada from the French author Loleh Bellon, her cinema appearances have been: Pretendiendo directed by Claudio Dabed, Santos directed by Nicolás López and Normal con Alas directed by Coca Gómez.
1999 – Cerro Alegre - Heidi Astudillo 2001 – Piel Canela - Marcela Moreno 2003 – Puertas Adentro - Javiera Martínez 2004 – Los Pincheira - Trinidad Molina 2005 – Los Capo - Millarhaü 2006 – Cómplices - Francisca Durán 2007 – Corazón de María - Yasna Ceballos 2008 – Viuda Alegre - Sofia Valdevenito 2009 - Los exitosos Pells - Daniela Caminero 2010 - Martín Rivas - Mercedes Rivas 2012/2014 - Soltera Otra Vez - Cristina Moreno 2016/2017 - Preciosas - Frida 2006 – Pretendiendo - Fernanda 2007 – Santos - Presentadora telediario 2007 – Normal con Alas - Pascuala Cortazar 2010 – Que pena tu vida - Mariana Vargas 2016 – Sin Filtro - Pía Vargas 2018 – No estoy loca - Carolina 2004 – Loco Por Ti 2004 – La Vida es una Lotería - Mechita 2009 - Una pareja dispareja - Cassandra Paz Bascuñán on IMDb
Senate of Chile
The Senate of the Republic of Chile is the upper house of Chile's bicameral National Congress, as established in the current Constitution of Chile. According to the present Constitution of Chile, the Senate is composed of thirty-eight directly elected senators, chosen by universal popular suffrage vote in 19 senatorial circumscriptions; these serve eight-year terms, with half of them being replaced every fourth year. They must be eligible to vote, have completed secondary school, or its equivalent, be at least 35 years old; the Senate sessions at the new National Congress located in the port city of Valparaíso that replaced the old National Congress located in downtown Santiago, the nation's capital. Amendments to the Constitution, approved by a joint session of Congress on August 16, 2005, eliminated non-directly elected senators from March 11, 2006, the day 20 newly elected senators were sworn in, leaving the total number of senators at 38, all directly elected. According to the Constitution of 1980, "designated" or "institutional" senators were appointed to the chamber.
Two former heads of state, Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle and Augusto Pinochet, were installed as senators for life. Pinochet resigned from this position and Frei lost his seat in the 2005 reform. However, Frei remained in the Senate by winning an elective seat; the Senate of Chile was created in 1812 to support the formulations of policies of the Government Junta. Since it has undergone several constitutional reorganizations that have altered the scope of its constitutional powers, its composition and the generation of its members. Created by Article 7 of the Provisional Constitutional Manual of 1812, it was composed of seven titular members and three alternate members and was supposed to serve as a counterbalance to the executive power of the Government Junta. The senators were directly nominated by the provinces in agreement with the central government, it functioned from November, 1812 to January, 1814, when it was reorganized to better respond to the problems caused by the successive military defeats at the hands of the advancing Spanish Army.
Created by Article 13 of the Provisional Government Manual of 1814. As its predecessor, it was composed of seven titular members nominated by the provinces in lists of three from which they were selected by the Supreme Director, it functioned from March to July, 1814, when the Spanish Army captured Santiago, putting an end to the Patria Vieja government. Created by Title III of the Constitution of 1818, it was composed of five titular members and five alternate members selected directly by the Supreme Director. It was supposed to function only when the lower house was not in function or could not meet, had the power to enact "provisory rules" that had the same effect as laws It functioned from October, 1818 to May, 1822. Key to Senate classes by regions: Class 1 consists of:-the 23 current senators whose seats expire in March 2026. Class 2 consists of:-the 20 current senators whose seats expire in March 2022. Plus 7 new senators, who will be elected in 2022 President of the Senate of Chile National Congress of Chile Chamber of Deputies of Chile Politics of Chile List of legislatures by country Senate of Chile Official web site Article from the Economist dealing with the Senate composition
Viña del Mar
Viña del Mar, is a city and commune on central Chile's Pacific coast. Referred to as "La Ciudad Jardín", Viña del Mar is located within the Valparaíso Region, it is Chile's fourth largest city with a population of 324,836. Viña del Mar is part of the Greater Valparaíso area, the country's third largest metropolitan area, after the Metropolitan areas of Santiago and Concepción; the Greater Valparaíso Area is home to five municipalities: Valparaíso, Viña del Mar, Concon and Villa Alemana. The valley where Viña del Mar was founded was known as the valley of Peuco by the Changos, native inhabitants of the area dedicated to fishing. With the arrival of the Spanish conquistadores the valley was divided into two large haciendas. North of the Marga Marga creek up to the current location of Reñaca, Viña del Mar, to the south up to the current Cerro Barón, the Hacienda Las Siete Hermanas. Francisco Javier Alvares authorized the construction of a railroad through his lands to join Santiago and the port of Valparaíso.
