James Francis Cameron is a Canadian filmmaker, environmentalist and philanthropist who lives in the United States. After working in special effects, he found major success after directing and writing the science fiction action film The Terminator, he became a popular Hollywood director and was hired to write and direct Aliens. He found further critical acclaim for his use of special effects in Terminator 2: Judgment Day. After his film True Lies, Cameron took on his biggest film at the time, which earned him Academy Awards for Best Picture, Best Director and Best Film Editing. After Titanic, Cameron began a project that took 10 years to make: his science-fiction epic Avatar, in particular a landmark for 3D technology, for which he received nominations for the same three Academy Awards. Despite Avatar being his only movie made to date in 3D, Cameron is the most successful 3D film-maker in terms of box-office revenue. In the time between making Titanic and Avatar, Cameron spent several years creating many documentary films and co-developed the digital 3D Fusion Camera System.
Described by a biographer as part scientist and part artist, Cameron has contributed to underwater filming and remote vehicle technologies. On March 26, 2012, Cameron reached the bottom of the Mariana Trench, the deepest part of the ocean, in the Deepsea Challenger submersible, he is the first person to do this in a solo descent, is only the third person to do so ever. In 2010, Time magazine listed Cameron among the 100 most influential people in the world. In total, Cameron's directorial efforts have grossed US$2 billion in North America and US$6 billion worldwide. Not adjusted for inflation, Cameron's Titanic and Avatar are the two highest-grossing films of all time at $2.19 billion and $2.78 billion respectively. Cameron holds the distinction of having directed the first two of the four films in history to gross over $2 billion worldwide. In March 2011, he was named Hollywood's top earner by Vanity Fair, with estimated 2010 earnings of $257 million. In October 2013, a new species of frog Pristimantis jamescameroni from Venezuela was named after him in recognition of his efforts in environmental awareness, in addition to his public promotion of veganism.
Cameron was born in 1954 in Kapuskasing, Canada, the son of Shirley, an artist and nurse, Phillip Cameron, an electrical engineer. His paternal great-great-great-grandfather emigrated from Balquhidder, Scotland, in 1825. Cameron grew up in Chippawa and attended Stamford Collegiate School in Niagara Falls, Ontario, his family moved to California in 1971, when Cameron was 17 years old. He dropped out of Sonora High School attended Brea Olinda High School to further his secondary education. Cameron enrolled at a two-year community college, in 1973 to study physics, he switched to English dropped out before the start of the fall 1974 semester. Next, he worked several jobs, including as a truck driver, writing. During this period he taught himself about special effects: "I'd go down to the USC library and pull any thesis that graduate students had written about optical printing, or front screen projection, or dye transfers, anything that related to film technology; that way I could sit down and read it, if they'd let me photocopy it, I would.
If not, I'd make notes."Cameron quit his job as a truck driver to enter the film industry after seeing Star Wars in 1977. When Cameron read Syd Field's book Screenplay, it occurred to him that integrating science and art was possible, he wrote a 10-minute science-fiction script with two friends, titled Xenogenesis, they raised money, rented camera, film stock and studio shot it in 35 mm. They dismantled the camera to understand how to operate it and spent the first half-day of the shoot trying to figure out how to get it running, he was the director, writer and production designer for Xenogenesis. He became an uncredited production assistant on Rock and Roll High School in 1979. While continuing to educate himself in filmmaking techniques, Cameron started working as a miniature model maker at Roger Corman Studios. Making produced, low-budget productions taught Cameron to work efficiently, he soon found employment as an art director in the sci-fi movie Battle Beyond the Stars. He did special effects work design and direction on John Carpenter's Escape from New York, acted as production designer on Galaxy of Terror, consulted on the design of Android.
