Pattadakal called Paṭṭadakallu or Raktapura, is a complex of 7th and 8th century CE Hindu and Jain temples in northern Karnataka. Located on the west bank of the Malaprabha River in Bagalakote district, this UNESCO World Heritage site is 14 miles from Badami and about 6 miles from Aihole, both of which are significant centres of Chalukya monuments; the monument is a protected site under Indian law and is managed by the Archaeological Survey of India. UNESCO has described Pattadakal as "a harmonious blend of architectural forms from northern and southern India" and an illustration of "eclectic art" at its height; the Hindu temples are dedicated to Shiva, but elements of Vaishnavism and Shaktism theology and legends are featured. The friezes in the Hindu temples display various Vedic and Puranic concepts, depict stories from the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, the Bhagavata Purana, as well as elements of other Hindu texts, such as the Panchatantra and the Kirātārjunīya; the Jain temple is only dedicated to a single Jina.
The most sophisticated temples, with complex friezes and a fusion of Northern and Southern styles, are found in the Papanatha and Virupaksha temples. The Virupaksha temple is an active house of Hindu worship; the Pattadakal monuments are located in the Indian state of Karnataka, about 165 kilometres southeast of Belgaum, 265 kilometres northeast from Goa, 14 miles from Badami, via Karanataka state highway SH14, about 6 miles from Aihole, set midst sandstone mountains and Malprabha river valley. In total, there are over 150 Hindu and Buddhist monuments, archaeological discoveries, dating from the 4th to 10th century CE, in addition to pre-historic dolmens and cave paintings that are preserved at the Pattadakal-Badami-Aihole site; the nearest airport to Pattadakal is Sambra Belgaum Airport, a 3-hour drive to the west, which operates daily flights to Mumbai and Chennai. Access to the site by train is possible via an Indian Railways service that stops at Badami on the Hubli-Solapur metre-gauge line.
Pattadakal was considered a holy place, being where the Malprabha river turned northwards towards the Himalayas and the Kailasha mountan. As its name implies, it was used during the Chalukya dynasty for coronation ceremonies, such as that of Vinayaditya in the 7th century CE. Other names this place was known by were Kisuvolal meaning "valley of red soil", Raktapura meaning "city of red", Pattada-Kisuvolal meaning "red soil valley for coronation"; the site, states Archaeological Survey of India, is mentioned in texts by Srivijaya and is referred to by Ptolemy as "Petirgal" in his Geography. Pattadakal became, along with nearby Aihole and Badami, a major cultural center and religious site for innovations in architecture and experimentation of ideas; the rule of the Gupta Empire during the 5th century brought about a period of political stability, during which Aihole became a locus of scholarship. The experimentations in architecture extended into Badami over the course of the next two centuries.
This culture of learning encompassed Pattadakal in the 7th century which became a nexus where ideas from northern and southern India fused. It was during this latter period that the Chalukya empire constructed many of the temples in Aihole-Badami-Pattadakal region. After the fall of the Chalukya Empire, the region was annexed by the Rashtrakuta kingdom, who would rule over the region into the 10th century. In the 11th century, into the 12th century, the region came under the rule of the Late Chalukyas, an offshoot of the Early Chalukya Empire. Although the area was not a capital region, nor in proximity to one, numerous sources such as inscriptions, contemporaneous texts and the architectural style indicate that, from the 9th to 12th centuries, new Hindu and Buddhist temples and monasteries continued to be built in the Pattadakal region. Historian George Michell attributes this to the presence of a substantial population and its burgeoning wealth. Throughout the 13th century, the Malprabha valley, as well as much of the nearby Deccan region, was subject to raids and plunder by the Delhi Sultanate armies that devastated the region.
