Samuel Adams was an American statesman, political philosopher, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He was a politician in colonial Massachusetts, a leader of the movement that became the American Revolution, one of the architects of the principles of American republicanism that shaped the political culture of the United States, he was a second cousin to President John Adams. Adams was born in Boston, brought up in a politically active family. A graduate of Harvard College, he was an unsuccessful businessman and tax collector before concentrating on politics, he was an influential official of the Massachusetts House of Representatives and the Boston Town Meeting in the 1760s, he became a part of a movement opposed to the British Parliament's efforts to tax the British American colonies without their consent. His 1768 Massachusetts Circular Letter calling for colonial non-cooperation prompted the occupation of Boston by British soldiers resulting in the Boston Massacre of 1770. Adams and his colleagues devised a committee of correspondence system in 1772 to help coordinate resistance to what he saw as the British government's attempts to violate the British Constitution at the expense of the colonies, which linked like-minded Patriots throughout the Thirteen Colonies.
Continued resistance to British policy resulted in the 1773 Boston Tea Party and the coming of the American Revolution. Parliament passed the Coercive Acts in 1774, at which time Adams attended the Continental Congress in Philadelphia, convened to coordinate a colonial response, he helped guide Congress towards issuing the Continental Association in 1774 and the Declaration of Independence in 1776, he helped draft the Articles of Confederation and the Massachusetts Constitution. Adams returned to Massachusetts after the American Revolution, where he served in the state senate and was elected governor. Samuel Adams became a controversial figure in American history. Accounts written in the 19th century praised him as someone, steering his fellow colonists towards independence long before the outbreak of the Revolutionary War; this view gave way to negative assessments of Adams in the first half of the 20th century, in which he was portrayed as a master of propaganda who provoked mob violence to achieve his goals.
Both of these interpretations have been challenged by some modern scholars, who argue that these traditional depictions of Adams are myths contradicted by the historical record. Samuel Adams was born in Boston in the British colony of Massachusetts on September 16, 1722, an Old Style date, sometimes converted to the New Style date of September 27. Adams was one of twelve children born to Samuel Adams, Sr. and Mary Adams in an age of high infant mortality. Adams's parents were devout members of the Old South Congregational Church; the family lived on Purchase Street in Boston. Adams was proud of his Puritan heritage, emphasized Puritan values in his political career virtue. Samuel Adams, Sr. was a prosperous church deacon. Deacon Adams became a leading figure in Boston politics through an organization that became known as the Boston Caucus, which promoted candidates who supported popular causes; the Boston Caucus helped shape the agenda of the Boston Town Meeting. A New England town meeting is a form of local government with elected officials, not just a gathering of citizens.
Deacon Adams rose through the political ranks, becoming a justice of the peace, a selectman, a member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives. He worked with Elisha Cooke, Jr. the leader of the "popular party", a faction that resisted any encroachment by royal officials on the colonial rights embodied in the Massachusetts Charter of 1691. In the coming years, members of the "popular party" became known as Patriots; the younger Samuel Adams attended Boston Latin School and entered Harvard College in 1736. His parents hoped that his schooling would prepare him for the ministry, but Adams shifted his interest to politics. After graduating in 1740, Adams continued his studies, earning a master's degree in 1743. In his thesis, he argued that it was "lawful to resist the Supreme Magistrate, if the Commonwealth cannot otherwise be preserved", which indicated that his political views, like his father's, were oriented towards colonial rights. Adams's life was affected by his father's involvement in a banking controversy.