Cameron was hired as the special effects director for the sequel to Piranha, entitled Piranha II: The Spawning in 1982. The original director, Miller Drake, left the project due to creative differences with producer Ovidio Assonitis, who gave Cameron his first job as director; the interior scenes were filmed in Rome, while the underwater sequences were shot at Grand Cayman Island. The movie was to be produced in Jamaica. On location, production slowed due to adverse weather. James Cameron was fired after failing to get a close up of Carole Davis in her opening scene. Ovidio ordered Cameron to do the close-up the next day. Cameron spent the entire day sailing around the resort, reproducing the lighting but still failed to get the close-up. After he was fired, Ovidio invited Cameron to assist in the shooting. Once in Rome, Ovidio took over the editing. During his illness, Camer
Dame Sian Seerpoohi Elias was the 12th Chief Justice of New Zealand, was therefore the most senior member of the country's judiciary. She was the presiding judge of the Supreme Court of New Zealand and on several occasions acted as Administrator of the Government. Born in London of an Armenian father and a Welsh mother, Elias attended Diocesan School for Girls in Auckland, she completed a law degree from the University of Auckland in 1970, undertook further study at Stanford University. She took up employment with an Auckland law firm in 1972, beginning her career as a barrister three years later, she served as a member of the Motor Spirits Licensing Appeal Authority and of the Working Party on the Environment. Elias is married to Hugh Fletcher, former CEO of Fletcher Challenge and a former Chancellor of the University of Auckland. In 1994, her brother-in-law, Jim Fletcher, was stabbed to death by an intruder in his Papamoa beach house. Elias served as a Law Commissioner from 1984 to 1988, she is known for her work in relation to various Treaty-related cases.
In 1990, she was awarded a New Zealand 1990 Commemoration Medal in recognition of her services. In 1988 she and Lowell Goddard were made the first women Queen's Counsel in New Zealand. Elias became a judge of the High Court in 1995, sat on the Court of Appeal. On 17 May 1999, Elias was sworn in as Chief Justice of New Zealand, the first woman to hold that position in New Zealand. One aspect of the role of Chief Justice is the role of Administrator of the Government when the Governor-General is unable to fulfil their duties. Elias has held the position of Administrator of the Government from 22 March 2001 until 4 April 2001, between the terms of Sir Michael Hardie Boys and Dame Silvia Cartwright, from 4 August 2006 until 23 August 2006 between Cartwright's term and that of Sir Anand Satyanand, from 23 August 2011 until 31 August 2011 between the terms of Satyanand and Sir Jerry Mateparae, from 31 August 2016 until 28 September 2016 between the terms of Mateparae and Dame Patsy Reddy, at other times when the Governor-General has been unable to act.
In 1984, Elias helped Ngāneko Minhinnick's Manukau Harbour claim to the Waitangi Tribunal. This led to work on other treaty cases, including as counsel in New Zealand Maori Council v Attorney-General, in a claim to prevent the Government selling radio frequencies, the case challenging the 1994 Māori electoral option. In June 2003 she was involved in a landmark case which allowed for the possibility that the Māori Land Court could issue freehold title over the foreshore and seabed; the subsequent legal uncertainties and upheavals in Māoridom dominated the political agenda for the next 18 months. In July 2009 Elias caused controversy with her remarks in the annual Shirley Smith address, organised by the Wellington Branch of the New Zealand Law Society's Women-in-Law committee; the annual lecture is given in honour of Shirley Smith. The speech was entitled "Blameless Babes" after a quote from Smith, who wrote " a prison at the bottom of the cliff is not a solution. Criminals will just go at great cost to the community.
We have to find out why blameless babes become criminals."In her speech, Elias expressed concern about prison overcrowding and argued against what she described as the "punitive and knee-jerk" attitude of politicians towards the criminal justice system. She said prison overcrowding had to be managed to prevent "significant safety and human rights issues", she said several other changes were needed in the criminal justice system including increased education and understanding by the community that, since "criminal justice processes are irrelevant to crime reduction", we need to address the causes not just the effects of crime. She said New Zealand needed greater focus on early intervention for youth and vulnerable families, improved mental health and drug and alcohol treatment, greater use of community-based sentences, a fundamental rethink in the way the probation service monitors offenders; as a final point, Elias said that unless New Zealand takes action to address the underlying causes of crime, Government may be forced into the position of using executive amnesties to reduce the growing number of prisoners.
