Tony MacAlpine is an American musician and composer. In a career spanning three decades and thirteen studio albums, he is best known as an instrumental rock solo guitarist, although he has worked with many different bands and musicians in guest appearances and collaborations. Having started playing piano at the age of five and guitar at twelve, MacAlpine studied classical piano and violin for a number of years at the Springfield Conservatory of Music in Massachusetts, as well as various music programs at the University of Hartford in Connecticut. One of his musical influences is Frédéric Chopin, to whom he pays homage in his interpretations of the latter's études, which are featured on the majority of his studio albums. Together with his first studio releases, Edge of Insanity and Maximum Security, he had a prominent role on other works during the popular shred era, including keyboard performances on the debut albums of fellow guitarists Vinnie Moore and Joey Tafolla. Soon after his own debut, he played guitar in a heavy metal supergroup named M.
A. R. S. Which resulted in the 1986 album Project: Driver; as part of a band effort named'MacAlpine', Eyes of the World was released in 1990 as a more commercially oriented attempt to emulate other hard rock acts at the time. The venture was short-lived, his subsequent album Freedom to Fly was a return to his instrumental-based work. A further consecutive string of instrumental albums followed throughout the 1990s, most of them through the renowned Shrapnel Records label: Madness, Premonition and Violent Machine. For his last album of the decade, Master of Paradise, MacAlpine assumed singing duties in an effort to experiment with different styles. After the release of Chromaticity in August 2001, he took an extended hiatus from recording solo albums and worked with a variety of other musicians and bands, most notably with supergroups CAB and Ring of Fire. Nearly a decade in June 2011, he released his self-titled eleventh studio album through guitarist Steve Vai's Favored Nations label. In the early to mid-2000s, MacAlpine took on a dual role playing both guitar and keyboards in Vai's touring band The Breed.
He is featured on the band's DVD release Live at the Astoria London, along with two DVDs of the G3 tour: G3: Live in Denver and G3: Live in Tokyo. During that time, he was the guitarist for progressive metal supergroup Planet X, alongside keyboardist Derek Sherinian and drummer Virgil Donati, he played with them for three albums in the first part of the decade—Universe, Live from Oz and MoonBabies —and rejoined them in 2009 for a string of live performances, at that time a possible new album. His most recent collaborations have included Seven the Hardway, a progressive metal group with whom he released their self-titled album in 2010, a guest appearance on Sherinian's seventh studio album Oceana. In the second half of 2012, MacAlpine toured Europe and Asia as part of PSMS, an instrumental supergroup. Instrumental Inspirations, a DVD of their live material, was released October 21, 2012. Additionally, in an October 2012 interview, he stated that he was working on new studio material, as well as a new album with Ring of Fire.
Battle of Leningrad, Ring of Fire's fourth studio album, was released on January 28, 2014. MacAlpine's twelfth studio album, Concrete Gardens, was released on April 21, 2015. MacAlpine was influential in the neoclassical metal genre, becoming known for his instrumental rock style of playing that displays advanced shred techniques, he has incorporated elements of classical, fusion, hard rock and heavy metal on both guitar and keyboard, has been described as a virtuoso by Jason Ankeny at AllMusic. Edge of Insanity: Kramer guitars, DiMarzio pickups, Peavey amplification Project: Driver: B. C. Rich guitars, DiMarzio pickups, GHS strings and Rockman amplification Maximum Security: B. C. Rich guitars, DiMarzio pickups, Peavey amplification, Ibanez effects Eyes of the World: Mason Bernard guitars, DiMarzio pickups, Dean Markley strings, Peavey amplification, Baldwin keyboards Freedom to Fly: Peavey guitars, Seymour Duncan pickups, GHS strings, Peavey amplification, Baldwin pianos Madness: Washburn Mercury series guitars, Seymour Duncan pickups, Dean Markley strings, Hughes & Kettner amplification Premonition: Washburn guitars, Seymour Duncan pickups, Dean Markley strings, Hughes & Kettner amplification Evolution: B.