This period ended with the rise of the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire. It was responsible for the construction of forts for the protection of the monuments, as evidenced by inscriptions in the fort at Badami. Pattadakal was a part of the border region that witnessed wars between Vijayanagara and the Sultanates to its north. Following the collapse of Vijayanagara Empire in 1565, Pattadakal was annexed by the Sultanate of Bijapur, ruled by the Adil Shahi dynasty. In the late 17th-century, the Mughal Empire, under Aurangzeb, gained control of Pattadakal from the Sultanate. After the collapse of the Mughal Empire, Pattadakal came under the control of the Maratha Empire, it changed hands, yet again, when Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan wrested control of it in late 18th century but would lose it when the British defeated Tipu Sultan and annexed the region. The monuments at Pattadakal are evidence of the existence, the history, of interaction between the early northern and southern styles of Hindu arts. According to T.
Richard Blurton, the history of temple arts in northern India is unclear as the region was sacked by invaders from Central Asia during the Muslim incursions from the 11th-century onward. The subsequent "warfare has reduced the quantity of surviving examples"; the Pattadakal monuments completed in 7th and 8th century are among the earliest surviving examples of these early religious arts and ideas. There are ten major temples at Pattadakal, nine Hindu and one Jain, a
Arnold O. Beckman High School is a public school in Irvine, United States, serving 3,013 students from grades 9 through 12; the original $69 million facility was opened on August 30, 2004. The Humanities Building - a new, $17 million, two-story, 30,000-square-foot facility - was unveiled on September 1, 2015; the school is known as Beckman and is named after Arnold Orville Beckman: a scientist and philanthropist famed for inventing the pH scale during his tenure at Caltech. Since its founding in 2004, Beckman has been awarded the status of a California Distinguished School by the California State Board of Education in 2007, 2011, 2015, again in 2019. Beckman serves the communities of Irvine, Santa Ana, Tustin Ranch, Northwood, Orchard Hills, West Irvine. Although its facilities are physically located in Irvine, the school is administered by Tustin Unified School District. Beckman's mascot is the Patriot. Beckman is known for strong arts, music and academic programs, it offers more than 20 Advanced Placement courses, eight instrumental music ensembles, studio arts and video production courses, - in partnership with Irvine Valley College - the Early College Program, which gives Beckman students the opportunity to take undergraduate courses for credit in conjunction with their normal high school curriculum.
Beckman is accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges and is a member of the National Association for College Admission Counseling and complies with the NACAC Statement of Principles of Good Practice. The 150-member Beckman High School Patriot Marching Band was formed in 2004. Since its inception, the band has grown in numbers and stature and has earned a reputation of excellence in musicianship; the group earned a first-place finish in its first parade, since has earned first-place finishes in 10 of the first 11 parades it has competed in. The band has participated in the Tustin Tiller Days Parade, MLK Parade in San Diego, Kingdom Day Parade in Los Angeles, the La Palma Days band review, Arcadia Band Review, the Whittier Christmas Parade, Los Angeles County Fair. Of note, the band has performed with the UCLA Marching Band in the Rose Bowl and the USC Marching Band in the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum and marched in parade at Disneyland. In April 2008, the Patriot Marching Band earned an invitation to perform at the 2008 National Cherry Blossom Festival Parade in Washington D.
C. The band appeared in the 2010 Hollywood Santa Parade. Six sousaphone players of the marching band took part in the Rose Parade in 2011; the band performed in Sacramento and San Francisco in March 2012, Washington D. C. for the Cherry Blossom Parade again in 2015. It won sweepstakes four years in a row at the annual Tustin Tiller Days Parade. 1 clarinetist became the first student from Beckman to be in the Rose Parade Honor Marching Band in 2014. Several students have gone on to perform in international performance groups, in places like Carnegie Hall in New York, Paris. During the school year, the marching band rehearses daily for an hour, with the only after-school rehearsals on the days of football games; the group performs for home football games and various student body events, honors community Veterans with an annual Veterans' Day Concert. The Varsity Band, made up of select members of the Marching Band, performs at various Beckman High School boys' and girls' varsity sporting events, therefore giving students an opportunity to earn their varsity letter in band.