The Chief Justice's comments were reported in the media. Simon Power, the Minister of Justice, said in response: "The Chief Justice's speech does not represent Government policy in any way, shape or form". Courts of New Zealand – The Current Chief Justice
Dame Silvia Rose Cartwright is a New Zealand jurist who served as the 18th Governor-General of New Zealand, from 2001 to 2006. She was the second woman to hold the office, after Catherine Tizard. Cartwright is a former student at Otago Girls' High School, is a graduate of the University of Otago, where she gained her LL. B degree in 1967. In 1989, she became the first female Chief District Court Judge, in 1993 she was the first woman to be appointed to the High Court. Prior to her appointment as Governor-General, she presided over a 1988 inquiry into issues related to cervical cancer and its treatment at Auckland's National Women's Hospital, known as the Cartwright Inquiry. Cartwright has served on the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, played a major role in the drafting of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. In 2007, in recognition for her work as a lawyer, the Auckland Women Lawyers’ Association established a lecture known as the Dame Silvia Cartwright Lecture Series.
Cartwright's term as Governor-General was from 4 April 2001 to 4 August 2006. She was succeeded by Anand Satyanand at midday on 23 August 2006. During the intervening period, Chief Justice Dame Sian Elias was the Administrator of the Government. On 16 June 2002, Cartwright made a speech at the Annual General Meeting of Save The Children's New Zealand branch, in which she criticised section 59 of the Crimes Act 1961, which allowed parents to use "reasonable force" to discipline their children. A number of groups criticised this position, such as the Society for the Promotion of Community Standards – the Monarchist League stated that these comments were "overstepping the mark" for a representative of the Queen, while Green Party MP Sue Bradford welcomed the comments. On 12 August 2002, in a speech at the opening of the Specialised Applied Research Centre of the Victoria University of Wellington, Cartwright questioned whether longer sentences would reduce criminal reoffending rates; this was after the Sentencing Act 2002 and the Parole Act 2002 were passed – Acts for which Cartwright granted Royal Assent on 12 July 2002.
The Acts introduced mandatory sentences for criminal convictions, reduced the likelihood of parole. ACT New Zealand MP Stephen Franks was critical of the remarks, stating "I don't think she was regarded as one of the most weighty judges and she's putting herself into a difficult constitutional position by weighing in this area", as was the Sensible Sentencing Trust. However, Prime Minister Helen Clark defended the Governor-General, stating "One of the challenges for us is we are no longer a dominion of Britain where the Governor-General is like the Queen". On Waitangi Day 2004, following National leader Don Brash's controversial Orewa Speech on race relations, Cartwright controversially gave a different interpretation of the phrase "He iwi tahi tatou". Following the 2005 general election, former National deputy leader Gerry Brownlee stated that Cartwright had not allowed National the chance at forming a government. Brownlee said "I have to publicly say that I have lost respect for the Governor-General and I think it is time we sat down now and started to look at a much more formal constitution for New Zealand".
In response, Helen Clark said that the Governor-General followed a "very proper process". Cartwright was appointed to sit as one of two international judges in the Trial Chamber of the Cambodia Tribunal by Cambodia's Supreme Council of Magistracy. Multiple Defence requests that she stand down from this position have been rejected by both the Trial Chamber and Supreme Court Chambers on their merits; the Khmer Rouge was responsible for the deaths of 1.2 to 2 million people between 1975 and 1979. She was made a Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1989. Upon her retirement from the High Court, she was granted the use of the style "The Honourable" for life. In 1993, Cartwright was awarded the New Zealand Suffrage Centennial Medal, she was made a Principal Companion of the New Zealand Order of Merit in 2001, she was awarded the QSO at the State luncheon at Parliament to farewell her on 2 August 2006. Her Honour Judge Silvia Rose Cartwright Her Honour Chief Judge Dame Silvia Rose Cartwright DBE The Hon. Justice Dame Silvia Rose Cartwright DBE The Hon. Justice Dame Silvia Rose Cartwright PCNZM, DBE Her Excellency The Hon. Dame Silvia Rose Cartwright PCNZM, DBE, Governor-General of New Zealand Her Excellency The Hon. Dame Silvia Rose Cartwright PCNZM, DBE, QSO, Governor-General of New Zealand The Hon. Dame Silvia Rose Cartwright PCNZM, DBE, QSO Cartwright is an Honorary Member of The International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation and a fellow of the Hastings Center, a bioethics research institution in the United States.