In 1739, Massachusetts was facing a serious currency shortage, Deacon Adams and the Boston Caucus created a "land bank" which issued paper money to borrowers who mortgaged their land as security. The land bank was supported by the citizenry and the popular party, which dominated the House of Representatives, the lower branch of the General Court. Opposition to the land bank came from the more aristocratic "court party", who were supporters of the royal governor and controlled the Governor's Council, the upper chamber of the General Court; the court party used its influence to have the British Parliament dissolve the land bank in 1741. Directors of the land bank, including Deacon Adams, became liable for the currency still in circulation, payable in silver and gold. Lawsuits over the bank persisted for years after Deacon Adams's death, the younger Samuel Adams had to defend the family estate from seizure by the government. For Adams, these lawsuits "served as a constant personal reminder that Britain's power over the colonies c
Thomas Paine was an English-born American political activist, political theorist, revolutionary. One of the Founding Fathers of the United States, he authored the two most influential pamphlets at the start of the American Revolution and inspired the patriots in 1776 to declare independence from Britain, his ideas reflected Enlightenment-era ideals of transnational human rights. Historian Saul K. Padover described him as "a corsetmaker by trade, a journalist by profession, a propagandist by inclination". Born in Thetford in the English county of Norfolk, Paine migrated to the British American colonies in 1774 with the help of Benjamin Franklin, arriving just in time to participate in the American Revolution; every rebel read his powerful pamphlet Common Sense, proportionally the all-time best-selling American title, which crystallized the rebellious demand for independence from Great Britain. His The American Crisis was a pro-revolutionary pamphlet series. Common Sense was so influential that John Adams said: "Without the pen of the author of Common Sense, the sword of Washington would have been raised in vain".
Paine lived in France for most of the 1790s, becoming involved in the French Revolution. He wrote Rights of Man, in part a defense of the French Revolution against its critics, his attacks on Irish conservative writer Edmund Burke led to a trial and conviction in absentia in England in 1792 for the crime of seditious libel. The British government of William Pitt the Younger, worried by the possibility that the French Revolution might spread to England, had begun suppressing works that espoused radical philosophies. Paine's work, which advocated the right of the people to overthrow their government, was duly targeted, with a writ for his arrest issued in early 1792. Paine fled to France in September where and despite not being able to speak French, he was elected to the French National Convention; the Girondists regarded him as an ally. The Montagnards Maximilien Robespierre, regarded him as an enemy. In December 1793, he was taken to Luxembourg Prison in Paris. While in prison, he continued to work on The Age of Reason.
Future President James Monroe used his diplomatic connections to get Paine released in November 1794. He became notorious because of his pamphlets; the Age of Reason, in which he advocated deism, promoted reason and free thought and argued against institutionalized religion in general and Christian doctrine in particular. He published the pamphlet Agrarian Justice, discussing the origins of property and introduced the concept of a guaranteed minimum income. In 1802, he returned to the U. S. where he died on June 8, 1809. Only six people attended his funeral. Thomas Paine was born on January 29, 1736, the son of Joseph Pain, a tenant farmer and stay-maker, Frances Pain, in Thetford, England. Joseph was a Frances an Anglican. Despite claims that Thomas changed the spelling of his family name upon his emigration to America in 1774, he was using "Paine" in 1769, while still in Lewes, Sussex, he attended Thetford Grammar School, at a time. At the age of 13, he was apprenticed to his father. Paine researchers contend his father's occupation has been misinterpreted to mean that he made the stays in ladies' corsets, an insult invented by his political foes.
The father and apprentice son made the thick rope stays used on sailing ships. Brian McCartin, in Thomas Paine: Common Sense and Revolutionary Pamphleteering, states: "Making stays for ships' masts had been the primary occupation of staymakers for centuries. Another type of staymaking during the eighteenth century was a form of corset making. Whether Joseph was the type of staymaker that made stays for ships or stays for corsets is still a matter of controversy." Thetford had maintained a brisk trade with the downriver major, port town of King's Lynn. A connection to shipping and the sea explains why, in late adolescence, Thomas enlisted and served as a privateer, before returning to Britain in 1759. There, he became a master stay-maker, establishing a shop in Kent. On September 27, 1759, Thomas Paine married Mary Lambert, his business collapsed soon after. Mary became pregnant. In July 1761, Paine returned to Thetford to work as a supernumerary officer. In December 1762, he became an Excise Officer in Lincolnshire.