C. Rich guitars, Seymour Duncan pickups, Hughes & Kettner amplification Chromaticity: Carvin guitars and amplification Tony MacAlpine: Ibanez guitars, DiMarzio pickups, Ernie Ball strings, Hughes & Kettner amplification, Source Audio effects, Toontrack softwareMacAlpine became a prominent user of seven string guitars after joining Planet X and still plays them along with eight-string guitars. A long-time endorsee of Carvin guitars, he switched to Ibanez in 2010. Since 2011 he has played a customized RG Prestige eight-string model with EMG pickups, while his seven- and six-string models use DiMarzios. For amplification, he uses the Hughes & Kettner TriAmp for studio recording and the Coreblade model for live touring. An Ernie Ball wah and volume pedal completes his live setup. A detailed diagram of his 2011 gear can be found at Guitar Geek. MacAlpine resides in Pasadena, California. On August 25, 2015, he posted on his Facebook profile that he may have developed colon cancer, which forced can
Spirit of Live
Spirit of Live is the first live album by the progressive metal band Vanden Plas. The song "Kiss of Death" features Don Dokken as guest on lead vocals and "Rainmaker" features Patrick Rondat as guest on lead guitar. "I Can See" - 4:26 "Into The Sun" - 7:05 "Soul Survives" - 9:52 "How Many Tears" - 10:37 "I Don't Miss You" - 3:50 "Journey to Paris" - 3:08 "Spirit of Life" - 4:28 "Iodic Rain" - 6:11 "Far Off Grace" - 9:51 "Kiss of Death" - 5:28 "Rainmaker" - 8:38Note: "Kiss Of Death" & "I Don't Miss You" are only included on the European version. The American version features "You Fly". Andy Kuntz – Vocals Stephan Lill – Guitar Günter Werno – Keyboards Torsten Reichert – Bass Andreas Lill – Drums Don Dokken – Vocals on Kiss of Death Patrick Rondat – Guitar on Rainmaker
Steven Lee Lukather is an American guitarist, songwriter and record producer, best known as a founding member of Toto. A prolific session musician, Lukather has recorded guitar tracks for more than 1,500 albums representing a broad array of artists and genres, he has contributed to albums and hit singles as a songwriter and producer. Lukather was a prominent contributor to several studio albums by Michael Jackson, including Thriller, the best-selling album of all time. Lukather has released seven solo albums, the latest of which, was released in January 2013. In 1976, when Lukather was nineteen years old, he was invited by his high school friends David Paich and the Porcaro brothers Steve and Jeff to join them in forming their band, Toto, he has been a member of the band since it began, is still contributing to their album composition and touring. Lukather's reputation as a guitarist and his association with Paich and the Porcaro brothers, who became established artists, allowed him to secure a steady flow of session work in the 1970s and 1980s.
Lukather has been nominated for twelve Grammy Awards, has won five. While his work with Toto was predominantly based on pop rock music and his solo work ventures into progressive rock and hard rock, many of Lukather's side-projects are focused on jazz fusion, he held a long-time collaboration with jazz guitarist Larry Carlton that produced a Grammy-winning live album, he was a member of the jazz fusion band Los Lobotomys, a collaboration of notable session musicians. Since 2012, Lukather has toured with former Beatles drummer Ringo Starr's live supergroup, the All-Starr Band. Influenced by such blues-rock guitarists as Jimi Hendrix and Jimmy Page, such jazz fusion players as Al Di Meola and Frank Gambale, Lukather is known for a "melodic and intense" playing style, he is recognized for his efficiency in the studio recording tracks in one take using minimal sound processing. While he once used many guitar effects in the studio and on stage, he now disparages such practice, instead advocates clean tones and minimal studio processing.
Lukather plays a signature electric guitar manufactured by Ernie Ball Music Man bearing his nickname, Luke. He plays Yamaha and Ovation Adamas series acoustic–electric guitars. Steven Lee Lukather was born on October 1957, in the San Fernando Valley, California, he first played keyboards and drums, taught himself how to play the guitar starting at age seven, when his father bought him a Kay acoustic guitar and a copy of the Beatles album Meet the Beatles. Lukather has said that the album "changed his life" and that he was influenced by the guitar playing of George Harrison in particular. At Grant High School, Lukather met David Paich and the Porcaro brothers, all of whom became members of Toto. Lukather, a self-taught musician, began taking guitar lessons from Jimmy Wyble. With Wyble, Lukather expanded his knowledge of wider aspects of music, including orchestration, it was during this period in the early 1970s that Lukather became interested in the idea of becoming a session musician, a vocation that provided opportunities to play with a variety of famous musicians.