She is married to Peter Cartwright, CNZM, QSO. Notice of extension of term
New Zealand Order of Merit
The New Zealand Order of Merit is an order of merit in New Zealand's honours system. It was established by royal warrant on 30 May 1996 by Elizabeth II, Queen of New Zealand, "for those persons who in any field of endeavour, have rendered meritorious service to the Crown and nation or who have become distinguished by their eminence, contributions or other merits", to recognise outstanding service to the Crown and people of New Zealand in a civil or military capacity. In the order of precedence, the New Zealand Order of Merit ranks after the Order of New Zealand. Prior to 1996 New Zealanders received appointments to various British orders, such as the Order of the Bath, the Order of St Michael and St George, the Order of the British Empire, the Order of the Companions of Honour, as well as the distinction of Knight Bachelor; the change came about after the Prime Minister's Honours Advisory Committee was created "to consider and present options and suggestions on the structure of a New Zealand Royal Honours System in New Zealand, designed to recognise meritorious service and bravery and long service".
The monarch of New Zealand is the Sovereign of the order and the Governor-General is its Chancellor. Appointments are made at five levels: Knight or Dame Grand Companion Knight or Dame Companion Companion Officer Member; the number of Knights and Dames Grand Companion is limited to 30 living people. Additionally, new appointments are limited to 15 Knights or Dames Companion, 40 Companions, 80 Officers and 140 Members per year; as well as the five levels, there are three different types of membership. Ordinary membership is limited to citizens of a Commonwealth realm. "Additional" members, appointed on special occasions, are not counted in the numerical limits. People who are not citizens of a Commonwealth realm are given "Honorary" membership. There is a Secretary and Registrar and a Herald of the Order; the Collar, worn only by the Sovereign and Chancellor, comprises "links of the central medallion of the badge" and "S"-shaped Koru, with the Coat of Arms of New Zealand in centre. Hanging from the Coat of Arms is the badge of the Order.
The Star is an eight-pointed star with each arm bearing a representation of a fern frond, with the Order's badge superimposed in the centre. Grand Companions wear Knight Companions wear a silver star; the Badge for the three highest classes is a gold and white enamel cross with curved edges bearing at its centre the coat of arms of New Zealand within a green enamel ring bearing the motto For Merit Tohu Hiranga, topped by a royal crown. The badge for Officers and Members in silver-gilt and silver respectively. Grand Companions wear the badge on a sash over the right shoulder. Officers and Members wear the badge from a bow on the left shoulder; the ribbon and sash are plain red ochre. Knight/Dames Grand Companion and Knight/Dames Companion are entitled to use the style Sir for males and Dame for females; the order's statutes grant heraldic privileges to members of the first and second level, who are entitled to have the Order's circlet surrounding their shield. Grand Companions are entitled to heraldic supporters.
The Chancellor is entitled to supporters and a representation of the Collar of the Order around his/her shield. Sovereign: The Queen Chancellor and Principal Dame Grand Companion: The Governor-General Knights and Dames Grand Companion:Officials:Two positions, were created in the Statutes of the Order with all appointments published in the New Zealand Gazette. Secretary and Registrar: Michael L. C. Webster Herald: Philip O'Shea From 2000 to 2009, the two highest levels of the Order were Principal Companion and Distinguished Companion, without the appellation of "Sir" or "Dame"; the following contains the names of the small number of members of the grades Principal Companion and Distinguished Companion who chose not to convert their appointment to a Knight or Dame Grand Companion, or Knight or Dame Companion, thus not to accept the respective appellation of "Sir" or "Dame". The majority of those affected chose the aforereferenced appellations. A change to non-titular honours was a recommendation contained within the original report of the 1995 honours committee which prompted the creation of the New Zealand Order of Merit.