The arrival of the railroad brought a young engineer Jose Francisco Vergara who married Francisco Javier Alvares’s granddaughter, Mercedes Alvares. It was José Francisco Vergara who instigated the idea of the creation of a new city independent of Valparaíso; the establishment of Refinadora de Azúcar de Viña del Mar, CRAV in 1873 and the arrival of the British company of Lever & Murphy in 1883 gave the necessary economic push to transform the young city into one of the most important cities of Chile. The building of a military installation, Regimiento Coraceros in 1917, naval facilities in Las Salinas, the housing of military and naval personnel furthered the city's growth; that year a seaside villa was rebuilt as what is known today as Wulff Castle. In 1925, the Teatro Municipal was opened in its current location in the eastern front of the city's downtown square, Plaza de Viña del Mar. In 1928 president Carlos Ibáñez del Campo authorized the creation of a casino, securing the future and the touristy character of the city.
The Casino Municipal de Viña del Mar was opened on December 31, 1930. On January 31, 1931, the Presidential Palace was inaugurated in Cerro Castillo as a summer residence for the Chilean President; the touristy character of the city was furthered with the inauguration of the O'Higgins Hotel in 1936 and the inauguration of the Miramar Hotel by Caleta Abarca Beach in 1945. For a few years in the early 1960s, a trolleybus line connected the city with Valparaíso, the electric route network included three branches within Viña. Viña del Mar was one of the four host cities of the 1962 football World Cup, it is now home to CD Everton, a soccer team in the Chilean Premier division, which took its name from the English team. According to the 1982 movie and other sources, Vina Del Mar was focal point for the plotters of the 1973 Chilean coup d'état. Viña del Mar was declared a sister city of Sausalito, California, in 1971. To demonstrate the sister city relationship, you can find a square called "Viña del Mar" in downtown Sausalito, a "Sausalito" stadium and "Sausalito" lagoon in Viña del Mar. Viña del Mar is a sister city of Mar del Plata, Argentina since 1993.
During the 1980s, a global economic downturn affected the city, a number of small and medium-sized factories went bankrupt, including the stationery manufacturer Coda, most CRAV, Textiles Viña, two of the biggest employers in the city. Unemployment rose to alarmingly high rates. Many factories started to consolidate their operations in Santiago making the situation worse; the city has failed to recover from the blows inflicted by the economic downturn of 1982, but an increase in the number of international tourists visiting the city, the recent high prices of copper in world markets have promoted an economic recovery. Extensive commercial redevelopment in the 15 Norte Avenue area an abandoned industrial area, has seen most of the large Chilean retail chains settling in the area, now covered with large shopping malls, like Marina Arauco, fast food stores, supermarkets; the city has benefitted from major investments in infrastructure that have improved the traffic flow in the downtown area in routes connecting Viña del Mar with Santiago, Valparaíso and Quilpué.
A modern and efficient subway connects Viña del Mar with the cities of Limache and Valparaíso, following the original railroad tracks between Valparaíso and Santiago. The city was affected by the February 2010 earthquake. Visitors and locals enjoy the parks and water fountains of the city, including a large flower clock with its numbers made up of flowering plants, near Caleta Abarca beach; the Valparaiso Sporting Club horse racing track is another major landmark. Jardín Botánico or Parque del Salitre, a large botanical garden on the outskirts of the city, was designed and built by an entrepreneur who became wealthy from exploiting saltpeter resources in northern Chile. A few buildings from the 19th century still remain after multiple earthquakes that have destroyed most of the old areas of the city. Most of the older buildings that remain are located along Avenida Libertad, Quillota Street and Quinta Vergara, a large park in the middle of the city; the presidential summer residence, Castillo Presidencial is located on Cerro Castillo.