On August 27, 1765, he was dismissed as an Excise Officer for "claiming to have inspected goods he did not inspect". On July 31, 1766, he requested his reinstatement from the Board of Excise, which they granted the next day, upon vacancy. While awaiting that, he worked as a stay-maker. Again, he was making stay ropes for shipping, not stays for corsets. In 1767, he was appointed to a position in Cornwall, he asked to leave this post to await a vacancy, he became a schoolteacher in London. On February 19, 1768, he was appointed to Lewes in Sussex, a town with a tradition of opposition to the monarchy and pro-republican sentiments since the revolutionary decades of the 17th century. Here he lived above the 15th-century Bull House, the tobacco shop of Samuel Ollive and Esther Ollive. Paine first became involved in civic matters, he appears in the T
Daniel Shays was an American soldier and farmer famous for being one of the leaders of Shays' Rebellion, a populist uprising against controversial debt collection and tax policies in Massachusetts in 1786 and 1787. Daniel Shays was born in 1747 in Hopkinton, the son of Irish immigrants Patrick and Margaret Shays. Daniel was the second of six, he spent his early years as a landless farm laborer. In 1772, he married Abigail Gilbert, they settled in Brookfield, Massachusetts where they had 6 children. Shays was accepted to the militia, during the American Revolution he rose to the rank of captain in the 5th Massachusetts Regiment of the Continental Army by 1777, he was fought at the Battle of Bunker Hill. He fought in the Battle of Lexington and the Battle of Saratoga, he was wounded during the war and resigned from the military unpaid in 1780. Upon returning home, he was summoned to court for unpaid debts, which he could not pay because he had not been paid in full for his military service. In 1780, General Lafayette presented him with an ornamental sword in honor of his military service.
He sold it for a few dollars to help pay off his debts, frowned upon by his peers. After returning from the war, Daniel Shays was alarmed to discover that many of his fellow veterans and farmers were in the same financial situation as he. At commoners' meetings veterans asserted that they were treated unfairly upon release, that businessmen were trying to squeeze money out of smallholders in order to pay their own debts to European war investors. Many Massachusetts rural communities first tried to petition the legislature in Boston, but the legislature was dominated by eastern merchant interests and did not respond substantively to those petitions; the petitions and proposals included a request to issue paper currency. Such inflationary issues would depreciate the currency, making it possible to meet obligations made at high values with lower-valued paper; the merchants, among them James Bowdoin, were opposed to these proposals because they were lenders who stood to lose. These proposals were rejected.
Governor John Hancock, accused by some of anticipating trouble, abruptly resigned in early 1785. When Bowdoin was elected governor that year, matters became more severe. Bowdoin stepped up civil actions to collect back taxes, the legislature exacerbated the situation by levying an additional property tax to raise funds for the state's portion of foreign debt payments. Comparatively conservative commentators like John Adams observed that these levies were "heavier than the People could bear". Protests in the rural Massachusetts turned into direct action in August 1786, after the state legislature adjourned without considering the many petitions, sent to Boston. On August 29 a well-organized force of protestors, Shays among them, marched on Northampton and prevented the county court from sitting; the leaders of this and forces proclaimed that they were seeking relief from the burdensome judicial processes that were depriving the people of their land and possessions. They called themselves Regulators, a reference to the Regulator movement of North Carolina that sought to reform corrupt practices in the late 1760s.
On September 2 Governor Bowdoin issued a proclamation denouncing such mob action, but took no military measures in response beyond planning militia response to future actions. When the court in Worcester was shut down by similar action on September 5, the county militia refused to turn out, much to Bowdoin's amazement. Shays, who had participated in the Northampton action, began to take a more active leadership role in the uprising in November. On September 19, the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts indicted eleven leaders of the rebellion as "disorderly and seditious persons." When the supreme judicial court was next scheduled to meet in Springfield on September 26, Shays in Hampshire County and Luke Day in what is now Hampden County organized an attempt to shut it down. They were anticipated by William Shepard, the local militia commander, who began gathering government-supporting militia the Saturday before the court was to sit. By the time the court was ready to open, Shepard had 300 men protecting the Springfield courthouse.
Shays and Day were able to recruit a similar number, but chose only to demonstrate, exercising their troops outside Shepard's lines, rather than attempt to seize the building. The judges first postponed the hearings, adjourned on the 28th without hearing any cases. Shepard withdrew his force, which had grown to some 800 men, to the federal armory, only rumored to be the target of seizure by the activists. On November 28 a posse of some 300 men rode to Groton to arrest Job Shattuck and other protest leaders in the area. Shattuck was chased down and arrested on the 30th, was wounded by a sword slash in the process; this action and the arrest of other protest leaders in the eastern parts of the state radicalized those in the west, they began to organize an overthrow of the state government. "The seeds of war are now sown", wrote one correspondent in Shrewsbury, by mid-January rebel leaders spoke of smashing the "tyrannical government of Massachusetts."While government forces organized in the east, Shays and other rebel leaders in the west organized their forces, establishing regional regimental organizations that were run by democratically elected committees.