Jeff Porcaro, playing drums with Steely Dan since 1973, became a mentor to Lukather and furthered his interest in session work. Lukather's first job in the music industry was studio work with Boz Scaggs, after which Paich and Jeff Porcaro—who had become prominent session musicians in their own right—asked Lukather to join them in forming Toto in 1976 along with Bobby Kimball, David Hungate, Steve Porcaro. Lukather is the original lead guitarist for Toto, serving in that capacity for the band's entire history, as well as a lead and backing vocalist and composer. Lukather won three of his five Grammy Awards for work with Toto, twice as an artist and once as a producer. David Paich led the band's songwriting efforts during the development of 1978's Toto—he penned all but two of the album's tracks, including all four of its singles. Lukather credits Jeff Porcaro for his leadership within the band during that period. However, Lukather's role in Toto evolved over time owing to the changing needs of the band.
In August 1992, Jeff Porcaro collapsed while doing yard work at home and subsequently died of heart failure. The death profoundly affected Toto and Lukather in particular, who felt that he needed to step up and make sure the band kept going. Thus, he began taking more of a leadership role. Toto went through several lead vocalists over the years, including Bobby Kimball, Fergie Frederiksen, Joseph Williams. After the 1990 dismissal of their fourth vocalist, Jean-Michel Byron, Toto was without a lead singer until around 1997, he performed lead vocals for every track on 1992's Kingdom of Desire and 1995's Tambu except for two instrumental tracks. The Tambu single "I Will Remember", co-written by Lukather and Stan Lynch, reached number 64 on UK charts; some Tambu reviewers contrasted Lukather's vocals with those of former singers Kimball and Williams, some concert reviewers noted that he struggled vocally on certain songs, a number of backup singers and guest vocalists accompanied the band's live shows during that period.
It was not until Toto brought back Williams and Kimball to collaborate on 1998's Toto XX that Lukather returned predominantly to the role of backup vocalist. Lukather's songwriting contributions grew from a smattering of tracks on early Toto albums to co-writing every track starting in the late 1980s. Lukather admitted that the reason why he has no songwriting contributions on the f
Ludwig van Beethoven
Ludwig van Beethoven was a German composer and pianist. A crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras in classical music, he remains one of the most recognised and influential of all composers, his best-known compositions include 9 symphonies. His career as a composer is conventionally divided into early and late periods. Beethoven was born in Bonn the capital of the Electorate of Cologne and part of the Holy Roman Empire, he displayed his musical talents at an early age and was taught by his father Johann van Beethoven and composer and conductor Christian Gottlob Neefe. At the age of 21 he moved to Vienna, where he began studying composition with Joseph Haydn and gained a reputation as a virtuoso pianist, he lived in Vienna until his death. By his late 20s his hearing began to deteriorate and by the last decade of his life he was completely deaf. In 1811 he continued to compose. Beethoven was the grandson of Ludwig van Beethoven, a musician from the town of Mechelen in the Austrian Duchy of Brabant who had moved to Bonn at the age of 21.
Ludwig was employed as a bass singer at the court of the Elector of Cologne rising to become, in 1761, Kapellmeister and thereafter the pre-eminent musician in Bonn. The portrait he commissioned of himself towards the end of his life remained displayed in his grandson's rooms as a talisman of his musical heritage. Ludwig had one son, who worked as a tenor in the same musical establishment and gave keyboard and violin lessons to supplement his income. Johann married Maria Magdalena Keverich in 1767. Beethoven was born of this marriage in Bonn. There is no authentic record of the date of his birth; as children of that era were traditionally baptised the day after birth in the Catholic Rhine country, it is known that Beethoven's family and his teacher Johann Albrechtsberger celebrated his birthday on 16 December, most scholars accept 16 December 1770 as his date of birth. Of the seven children born to Johann van Beethoven, only Ludwig, the second-born, two younger brothers survived infancy. Kaspar Anton Karl was born on 8 April 1774, Nikolaus Johann, the youngest, was born on 2 October 1776.