The city's casino was designed in art deco style and is surrounded by well-tended gardens (hence the city's nickname
President of Chile
The President of Chile known as the President of the Republic of Chile is the head of state and the head of government of Chile. The President is responsible for both state administration. Although its role and significance has changed over the history of Chile, as well as its position and relations with other actors in the national political organization, it is one of the most prominent political figures, it is considered as one of the institutions that make up the "Historic Constitution of Chile", is essential to the country's political stability. Under the current Constitution, the President serves a four-year term, with immediate re-election being prohibited; the shorter period allows for presidential elections to be synchronized. The official seat of the President of Chile is the La Moneda Palace in the capital Santiago; the Constitution of 1980 and its 2005 amendment establishes the requirements for becoming President. The President must be a natural-born citizen of the country, or else born overseas when one of his or her parents or grandparents is a Chilean national.
The President must be at least 35 years old. In addition, all the requirements for becoming a Senator apply; the president must meet all the requirements to qualify as a Chilean citizen with the right to vote: they must have reached the age of eighteen years and have never been sentenced to severe punishment, nor lost the right to vote on grounds of insanity, been tried for a crime attracting severe punishment or for terrorist conduct, or condemned by the Constitutional Court under Article 8 of the Constitution. Article 26 detail the electoral requirements; the President shall be elected by direct ballot, with an absolute majority of the votes validly cast. A two-round system is used. In order to win the election in the first round, the winning candidate's party must receive more than 50 percent of the valid votes leaving out of the count blank and spoiled votes; the election shall be held the third Sunday of November of the year before the end of the administration of the President holding office.
Should there be more than two candidates in the presidential election, none of them obtaining more than half of the votes validly cast, a new election shall be held. The second election, in the manner determined by law, shall be held the fourth Sunday after the first election, limited to the two candidates with the highest relative majorities; the candidate with the majority of valid votes in that round is elected president. Under the 1828 constitution, the President served for four years, without the possibility of immediate reelection for one more term. In 1833, the presidential period was changed to five years, with a possibility of immediate reelection for one more term, limited to two consecutive terms. By a constitutional reform in 1878, possibility for reelection became disallowed. Under the 1925 constitution, the President served for a six-year term, without the possibility of immediate reelection only. In the original text of the 1980 constitution, the President served for an eight-year term without the possibility of immediate reelection.
Some transitory disposals, fixed during the government of the general Augusto Pinochet, allowed the exceptional possibility of his reelection in the 1988 plebiscite. In the transition to democracy the 1989 referendum established a first transitional four-year presidential term, followed by common eight-year terms, without the possibility of immediate reelection. However, in 4 March 1994 the presidential period was reduced to a six-year term, without an immediate reelection. Under the 2005 constitutional reform, the President serves for four years without the possibility of immediate reelection for one more term. A former president may run for office once again after serving their initial term, but only in an election following their successor, as it is not allowed to run for consecutive terms. There is no limit to how many times a person can run for candidacy if they have not served as President; the incumbent president, in accordance with the constitution, completes their corresponding term on 11 March of the immediate year after the election.
The President-elect takes office the same day. The presidential sash, used by Bernardo O'Higgins, became a symbol of the authority of the first president with the assumption of office by President José Joaquín Prieto in 1831, it is composed of three stripes with the colors of the Chilean flag, it is sewn by hand and measured 75 cm long and 13 cm wide. From the nineteenth century a single sash was maintained, transferred from president to president until 1915, due to the height differences between the outgoing Ramón Barros Luco and the elected Juan Luis Sanfuentes, so a new sash had to be designed. Since that date, each president has had his or her own presidential sash, used only in official ceremonies; the O'Higgins Pioche, considered the symbol of presidential power and is placed at the lower end of the presidential sash, is a star of five ends of about 7 cm in diameter, enameled in red. It dates back to the medals of the Legion of Merit and remained intact until the coup d'etat of 1973, when it disappeared during the bombing of the La Moneda palace.