Titular honours were incorporated into the new system before its implementation in 1996 after the National Party caucus and public debate were split as to whether titles should be retained. There has long been debate in New Zealand regarding the appropriateness of titles; some feel it is no longer appropriate as New Zealand has not been a colony since 1907, to these people titles are out of step with present-day New Zealand. Others feel that titles carry both domestic and international recognition, that awarded on the basis of merit they remain an appropriate recognition of excellence. In April 2000 the new Labour Prime Minister, Helen Clark, announced that knighthoods and damehoods had been abolished and the order's statutes amended. From 2000 to 2009
Michael Cullen (politician)
Sir Michael John Cullen is a former New Zealand politician. He served as Deputy Prime Minister of New Zealand Minister of Finance, Minister of Tertiary Education, Attorney-General, he was the Deputy Leader of the Labour Party from 1996 until November 2008, when he resigned following a defeat in the general election. He resigned from Parliament in April 2009, to become the deputy chairman of New Zealand Post from 1 November 2009 and chairman from 1 November 2010. Born in London, Cullen emigrated to New Zealand while young, he attended secondary school at Christ's College in Christchurch, achieved an MA in history at Canterbury University. Receiving a Commonwealth Scholarship he gained a PhD in social and economic history from the University of Edinburgh. From 1971 to 1981 he was a lecturer at Otago University, with a term as a Visiting Fellow at the Australian National University from 1975 to 1976. On 16 December 2009, he received an honorary LLD from the University of Otago in recognition of "his contributions as an Otago academic and as a respected and influential politician".
In the 2012 Queen's Birthday and Diamond Jubilee Honours List, Cullen was appointed Knight Companion of the New Zealand Order of Merit. Cullen joined the Labour Party in 1974, served on the party's Executive and Council between 1976 and 1981. In 1981 he was elected MP for the Dunedin electorate of St Kilda; when Labour entered government in 1984, Cullen became Senior Whip. Due to his knowledge of economics, Cullen became involved in the disputes surrounding the Minister of Finance, Roger Douglas, who supported the liberalisation of trade and the sale of state assets plus deep tax cuts; these goals, which were against traditional Labour policies, angered both party members and the public. When the Prime Minister, David Lange, attempted to limit the influence Douglas had on the government's direction, Cullen became involved on Lange's side. After Labour's re-election in 1987, Cullen was made Associate Minister of Finance and Minister of Social Welfare. Douglas was forced to resign, but a month the political controversies around the dispute prompted the resignation of Lange himself.
Douglas was succeeded as Finance Minister by David one of his allies. Cullen was made Associate Minister of Health; when Labour lost the 1990 election, Cullen returned to being Labour's spokesperson on social welfare. The following year, he replaced David Caygill as the party's chief finance spokesperson; when Caygill retired from politics in 1996 Cullen took. Before Labour's position in the polls improved, Cullen was involved in an attempt to oust Helen Clark as party leader, not successful; the two do not appear to bear each other any resentment, however. Cullen has claimed to be happy with his position as second, saying that in terms of personality, he is "a number two sort of person". Many commentators agree, believing that Cullen's strength lies more in administration than leadership. Labour's electoral victory in 1999 resulted in Cullen becoming Minister of Finance. After the 2002 election, the electoral support for Labour's junior coalition partner was not sufficient to justify its leader holding the Deputy Prime Minister position, resulting in Michael Cullen replacing Jim Anderton as Deputy Prime Minister.
In 2004 Cullen declared his support for the monarchy of New Zealand, he was "a sort of token monarchist in the Cabinet these days". However, in 2010 he repudiated that stance, taking the view that New Zealand should move towards a republic once the Queen's reign ends. In 2005 Helen Clark appointed Cullen to the post of Attorney-General following the election of Margaret Wilson as Speaker of the House, his appointment became controversial because of his non-legal background and because of his previous criticisms of the judiciary, including of the Chief Justice Dame Sian Elias. His term in the position ended following the 2005 general election. However, with the resignation of David Parker in March 2006, Cullen took over the position again, he had a reputation as one of the Labour Party's best parliamentary debaters, is known for his sometimes "acerbic" sense of humour. Dr Cullen presented his seventh budget in 2006 as Minister of Finance. Cullen's guiding principle was, he stated, "The fool who spends on the upturn will find himself broke on the downturn".