Beethoven's first music teacher was his father. He had other local teachers: the court organist Gilles van den Eeden, Tobias Friedrich Pfeiffer, Franz Rovantini. From the outset his tuition regime, which began in his fifth year, was harsh and intensive reducing him to tears, his musical talent was obvious at a young age. Johann, aware of Leopold Mozart's successes in this area, attempted to promote his son as a child prodigy, claiming that Beethoven was six on the posters for his first public performance in March 1778; some time after 1779, Beethoven began his studies with his most important teacher in Bonn, Christian Gottlob Neefe, appointed the Court's Organist in that year. Neefe taught him composition, by March 1783 had helped him write his first published composition: a set of keyboard variations. Beethoven soon began working with Neefe as assistant organist, at first unpaid, as a paid employee of the court chapel conducted by the Kapellmeister Andrea Luchesi, his first three piano sonatas, named "Kurfürst" for their dedication to the Elector Maximilian Friedrich, were published in 1783.
Maximilian Frederick noticed his talent early, subsidised and encouraged the young man's musical studies. Maximilian Frederick's successor as the Elector of Bonn was Maximilian Francis, the youngest son of Empress Maria Theresa of Austria, he brought notable changes to Bonn. Echoing changes made in Vienna by his brother Joseph, he introduced reforms based on Enlightenment philosophy, with increased support for education and the arts; the teenage Beethoven was certainly influenced by these changes. He may have been influenced at this time by ideas prominent in freemasonry, as Neefe and others around Beethoven were members of the local chapter of the Order of the Illuminati. In December 1786, Beethoven travelled to Vienna, at his employer's expense, for the first time in the hope of studying with Mozart; the details of their relationship are uncertain, including whether they met. Having learned that his mother was ill, Beethoven returned to Bonn in May 1787, his mother died shortly thereafter, his father lapsed deeper into alcoholism.
As a result, he became responsible for the care of his two younger brothers, spent the next five years in Bonn. He was introduced in these years to several people. Franz Wegeler, a young medical student, intro
Rhapsody of Fire
Rhapsody of Fire is an Italian symphonic power metal band formed by Luca Turilli and Alex Staropoli seen as a pioneer of the symphonic power metal subgenre. Since forming in 1993 as Thundercross, the band has released eleven studio albums, two live albums, two EPs, a Live DVD. Rhapsody of Fire is known for its conceptual lyrics that constitute a fantasy story throughout all of their albums from 1997 to 2011. After using the moniker of Rhapsody for nearly ten years, the band changed their name to Rhapsody of Fire in 2006 due to trademark issues. In 2011, following the release of their album From Chaos to Eternity which concluded The Dark Secret Saga, after 18 years as co-leader of the band, Turilli left Rhapsody of Fire to form a new Rhapsody band, Luca Turilli's Rhapsody, along with two other members who left with him, Dominique Leurquin, Patrice Guers, they describe their discography as a parallel continuation of Rhapsody of Fire's discography, with their first album being their own "Rhapsody's 11th album" and consider that they didn't leave the band, rather that it amicably split in two.
In 2016, other long-term members Fabio Lione and Alex Holzwarth had left the band, reunited with Turilli and Guers, to play again under the name Rhapsody for their 20th Anniversary Farewell Tour. In 1993, Luca Turilli decided to create a symphonic metal band with the vision of integrating classical music elements with metal; the first to join him were Daniele Carbonera. These three formed a band. Turilli has said in interviews that both Thundercross and the early Rhapsody material were influenced by Manowar's style of heavy metal, that Yngwie Malmsteen was a big influence from a guitar playing perspective. A year Thundercross released their first demo, Land of Immortals, with Cristiano Adacher taking on the role of vocals. During this period of time, they went through a few bassist changes in their lineup. Limb Music Products & Publishing showed interest in the band's music and shortly after the band received a proposal from the record company. Having accepted the offer, the band soon began promoting their music and started recording their second demo, Eternal Glory.
At this time they changed their name to Rhapsody so as to highlight their connection with classical music and poetry. Shortly after the release of Eternal Glory and Andrea left the band. Rhapsody found new vocalist Fabio Lione, the former vocalist of Labyrinth and Athena, known for the depth and power of his voice in his songs. With these four members, the band started recording their debut album, Legendary Tales, released in 1997. Rhapsody incorporated classical music and heavy metal styles in a subgenre they call "film score metal" due to its resemblance to movie soundtracks; the album was recorded in Germany by the well known producer Sascha Paeth, who helped Rhapsody with their bass parts. The album was the beginning story of the Emerald Sword Saga; the lyrics on the album refer to mystical medieval folklore and the heroic valor of those times and are centered around high fantasy, highlighting in particular the everlasting fight between good and evil. In the years that followed, Turilli and Lione developed their new sound more with their second album, Symphony of Enchanted Lands, in 1998, having been joined by bass player Alessandro Lotta.