During the military regime of Augusto Pinochet a replica of the pioche was created, based on photographs of the original. It is only used together with the presidential sash; the ceremonial presidential vehicle in Chile is a 1966 black Ford Galaxie XL Convertible, given as a gift by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II o
1988 Chilean national plebiscite
The 1988 Chilean national plebiscite was a national referendum held on 5 October 1988 to determine whether Chile's de facto leader, Augusto Pinochet, should extend his rule for another eight years. The "No" side won with nearly 56% of the vote, thus ending the General's 161⁄2 years in power; the fact the dictatorship respected the results is attributed to pressure from big business, the international community and unease with extended rule by Pinochet within the dictatorship. Army General Augusto Pinochet took power on 11 September 1973 in a coup d'état which deposed the democratically elected Socialist President Salvador Allende. Allende killed himself. A military junta — led by Pinochet, Air Force General Gustavo Leigh, Navy Admiral José Toribio Merino, Carabinero Chief General César Mendoza — was sworn in the same evening; the following day, the four drafted an official document suspending the 1925 constitution and Congress and establishing the Junta as the country's supreme authority. Pinochet was designated as its first president, the four verbally agreed to rotate the office.
Shortly after, the Junta established an advisory committee, which Pinochet was successful in staffing with Army officers loyal to himself. One of their first recommendations was to discard the idea of a rotating presidency, arguing it would create too many administrative problems and lead to confusion. In March 1974, six months after the Junta's establishment, Pinochet verbally attacked the Christian Democratic Party and stated that there was no set timetable for a return to civilian rule. On 18 December 1974 Pinochet was declared Supreme Leader of the nation. After that date, the junta functioned as a legislative body until the return to democracy in 1990. On 24 September 1973, a commission was set up by the junta to draw up a blueprint for a new constitution. By 5 October 1978, the commission had finished its work. During the next two years, the proposal was studied by the Council of State presided by former president Jorge Alessandri, in July 1980 it submitted a Constitution draft to Pinochet and the Junta.
A constitutional referendum, regarded as "highly irregular" and forthrightly "fraudulent" by some observers, took place on 11 September 1980, in which the new constitution was approved by 67% of voters. The Constitution, which took effect on 11 March 1981, established a "transition period," during which Pinochet would continue to exercise executive power and the Junta legislative power, for the next eight years. Before that period ended, a candidate for President was to be proposed by the Commanders-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and Carabinero Chief General for the following period of eight years; the candidate was to be ratified by registered voters in a national plebiscite. On 30 August 1988 Pinochet was declared to be the candidate. During the last years of dictatorship the commanders-in-chief of the navy, air force and Carabineros disassociated themselves from Pinochet, expressing their wishes that a civilian should represent the regime in the 1988 plebiscite. Pinochet however imposed himself as candidate.
The plebiscite —as detailed in the 1980 Constitution— consisted of two choices: Yes: The proposed candidate is approved. Pinochet takes office on 11 March 1989 for an eight-year mandate, parliamentary elections are held nine months after he is sworn in; the Junta continues to exercise legislative power until the newly elected Congress takes office on 11 March 1990. No: The proposed candidate is rejected. Pinochet and the Junta continue in power for another year. Presidential and parliamentary elections are held; the newly elected President and Congress take office on 11 March 1990. Democratic Party of Chile Great Civic Front of Chile Independent Democratic Union Liberal Democrat Party of Chile National Advance National Party National Renewal Radical Democracy Social Democrat Party Southern Party Christian Democratic Party Christian Left Communist Party of Chile Humanist Party Liberal Party MAPU Obrero Campesino National Democratic Party National Party for the NO Party for Democracy Popular Socialist Union Popular Unitary Action Movement Radical Party Revolutionary Left Movement Social Democracy Party of Chile Democratic Socialist Radical Party Socialist Party of Chile Socialist Party of Chile Socialist Party of Chile Socialist Party of Chile The Greens Chilean Socialist Party The campaign is regarded, along with the registration process, as one of the key factors that led to the victory of the No side in the plebiscite.