Their first m
Traditionalist conservatism known as classical conservatism and traditional conservatism, is a philosophy emphasizing the need for the principles of a transcendent moral order, manifested through certain natural laws to which society ought to conform in a prudent manner. Shortened to traditionalism and in the United Kingdom and Canada referred to as Toryism, traditionalist conservatism is a variant of conservatism based on the political philosophies of Aristotle and Edmund Burke. Traditionalists emphasize the bonds of social order and the defense of ancestral institutions over hyper-individualism. Traditionalist conservatism places a strong emphasis on the notions of custom and tradition. Theoretical reason is considered against practical reason; the state is seen as a communal enterprise with spiritual and organic qualities. Traditionalists believe that change—if it does happen—is not the result of intentional reasoned thought and it flows out of the traditions of the community. Leadership and hierarchy are seen as natural products.
Traditionalism developed throughout 18th-century Europe as a response to the disorder of the English Civil War and the radicalism of the French Revolution. In the middle of the 20th century, traditionalist conservatism started to organize itself in earnest as an intellectual and political force. A number of traditionalist conservatives embrace high-church Christianity. Another traditionalist who has stated his faith tradition publicly is Caleb Stegall, an evangelical Protestant. A number of conservative mainline Protestants are traditionalist conservatives, such as writers for Touchstone and some traditionalists are Jewish, such as the late Will Herberg, Irving Louis Horowitz, Mordecai Roshwald and Paul Gottfried; as the name suggests, traditionalists believe his worldview. Each generation inherits the experience and culture of its ancestors and through convention and precedence man is able to pass it down to his descendants. To paraphrase Edmund Burke regarded as the father of modern conservatism: "The individual is foolish, but the species is wise".
Traditionalist conservatives believe that human society is hierarchical. Hierarchy allows for the preservation of the whole community instead of protecting one part at the expense of the others; the countryside and the values of rural life are prized. The principles of agrarianism are central to a traditionalist's understanding of rural life. Traditionalists defend classical Western civilization and value an education informed by the texts of the Hebraic, Greek and Medieval eras. Traditionalists are classicists who revere high culture in all of its manifestations. Unlike nationalists who esteem the role of the state or nation over the local or regional community, traditionalists hold up patriotism as a key principle. Traditionalist conservatives think that loyalty to a locality or region is more central than any commitment to a larger political entity. Traditionalists welcome the value of subsidiarity and the intimacy of one's community, preferring the civil society of Burke's "little platoons" over the expanded state.
Alternately, nationalism leads to jingoism and views the state as abstract from the local community and family structure rather than as an outgrowth of these local realities. Traditionalist conservatism began with the thought of Anglo-Irish Whig statesman and philosopher Edmund Burke, whose political principles were rooted in moral natural law and the Western tradition. Burke believed in prescriptive rights and that those rights were "God-given", he defended what he referred to as "ordered liberty". He advocated for those transcendent values that found support in such institutions as the church, the family and the state, he was a fierce critic of the principles behind the French Revolution and in 1790 his observations on its excesses and radicalism were collected in Reflections on the Revolution in France. In Reflections, Burke called for the constitutional enactment of specific, concrete rights and warned that abstract rights could be abused to justify tyranny. American social critic and historian Russell Kirk wrote: "The Reflections burns with all the wrath and anguish of a prophet who saw the traditions of Christendom and the fabric of civil society dissolving before his eyes".