They wrote pieces such as "Emerald Sword", drawing on Russian folklore and Celtic style elements and adding to the Emerald Sword Saga. 1999 was a quiet year for Rhapsody. In the spring Rhapsody started their first tour, starting in Sweden, they performed with Stratovarius and Sonata Arctica in Spring 2000 supported by their new drummer Alex Holzwarth. After the tour they began recording Dawn of Victory; the first single "Holy Thunderforce" was released in 2000 with some success. The new album showed Rhapsody in a whole new light, with a more aggressive sped-up tempo, it continued the third part of the Emerald Sword Saga, the orchestra still played an important part of the album, with songs such as "Lux Triumphans", "The Village of Dwarves" and "The Bloody Rage of the Titans", played beside more bombastic melodies as "Dawn of Victory", "Triumph for My Magic Steel", "Dargor, Shadowlord of the Black Mountain" and "Holy Thunderforce". It was more successful than any of their previous outings, "Dawn of Victory" ranked at #32 in the German charts, while in Japan it peaked in 4th place.
In early summer 2001, Rhapsody toured through South Europe. Rain of a Thousand Flames served as a bridge between the last part of the Emerald Sword Saga and Power of the Dragonflame. Power of the Dragonflame saw incredible success around the world. Marking the end of the Emerald Sword Saga, it contained soft ballads, upbeat metal melodies, the epic 19-minute-long concluding song, "Gargoyles, Angels of Darkness"; the band was joined by Patrice Guers and Dominique Leurquin. Alex Holzwarth, playing drums for Rhapsody onstage since 2000 was listed in the official band line-up on these releases, although Holzwarth has played drums in the studio since The Dark Secret EP; the Dark Secret EP was released on June 28, 2004. It gave listeners a taste of what could be expected from the ne
In English literature, an elegy is a poem of serious reflection a lament for the dead. The Oxford Handbook of the Elegy notes: For all of its pervasiveness, the ‘elegy’ remains remarkably ill-defined: sometimes used as a catch-all to denominate texts of a somber or pessimistic tone, sometimes as a marker for textual monumentalizing, sometimes as a sign of a lament for the dead; the Greek term elegeia referred to any verse written in elegiac couplets and covering a wide range of subject matter. The term included epitaphs and mournful songs, commemorative verses; the Latin elegy of ancient Roman literature was most erotic or mythological in nature. Because of its structural potential for rhetorical effects, the elegiac couplet was used by both Greek and Roman poets for witty and satiric subject matter. Other than epitaphs, examples of ancient elegy as a poem of mourning include Catullus' Carmen 101, on his dead brother, elegies by Propertius on his dead mistress Cynthia and a matriarch of the prominent Cornelian family.
Ovid wrote elegies bemoaning his exile. In English literature, the more modern and restricted meaning, of a lament for a departed beloved or tragic event, has been current only since the sixteenth century; this looser concept is evident in the Old English Exeter Book which contains "serious meditative" and well-known poems such as "The Wanderer", "The Seafarer", "The Wife's Lament". In these elegies, the narrators use the lyrical "I" to describe their own personal and mournful experiences, they tell the story of the individual rather than the collective lore of his or her people as epic poetry seeks to tell. For Samuel Taylor Coleridge and others, the term had come to mean "serious meditative poem": Elegy is a form of poetry natural to the reflective mind, it may treat of any subject. As he will feel regret for the past or desire for the future, so sorrow and love became the principal themes of the elegy. Elegy presents every thing as lost and gone or absent and future. A famous example of elegy is Thomas Gray's Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard.