For the first time in the history of Chile, both options were guaranteed free electoral advertising spaces—franjas—of 15 minutes each, late at night or early in the morning. (There were similar spaces in prime time, but only for the governm
A telenovela is a type of limited-run television serial drama or soap opera produced in Latin America. The word combines tele, short for televisión or televisão, novela, a Spanish and Portuguese word for "novel". Similar genres around the world include teleserye, téléroman, or dramas. In Spain, they are called culebrones because of the convoluted plots. Described using the American colloquialism Spanish soap opera, many telenovelas share some stylistic and thematic similarities to the soap opera familiar to the English-speaking world; the significant difference is their series run length. This makes them shorter than most other television series, but still much longer than a miniseries; this planned run results in a faster-paced, more concise style of melodrama compared to a typical soap opera. Episodes of telenovelas last between 30 and 45 minutes, more than an hour, except for final episodes; the telenovela combines drama with the 19th-century feuilleton, evolved from the Latin American radionovela, according to Blanca de Lizaur.
The medium has been used by authorities in various countries to transmit sociocultural messages by incorporating them into storylines, which has decreased their credibility and audiences in the long run. By the 1970s and 1980s, Mexico became a world pioneer in using telenovelas to shape behavior successful in introducing the idea of family planning. Mexico and Brazil in the 1990s, played a key role in the international export of telenovelas, while Asia overtook the role in the 21st century, thus the so-called'Telenovela Craze' that spread in many regions in the world until today. Over time telenovelas evolved in the themes that they address. Couples who kiss each other in the first minutes of the first episode sometimes stay together for many episodes before the scriptwriter splits them up. Moreover taboo themes such as urban violence and homosexuality were incorporated into telenovelas. In the 2000s, Latin America and Asia altogether emerged as the biggest producers of telenovelas, which evolved out from soap operas to form another category of television drama, were one of the most common forms of popular entertainment in the world.
By 2018 some signs of fading popularity emerged. Telenovelas, which are sometimes called "tassels" or "comedias," are produced in Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking countries and are shown during prime time; the first telenovelas were produced in Brazil and Mexico: Sua vida me pertence was shown twice a week, Senderos de amor and Ángeles de la calle were shown once a week. Between 1957 and 1958 Mexico produced its first drama serial in the modern telenovela format of Monday to Friday slots, Senda prohibida, written by Fernanda Villeli; the first global telenovela was Los ricos también lloran, exported to Russia, the United States and other countries. Countries that produce well-known telenovelas are Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Germany, the Philippines, Spain and the USA. Telenovelas tend to fall within these seven categories: Working-class melodrama, the most popular to date, easy to understand and contains less explicit content; this is reliant of the common rags-to-riches plot featuring a poor woman who falls in love with a rich man whose family spurns her, such as the Las Tres Marias.
Historical romance is set in the past, such as the colonial period, the restoration of the Republic, the late 19th Century the Mexican Revolution, the 20th-century military dictatorships Teen drama, which portrays the lives of high school teenagers and their issues with sex and other coming-of-age topics. This genre started with Quinceañera in 1987. Mystery/thriller is a category of telenovela, more cold-hearted than the other subgenres, it may portray a mysterious death or disappearance, which may tear couples families apart, such as Cuna de Lobos, La Casa al Final de la Calle, La Mujer de Judas, ¿Dónde está Elisa?, El Rostro de la Venganza or La Casa de al Lado. Chile has produced this genre. Romantic comedy, which portrays love stories with some or lots of comedy such as Las tontas no van al cielo "Fools Don't Go to Heaven" or Yo soy Betty, la fea. Pop band story portrays the lives of aspiring popstars such as in Alcanzar una estrella and its sequel Alcanzar una estrella II, as well as Rebelde, which spawned a multi-platinum pop group, RBD.
Some, though not all, of these type of telenovelas are geared towards a teenage and/or pre-teen audience. Narcotraffic Recently narcotrafficer telenovelas have become presented. Besides these, another category of serial that has become popular in recent