Burke's influence extended to thinkers and writers, both in his native Britain and in continental Europe. Among those influenced by his thought were the English Romantic poets Samuel Taylor Coleridge, William Wordsworth and Robert Southey, Scottish Romantic author Sir Walter Scott, as well as the counter-revolutionaries writers, the French François-René de Chateaubriand and Louis de Bonald and the Savoyard Joseph de Maistre. In the United States, the Federalist Party and its leaders, such as President John Adams and Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton, best represented Burke's legacy. Burke's traditionalist conservatism found its fiercest defenders in three "cultural conservatives" and "critics of material progress": Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Thomas Carlyle and John Henry Newman. According to traditionalist scholar Peter Viereck, Coleridge and
United Empire Loyalist
United Empire Loyalists is an honorific, first given by the 1st Lord Dorchester, the Governor of Quebec, Governor-General of the Canadas, to American Loyalists who resettled in British North America during or after the American Revolution. The Loyalists were referred to informally as the "King's Loyal Americans". At the time, the demonym Canadian or Canadien was used to refer to the indigenous First Nations groups and the French settlers inhabiting the Province of Quebec, they settled in Nova Scotia and the Province of Quebec. The influx of loyalist settlers resulted in the creation of several new colonies. In 1784, New Brunswick was partitioned from the Colony of Nova Scotia after significant loyalist resettlement around the Bay of Fundy; the influx of loyalist refugees resulted in the Province of Quebec's division into Lower Canada, Upper Canada in 1791. The Crown gave them land grants of 200 acres per person to encourage their resettlement, as it wanted to develop the frontier of Upper Canada.
This resettlement added many English speakers to the Canadian population. It was the beginning of new waves of immigration that established a predominantly English-speaking population in the future Canada both west and east of the modern Quebec border. Following the end of the American Revolutionary War and the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1783, both Loyalist soldiers and civilians were evacuated from New York City, most heading for Canada. Many Loyalists had migrated to Canada from New York and northern New England, where violence against them had increased during the war; the Crown-allotted land in Canada was sometimes allotted according to which Loyalist regiment a man had fought in. This Loyalist resettlement was critical to the development of present-day Ontario, some 10,000 refugees went to Quebec, but Nova Scotia received three times that number: about 35,000–40,000 Loyalist refugees. These included some 3,000 Black Loyalists, slaves who had gained freedom from the British for working with them during the war.
At the same time, some white Loyalists in Nova Scotia had brought their slaves with them, held them until slavery was abolished in 1834. Prince Edward Island received 2,000 refugees. An unknown but substantial number of individuals did not stay; as some families split in their loyalties during the war years, many Loyalists in Canada continued to maintain close ties with relatives in the United States. They conducted commerce across the border with little regard to British trade laws. In the 1790s, the offer of land and low taxes, which were one-quarter those in the Republic, for allegiance by Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe resulted in the arrival of 30,000 Americans referred to as Late Loyalists. By the outbreak of the War of 1812, of the 110,000 inhabitants of Upper Canada, 20,000 were the initial Loyalists, 60,000 were American immigrants and their descendants, 30,000 were immigrants from the UK, their descendants or some Quebecois; the arrival of many of the inhabitants of Upper Canada suggests that land was the main reason for immigration.
The arrival of the Loyalists after the Revolutionary War led to the division of Canada into the provinces of Upper Canada and Lower Canada. They arrived and were settled in groups by ethnicity and religion. Many soldiers settled with others of the regiments; the settlers came from every social class and 13 Colonies unlike the depiction of them in the Sandham painting which suggests the arrivals were upper-class immigrants dressed in their best and about to go the Ball. Loyalists soon petitioned the government to be allowed to use the British legal system, which they were accustomed to in the American colonies, rather than the French system. Great Britain had maintained the French legal system and allowed freedom of religion after taking over the former French colony with the defeat of France in the Seven Years' War. With the creation of Upper and Lower Canada, most Loyalists in the west could live under British laws and institutions; the predominately ethnic French population of Lower Canada, who were still French-speaking, could maintain their familiar French civil law and the Catholic religion.
Realizing the importance of some type of recognition, on 9 November 1789, Lord Dorchester, the governor of Quebec and Governor General of British North America, declared "that it was his Wish to put the mark of Honour upon the Families who had adhered to the Unity of the Empire". As a result of Dorchester's statement, the printed militia rolls carried the notation: Those Loyalists who have adhered to the Unity of the Empire, joined the Royal Standard before the Treaty of Separation in the year 1783, all their Children and their Descendants by either sex, are to be distinguished by the following Capitals, affixed to their names: U. E. Alluding to their great principle The Unity of the Empire; because most of the nations of the Iroquois had allied with the British, which had ceded their lands to the United States, thousands of Iroquois and other pro-British Native Americans were expelled from New York and other states. They were resettled in Canada. Many of the Iroquois, led by Joseph Brant Thayendenegea, settled at Six Nations of the Grand River, the largest First Nations Reserve in Canada.
