Patriotism or national pride is the feeling of love and sense of attachment to a homeland and alliance with other citizens who share the same sentiment. This attachment can be a combination of many different feelings relating to one's own homeland, including ethnic, political or historical aspects, it encompasses a set of concepts related to nationalism. Some manifestations of patriotism emphasise the "land" element in love for one's native land and use the symbolism of agriculture and the soil – compare Blut und Boden. An excess of patriotism in the defense of a nation is called chauvinism; the English term patriot is first attested in the Elizabethan era. The abstract noun patriotism appears in the early 18th century; the general notion of civic virtue and group dedication has been attested in culture globally throughout the historical period. For the Enlightenment thinkers of 18th-century Europe, loyalty to the state was chiefly considered in contrast to loyalty to the Church, it was argued that clerics should not be allowed to teach in public schools since their patrie was heaven, so that they could not inspire love of the homeland in their students.

One of the most influential proponents of this classical notion of patriotism was Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Enlightenment thinkers criticized what they saw as the excess of patriotism. In 1774, Samuel Johnson published a critique of what he viewed as false patriotism. On the evening of 7 April 1775, he made the famous statement, "Patriotism is the last refuge of the scoundrel." James Boswell, who reported this comment in his Life of Johnson, does not provide context for the quote, it has therefore been argued that Johnson was in fact attacking the false use of the term "patriotism" by contemporaries such as John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute and his supporters. However, there is no direct evidence to contradict the held belief that Johnson's famous remark was a criticism of patriotism itself. Patriotism may be strengthened by adherence to a national religion; this is the opposite of the separation of church and state demanded by the Enlightenment thinkers who saw patriotism and faith as similar and opposed forces.

Michael Billig and Jean Bethke Elshtain have both argued that the difference between patriotism and faith is difficult to discern and relies on the attitude of the one doing the labelling. Christopher Heath Wellman, professor of philosophy at Washington University in St. Louis, describes that a popular view of the "patriotist" position is robust obligations to compatriots and only minimal samaritan responsibilities to foreigners. Wellman calls this position "patriotist" rather than "nationalist" to single out the members of territorial, political units rather than cultural groups. George Orwell, in his influential essay Notes on Nationalism distinguished patriotism from the related concept of nationalism: "By'patriotism' I mean devotion to a particular place and a particular way of life, which one believes to be the best in the world but has no wish to force upon other people. Patriotism is of its nature defensive, both culturally. Nationalism, on the other hand, is inseparable from the desire for power.

The abiding purpose of every nationalist is to secure more power and more prestige, not for himself but for the nation or other unit in which he has chosen to sink his own individuality." Voltaire stated that "It is lamentable, that to be a good patriot one must become the enemy of the rest of mankind." Arthur Schopenhauer wrote in his The World as Will and Representation that “The cheapest sort of pride is national pride. On one hand, Karl Marx famously stated that "The working men have no country" and that "the supremacy of the proletariat will cause them to vanish still faster." The same view is promoted by present-day Trotskyists such as Alan Woods, "in favour of tearing down all frontiers and creating a socialist world commonwealth." On the other hand and Maoists are in favour of socialist patriotism based on the theory of socialism in one country. In the European Union, thinkers such as Jürgen Habermas have advocated a "Euro-patriotism", but patriotism in Europe is directed at the nation-state and more than not coincides with "Euroscepticism".

Several surveys have tried to measure patriotism for various reasons, such as the Correlates of War project which found some correlation between war propensity and patriotism. The results from different studies are time dependent. For example, patriotism in Germany before World War I ranked at or near the top, whereas today it ranks at or near the bottom of patriotism surveys. Since 1981, the World Values Survey explores people's national values and beliefs and refer to the average answer "for high income residents" of a country to the question "Are you proud to be?". It ranges from 1 to 4. Charles Blatberg, From Pluralist to Patriotic Politics: Putting Practice First, Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-19-829688-6. Craig Calhoun, Is it Time to Be Postnational?, in Ethnicity and Minority Rights, Stephen May, Tariq Modood and Judith Squires. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2004. Pp. 231–56. Paul Gomberg, “Patriotism is Like Racism,” in Igo