Labour's eighth budget in 2007 reduced company tax from 33% to 30% and introduced a 15% research and development tax credit. It made a number of changes to the KiwiSaver scheme; the New Zealand economy entered recession in December 2007. Cullen's final budget was delivered in this context in May 2008; the day after the defeat of Labour in the 2008 general elections and Helen Clark's resignation as party leader, Cullen announced his resignation as deputy leader of the Labour Party. When he resigned from Parliament in 2009 he was replaced as an MP from the party list by Damien O'Connor. New Zealand Parliament biography New Zealand Labour Party biography Executive Government biography
Elizabeth II is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. Elizabeth was born in London as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, she was educated at home, her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother King Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive. She began to undertake public duties during the Second World War, serving in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. In 1947, she married Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, a former prince of Greece and Denmark, with whom she has four children: Charles, Prince of Wales; when her father died in February 1952, she became head of the Commonwealth and queen regnant of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Ceylon. She has reigned as a constitutional monarch through major political changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation, the decolonisation of Africa. Between 1956 and 1992, the number of her realms varied as territories gained independence and realms, including South Africa and Ceylon, became republics.
Her many historic visits and meetings include a state visit to the Republic of Ireland and visits to or from five popes. Significant events have included her coronation in 1953 and the celebrations of her Silver and Diamond Jubilees in 1977, 2002, 2012 respectively. In 2017, she became the first British monarch to reach a Sapphire Jubilee, she is the longest-lived and longest-reigning British monarch as well as the world's longest-reigning queen regnant and female head of state, the oldest and longest-reigning current monarch and the longest-serving current head of state. Elizabeth has faced republican sentiments and press criticism of the royal family, in particular after the breakdown of her children's marriages, her annus horribilis in 1992 and the death in 1997 of her former daughter-in-law Diana, Princess of Wales. However, support for the monarchy has been and remains high, as does her personal popularity. Elizabeth was born at 02:40 on 21 April 1926, during the reign of her paternal grandfather, King George V.
Her father, the Duke of York, was the second son of the King. Her mother, the Duchess of York, was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat the Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, she was delivered by Caesarean section at her maternal grandfather's London house: 17 Bruton Street, Mayfair. She was baptised by the Anglican Archbishop of York, Cosmo Gordon Lang, in the private chapel of Buckingham Palace on 29 May, named Elizabeth after her mother, Alexandra after George V's mother, who had died six months earlier, Mary after her paternal grandmother. Called "Lilibet" by her close family, based on what she called herself at first, she was cherished by her grandfather George V, during his serious illness in 1929 her regular visits were credited in the popular press and by biographers with raising his spirits and aiding his recovery. Elizabeth's only sibling, Princess Margaret, was born in 1930; the two princesses were educated at home under the supervision of their mother and their governess, Marion Crawford.
Lessons concentrated on history, language and music. Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margaret's childhood years entitled The Little Princesses in 1950, much to the dismay of the royal family; the book describes Elizabeth's love of horses and dogs, her orderliness, her attitude of responsibility. Others echoed such observations: Winston Churchill described Elizabeth when she was two as "a character, she has an air of authority and reflectiveness astonishing in an infant." Her cousin Margaret Rhodes described her as "a jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved". During her grandfather's reign, Elizabeth was third in the line of succession to the throne, behind her uncle Edward and her father. Although her birth generated public interest, she was not expected to become queen, as Edward was still young. Many people believed he would have children of his own; when her grandfather died in 1936 and her uncle succeeded as Edward VIII, she became second-in-line to the throne, after her father.
That year, Edward abdicated, after his proposed marriage to divorced socialite Wallis Simpson provoked a constitutional crisis. Elizabeth's father became king, she became heir presumptive. If her parents had had a son, she would have lost her position as first-in-line, as her brother would have been heir apparent and above her in the line of succession. Elizabeth received private tuition in constitutional history from Henry Marten, Vice-Provost of Eton College, learned French from a succession of native-speaking governesses. A Girl Guides company, the 1st Buckingham Palace Company, was formed so she could socialise with girls her own age, she was enrolled as a Sea Ranger. In 1939, Elizabeth's parents toured the United States; as in 1927, when her parents had toured Australia and New Zealand, Elizabeth remained in Britain, since her father thought her too young to undertake public tours. Elizabeth "looked tearful", they corresponded and she and her parents made the first royal transatlantic telephone call on 18 May.