There is one active chamber group that has spawned from the Wind Ensemble. The "Paradox 5" Woodwind Quintet has achieved superior ratings at the SCSBOA Los Coyotes Solo and Ensemble District Festival during April 2008 and at the SCSBOA Regional Solo and Ensemble Festival during June 2008, the latter with the "Command Performance" honor. Beckman Theatre Arts competes at various theatre festivals throughout the year. Beckman Orchestra has three levels: Chamber and Concert. Beckman's Chamber Orchestra has been invited five times, in 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2013, 2015, to attend a national music event in New York, where it has performed at Carnegie Hall, it now performs consecutively every 2 years. The orchestra has attended many SCSBOA festivals, earning Superior ratings in all of them; the orchestra had been invited to perform at Disney Hall in 2011, but due to their recent trip to Carnegie Hall, the orchestra declined. The orchestra has been invited to Disneyland every year. In June 2012, the Orchestra attended and competed at the World's Festival at the Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles.
The Beckman Symphonic Orchestra is the middle level. This is where the sophomores and seniors go if they do not make Chamber Orchestra; the group has earned Superior ratings at the SCSBOA festivals. The Beckman Concert Orchestra is composed of sophomore players only, they has provided the skills important to Chamber Orchestra. The Beckman High School Chorale sings an extensive repertoire of music both classical and contemporary, it has since grown to consist of over 100 participants. Throughout the years, a number of changes have taken place with the choirs. There are three choir classes offered at Beckman; the Mixed Choir is a non-auditioned choir made up of upperclassmen. The Bel Canto Choir is an advanced auditioned group of underclassmen and upperclassmen women with a wide range of musical experience
This is a list of women writers who were born in Lithuania or whose writings are associated with that country. Gintarė Adomaitytė, journalist Loreta Anilionytė, educator, non-fiction writer, since 2000 Yemima Avidar-Tchernovitz, Lithuanian-born Hebrew children's writer Magdalena Avietėnaitė, diplomat and a public figure Ona Baliukonė, essayist, painter Laura Sintija Černiauskaitė, novelist Birutė Ciplijauskaitė, translator Ona Galdikaitė, Lithuanian nun and dissident writer, theological translator Marija Gimbutas, Lithuanian-American translator, non-fiction writer, writings in German and English on archaeology, Lithuanian culture Emma Goldman, Lithuanian-born Russian-American memoirist, publisher, anarchist Aldona Gustas, Lithuanian-born German-language poet, feminist, works translated into several languages Esther Hautzig, Lithuanian-born American, author of the autobiographical work The Endless Steppe Jurga Ivanauskaitė, short story writer, essayist, some works translated into English Vidmantė Jasukaitytė, novelist, short story writer, essayist Vanda Juknaitė, novelist, memoirist Ugnė Karvelis, translator, editor Marija Lastauskienė, short story writer, journalist writing jointly with her sister under the pen name Lazdynų Pelėda, wrote in Polish and Lithuanian Meilė Lukšienė, writings on education and Lithuanian culture Edita Mildažytė, talk show host Miriam Mosessohn, Lithuanian-born Hebrew-language translator of German novels Salomėja Nėris, pen name of Salomėja Bačinskaitė-Bučienė, acclaimed poet Gabrielė Petkevičaitė-Bitė, novelist, short story writer, playwright Sofija Pšibiliauskienė, wrote jointly with her sister Marija Lastauskienė under the pen name Lazdynų Pelėda, short story writer, novelist writing in Polish Paulina Pukytė, poet, critic Giedra Radvilavičiūtė, short story writer Undinė Radzevičiūtė, worked in advertising Kristina Sabaliauskaitė, art historian, historical novelist, short story writer Šatrijos Ragana, pen name of Marija Pečkauskaitė, short story writer, translator Ieva Simonaitytė, historical novelist, works subjected to Soviet censorship Indrė Valantinaitė, singer Žemaitė, pen name of Julija Beniuševičiūtė-Žymantienė, short story writer List of Lithuanians List of women writers