A smaller group of Iroquois led by Captain John Deserontyon Odeserundiye, settled on the shores of the Bay of Quinte in modern-day southeastern Ontario. The government settled some 3,500 Black Loyalists in Nova Scotia
Founding Fathers of the United States
The Founding Fathers of the United States, or the Founding Fathers, were a group of philosophers and writers who led the American Revolution against the Kingdom of Great Britain. Most were descendants of colonists settled in the Thirteen Colonies in North America. Historian Richard B. Morris in 1973 identified the following seven figures as the key Founding Fathers: Alexander Hamilton, George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison. Adams and Franklin were members of the Committee of Five that drafted the Declaration of Independence. Hamilton and Jay were authors of The Federalist Papers, advocating ratification of the Constitution; the constitutions drafted by Jay and Adams for their respective states of New York and Massachusetts were relied upon when creating language for the U. S. Constitution. Jay and Franklin negotiated the Treaty of Paris that would end the American Revolutionary War. Washington was Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army and was President of the Constitutional Convention.
All held additional important roles in the early government of the United States, with Washington, Adams and Madison serving as President. Jay was the nation's first Chief Justice, Hamilton was the first Secretary of the Treasury, Franklin was America's most senior diplomat, the governmental leader of Pennsylvania; the term Founding Fathers is sometimes used to refer to the Signers of the embossed version of the Declaration of Independence in 1776. Signers should not be confused with the term Framers. Of the 55 Framers, only 39 were signers of the Constitution. Two further groupings of Founding Fathers include: 1) those who signed the Continental Association, a trade ban and one of the colonists' first collective volleys protesting British control and the Intolerable Acts in 1774, or 2) those who signed the Articles of Confederation, the first U. S. constitutional document. The phrase "Founding Fathers" is a 20th-century appellation, coined by Warren G. Harding in 1916. Prior to, during the 19th century, they were referred to as the "Fathers".
The term has been used to describe first settlers of the original royal colonies. The First Continental Congress met in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1774, consisting of 56 delegates from all thirteen American colonies except Georgia. Among them was George Washington, who would soon be drawn out of military retirement to command the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. In attendance was Patrick Henry, John Adams, who like all delegates were elected by their respective colonial assemblies. Other delegates included Samuel Adams from Massachusetts, John Dickinson from Pennsylvania and New York's John Jay; this congress in addition to formulating appeals to the British crown, established the Continental Association to administer boycott actions against Britain. When the Second Continental Congress convened on May 10, 1775, it reconstituted the First Congress. Many of the same 56 delegates who attended the first meeting participated in the second. New arrivals included Benjamin Franklin and Robert Morris of Pennsylvania, John Hancock of Massachusetts, John Witherspoon of New Jersey.
Hancock was elected Congress President two weeks into the session when Peyton Randolph was recalled to Virginia to preside over the House of Burgesses. Thomas Jefferson replaced Randolph in the Virginia congressional delegation; the second Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence. Witherspoon was the only active clergyman to sign the Declaration, he signed the Articles of Confederation and attended the New Jersey convention that ratified the Federal Constitution. The newly founded country of the United States had to create a new government to replace the British Parliament; the U. S. adopted the Articles of Confederation, a declaration that established a national government with a one-house legislature. Its ratification by all thirteen colonies gave the second Congress a new name: the Congress of the Confederation, which met from 1781 to 1789; the Constitutional Convention took place in Philadelphia. Although the Convention was called to revise the Articles of Confederation, the intention from the outset for some including James Madison and Alexander Hamilton was to create a new frame of government rather than amending the existing one.
The delegates elected George Washington to preside over the Convention. The result of the Convention was the United States Constitution and the replacement of the Continental Congress with the United States Congress; the Founding Fathers represented a cross-section of 18th-century U. S. leadership. According to a study of the biographies by Caroline Robbins: The Signers came for the most part from an educated elite, were residents of older settlements, belonged with a few exceptions to a moderately well-to-do class representing only a fraction of the population. Native or born overseas, they were of the Protestant faith. All of them were leaders in their communities. Many were prominent in national affairs; every one had taken part in the American Revolution. Scholars have examined the collective biography of them as well as the signers of the Declaration and the Constitution. Many of the Founding Fathers attended or held degrees from the colonial colleges, most notably Columbia known at the time as "King's College", Princeton or
Alexander Hamilton was an American statesman and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He was an influential interpreter and promoter of the U. S. Constitution, as well as the founder of the nation's financial system, the Federalist Party, the United States Coast Guard, the New York Post newspaper; as the first Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton was the main author of the economic policies of George Washington's administration. He took the lead in the Federal government's funding of the states' debts, as well as establishing a national bank, a system of tariffs, friendly trade relations with Britain, his vision included a strong central government led by a vigorous executive branch, a strong commercial economy, a national bank and support for manufacturing, a strong military. Thomas Jefferson was his leading opponent, arguing for smaller government. Hamilton was born out of wedlock in Nevis, he was taken in by a prosperous merchant. When he reached his teens, he was sent to New York to pursue his education.