In September 1939, Britain entered the Second World War. Lord Hailsham suggested that the two princesses should be evacuated to Canada to avoid the frequent aerial bombing; this was rejected by Elizabeth's mother. I won't leave wit
Monarchy of New Zealand
The monarchy of New Zealand is the constitutional system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign and head of state of New Zealand. The current monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, ascended the throne on the death of her father, King George VI, on 6 February 1952. All executive authority is vested in the monarch and her assent is required for parliament to enact laws and for letters patent and Orders in Council to have legal effect. However, the monarch's authority is subject to the conventional stipulations of constitutional monarchy, her direct participation in these areas of governance is limited. Most of the related powers are instead exercised by the elected members of parliament, the ministers of the Crown drawn from amongst them, the judges and justices of the peace. Other powers vested in the monarch, such as the appointment of a prime minister, are significant, but are treated only as reserve powers and as an important security part of the role of the monarchy; the New Zealand monarchy has its roots in the British Crown, from which it has evolved to become a distinctly New Zealand institution, represented by unique symbols.
New Zealand's monarch is today a personal union where the Sovereign is head of state concurrently with 15 other countries within the Commonwealth of Nations, all being independent and the monarchy of each distinct. As a result, the current monarch is titled Queen of New Zealand and, in this capacity, her consort, other members of the royal family undertake various public and private functions across New Zealand and on behalf of the country abroad. However, the Queen is the only member of the royal family with any constitutional role. While several powers are the sovereign's alone, because she lives predominantly in the United Kingdom, most of the royal constitutional and ceremonial duties in the Realm of New Zealand are carried out by the Queen's viceregal representative, the governor-general; the role of the monarchy in New Zealand is a recurring topic of public discussion. The person, the New Zealand sovereign is shared with 15 other monarchies in the 52-member Commonwealth of Nations; the emergence of this arrangement paralleled the evolution of New Zealand nationalism following the end of the First World War and culminated in the passage of the Statute of Westminster in 1931, since when the pan-national Crown has had both a shared and separate character, the sovereign's role as monarch of New Zealand has been distinct to his or her position as monarch of the United Kingdom.
As a result of this development, the monarchy has ceased to be an British institution, in New Zealand has become a New Zealand establishment. However, the monarchy is still inaccurately described as "British" in both legal and common language, for reasons historical, political and of convenience. Effective with the Constitution Act 1986, no British or other realm government can advise the sovereign on any matters pertinent to New Zealand, meaning that on all matters of the New Zealand state, the monarch is advised by New Zealand ministers of the Crown; as the monarch resides in the United Kingdom, one of the most important of these state duties carried out on the advice of the prime minister is the appointment of a governor-general, who performs most of the Queen's domestic duties in her absence. All royal powers in New Zealand may be carried out by both the monarch and governor-general and, in New Zealand law, the offices of monarch and governor-general are interchangeable, mention of one always including the other.
One of the first post-Second World War examples of New Zealand's status as an independent monarchy was the alteration of the monarch's title by the Royal Titles Act 1953. For the first time, the official New Zealand title mentioned New Zealand separately from the United Kingdom and the other realms, to highlight the monarch's role as Queen of New Zealand, as well as the shared aspect of the Crown throughout the realms. Since the passage of the Royal Titles Act 1974, the monarch's title in New Zealand has been Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God Queen of New Zealand and Her Other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith. Although the Queen's New Zealand title includes the phrase Defender of the Faith, neither the Queen nor the governor-general has any religious role in New Zealand; this is one of the key differences from the Queen's role in England, where she is Supreme Governor of the Church of England. Succession is, for persons born before 28 October 2011, governed by male-preference cognatic primogeniture and, for those born after 28 October 2011, by absolute primogeniture—wherein succession passes to an individual's children according to birth order, regardless of gender.
The succession is governed by the Act of Settlement 1701, Bill of Rights 1689, Royal Succession Act 2013, legislation that limits the succession to the biological, legitimate descendants of Sophia of Hanover, stipulates that the monarch cannot be a Roman Catholic and must be in communion with the Church of England upon ascending the throne. Though, via adopting the Statute of Westminster and the Imperial Laws Application Act 1988, these constitutional documents as