List of Marjan Ĺ arec

The List of Marjan Šarec is a political party in Slovenia led by Prime Minister Marjan Šarec. Marjan Šarec, a former journalist and comedian, founded the party during his first mayoral term to contest the 2014 Slovenian Local Elections providing candidates for the municipal council of Kamnik. For most of Šarec's second term as mayor of Kamnik, the party was active only at the local level.Šarec contested the 2017 presidential election, advancing to the runoff but narrowly losing to incumbent President Borut Pahor. After announcing his much speculated entry into parliamentary politics, LMŠ swiftly topped public opinion polls, emerging as the foremost party leading into the 2018 Slovenian parliamentary election. In an interview with the weekly political magazine Mladina, Šarec argued against comparisons of LMŠ with Mayor Zoran Janković's Positive Slovenia and incumbent PM Miro Cerar's Modern Centre Party which both emerged as preeminent political forces after being established just months prior to parliamentary elections.

He has spoken out in favour of judicial, regulatory and electoral reforms, rectifying the inefficient healthcare system, doing more to address climate change. He has expressed opposition to privatising infrastructural and strategic firms, argued in favour of running a balanced budget and reducing the public debt, reform of the pension system, including by promoting private pension schemes, he has stated the party will be willing to politically cooperate with anyone, except for "people who are involved in any suspicious deals". The party has expressed support for the complete legalisation of cannabis. On his electoral website, Šarec listed advocacy for public education and healthcare, environmental responsibility, intergenerational cooperation and meritocracy, research and development as some of the integral components of his political vision, he declared his unwavering support for abortion rights, called for tolerance of homosexuality, linked true socialism with the social teachings of Jesus Christ.

The party received 12.6% of the vote in the 2018 parliamentary election held on 3 June 2018, winning 13 seats in parliament. The LMS joined the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party on 9 November 2018. Official website

Bud Green

Bud Green was an American songwriter. Green immigrated to the United States as an infant. Bud Green grew up in Harlem at 108th & Madison Avenue at the turn of the 20th century, the eldest of seven, he dropped out of elementary school to help the family. While selling papers, he decided to become a songwriter and started keeping a notebook of poems and rhymes that he thought would be useful someday, his sister, was married to the lyricist Bob Russell, who wrote "Brazil", "Frenesi", "Don't Get Around Much Anymore", "He Ain't Heavy, He's My Brother" and many other songs. In his early career, he wrote material for vaudevilles, he was a staff writer for music publishers and wrote Broadway stage scores as well as songs for other musicals. By 1928, he had written "Alabamy Bound" and "That's My Weakness Now", which became a huge hit for Ukulele Ike and Helen Kane. Kane's version including the suggestive scat phrase "boop boop ba doo." This line and Kane's stage persona made the song synonymous with the flapper era.

Kane and the song became the inspiration for the Betty Boop cartoons that debuted in 1930. The song was self-published by Sam H. Stept, they were in the Brass Rail Building at 7th Avenue. They went to Hollywood to work for the movie industry, he and Stept sold their company to Warner Bros. and returned to New York. He collaborated with many artists and fellow songwriters, including Les Brown, Buddy De Sylva, Al Dubin, Ella Fitzgerald, Slim Gaillard, Ray Henderson, Ben Homer, Raymond Scott, Sam H. Stept, Harry Warren. At 21, Bud Green married a girl from the Ziegfeld Follies, Nan Hinken, they were together until her death in the early 1960s. After selling his company, Green moved his family to Yonkers, New York, where he lived the rest of his life commuting to NYC every day, they had two sons, both now deceased. Green died in Yonkers, New York, in 1981. Bud Green wrote or co-wrote a number of songs, including: "Alabamy Bound" "That's My Weakness Now" "I Love My Baby" "Oh Boy, What a Girl" "In My Gondola" "Away Down South in Heaven" "I'll Always Be In Love With You" "Do Something" "Congratulations" "Good Little, Bad Little You" "My Mother's Evening Prayer" "Simple and Sweet" "Dream Sweetheart" "Moonlight on the River" "Swingy Little Thingy" "Blue Fedora" "More Than Ever" "You Showed Me the Way" "Tia Juana" "Once in a While" "The Man Who Comes Around" "Flat Foot Floogie" "Sentimental Journey" "Speed Limit" "Who Can Tell" "All the Days of Our Years" "My Number One Dream Came True" "On Account I Love You" He was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 1975.

Bud Green on IMDb Photo of Bud Green