He took an early role in the militia. In 1777, he became a senior aide to General Washington in running the new Continental Army. After the war, he was elected as a representative from New York to the Congress of the Confederation, he founded the Bank of New York. Hamilton was a leader in seeking to replace the weak national government under the Articles of Confederation, he helped ratify the Constitution by writing 51 of the 85 installments of The Federalist Papers, which are still used as one of the most important references for Constitutional interpretation. Hamilton led the Treasury Department as a trusted member of President Washington's first Cabinet. Hamilton argued that the implied powers of the Constitution provided the legal authority to fund the national debt, to assume states' debts, to create the government-backed Bank of the United States; these programs were funded by a tariff on imports, by a controversial whiskey tax. He mobilized a nationwide network of friends of the government bankers and businessmen, which became the Federalist Party.
A major issue in the emergence of the American two-party system was the Jay Treaty designed by Hamilton in 1794. It established friendly trade relations with Britain, to the chagrin of France and supporters of the French Revolution. Hamilton played a central role in the Federalist party, which dominated national and state politics until it lost the election of 1800 to Jefferson's Democratic-Republican Party. In 1795, he returned to the practice of law in New York, he called for mobilization against the French First Republic in 1798–99 under President John Adams, became Commanding General of the disbanded U. S. Army, which he reconstituted and readied for war; the army did not see combat in the Quasi-War, Hamilton was outraged by Adams' diplomatic success in resolving the crisis with France. His opposition to Adams' re-election helped cause the Federalist party defeat in 1800. Jefferson and Aaron Burr tied for the presidency in the electoral college in 1801, Hamilton helped to defeat Burr, whom he found unprincipled, to elect Jefferson despite philosophical differences.
Hamilton continued his legal and business activities in New York City, was active in ending the legality of the international slave trade. Vice President Burr ran for governor of New York State in 1804, Hamilton campaigned against him as unworthy. Taking offense, Burr challenged him to a duel on July 11, 1804, in which Burr shot and mortally wounded Hamilton, who died the following day. Alexander Hamilton was born and spent part of his childhood in Charlestown, the capital of the island of Nevis in the Leeward Islands. Hamilton and his older brother James Jr. were born out of wedlock to Rachel Faucette, a married woman of half-British and half-French Huguenot descent, James A. Hamilton, a Scotsman, the fourth son of Laird Alexander Hamilton of Grange, Ayrshire. Speculation that Hamilton's mother was of mixed race, though persistent, is not substantiated by verifiable evidence, she was listed as white on tax rolls. It is not certain whether the year of Hamilton's birth was in 1755 or 1757. Most historical evidence, after Hamilton's arrival in North America, supports the idea that he was born in 1757, including Hamilton's own writings.
Hamilton listed his birth year as 1757 when he first arrived in the Thirteen Colonies, celebrated his birthday on January 11. In life, he tended to give his age only in round figures. Historians accepted 1757 as his birth year until about 1930, when additional documentation of his early life in the Caribbean was published in Danish. A probate paper from St. Croix in 1768, drafted after the death of Hamilton's mother, listed him as 13 years old, which has caused some historians since the 1930s to favor a birth year of 1755. Historians have speculated on possible reasons for two different years of birth to have appeared in historical documents. If 1755 is correct, Hamilton might have been trying to appear younger than his college classmates, or wished to avoid standing out as older. If 1757 is correct, the single probate document indicating a birth year of 1755 may have included an error, or Hamilton might once have given his age as 13 after his mother's death in an attempt to appear older and more employable.
Historians have pointed out that the probate document contained other proven inaccuracies, demonstrating it was not re