In French the most famous elegy is Le Lac by Alphonse de Lamartine."Elegy" may denote a type of musical work of a sad or somber nature. A well-known example is Op. 10, by Jules Massenet. This was written for piano, as a student work. Dirge Elegiac Funeral march Keening Kommós Lament Marsiya Noha Obituary poetry Pastoral elegy history Poetry Rithā' Soaz Threnody Ağıt Casey, Brian. "Genres and Styles," in Funeral Music Genres: With a Stylistic/Topical Lexicon and Transcriptions for a Variety of Instrumental Ensembles. University Press, Inc. Cavitch, Max. American Elegy: The Poetry of Mourning from the Puritans to Whitman. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-4893-X. Ramazani, Jahan. Poetry of Mourning: The Modern Elegy from Hardy to Heaney. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-70340-1. Sacks, Peter M.. The English Elegy: Studies in the Genre from Spenser to Yeats. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-3471-6. Media related to Elegies at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of elegy at Wiktionary Elegy Explained at Literary Devices
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, developed from roots in blues and ragtime. Jazz is seen by many as "America's classical music". Since the 1920s Jazz Age, jazz has become recognized as a major form of musical expression, it emerged in the form of independent traditional and popular musical styles, all linked by the common bonds of African-American and European-American musical parentage with a performance orientation. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes and response vocals and improvisation. Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as "one of America's original art forms"; as jazz spread around the world, it drew on national and local musical cultures, which gave rise to different styles. New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles, biguine and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation.
In the 1930s arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, a hard-swinging, improvisational style and Gypsy jazz were the prominent styles. Bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging "musician's music", played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed near the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, linear melodic lines; the 1950s saw the emergence of free jazz, which explored playing without regular meter and formal structures, in the mid-1950s, hard bop emerged, which introduced influences from rhythm and blues and blues in the saxophone and piano playing. Modal jazz developed in the late 1950s, using the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with rock music's rhythms, electric instruments, amplified stage sound. In the early 1980s, a commercial form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful, garnering significant radio airplay.
Other styles and genres abound in the 2000s, such as Afro-Cuban jazz. The origin of the word "jazz" has resulted in considerable research, its history is well documented, it is believed to be related to "jasm", a slang term dating back to 1860 meaning "pep, energy". The earliest written record of the word is in a 1912 article in the Los Angeles Times in which a minor league baseball pitcher described a pitch which he called a "jazz ball" "because it wobbles and you can't do anything with it"; the use of the word in a musical context was documented as early as 1915 in the Chicago Daily Tribune. Its first documented use in a musical context in New Orleans was in a November 14, 1916 Times-Picayune article about "jas bands". In an interview with NPR, musician Eubie Blake offered his recollections of the slang connotations of the term, saying, "When Broadway picked it up, they called it'J-A-Z-Z', it wasn't called that. It was spelled'J-A-S-S'; that was dirty, if you knew what it was, you wouldn't say it in front of ladies."
The American Dialect Society named it the Word of the Twentieth Century. Jazz is difficult to define because it encompasses a wide range of music spanning a period of over 100 years, from ragtime to the rock-infused fusion. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, such as European music history or African music, but critic Joachim-Ernst Berendt argues that its terms of reference and its definition should be broader, defining jazz as a "form of art music which originated in the United States through the confrontation of the Negro with European music" and arguing that it differs from European music in that jazz has a "special relationship to time defined as'swing'". Jazz involves "a spontaneity and vitality of musical production in which improvisation plays a role" and contains a "sonority and manner of phrasing which mirror the individuality of the performing jazz musician". In the opinion of Robert Christgau, "most of us would say that inventing meaning while letting loose is the essence and promise of jazz".
A broader definition that encompasses different eras of jazz has been proposed by Travis Jackson: "it is music that includes qualities such as swing, group interaction, developing an'individual voice', being open to different musical possibilities". Krin Gibbard argued that "jazz is a construct" which designates "a number of musics with enough in common to be understood as part of a coherent tradition". In contrast to commentators who have argued for excluding types of jazz, musicians are sometimes reluctant to define the music they play. Duke Ellington, one of jazz's most famous figures, said, "It's all music." Although jazz is considered difficult to define, in part because it contains many subgenres, improvisation is one of its defining elements. The centrality of improvisation is attributed to the influence of earlier forms of music such as blues, a form of folk music which arose in part from the work songs and field hollers of African-American slaves on plantations; these work songs were structured around a repetitive call-and-response pattern, but early blues was improvisational.
Classical music performance is evaluated more by its fidelity to the musical score, with less attention given to interpretation and accompaniment. The classical performer's goal is to play the composition. In contrast, jazz is characterized by the product of i