SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Patuxent River

The Patuxent River is a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay in the state of Maryland. There are three main river drainages for central Maryland: the Potomac River to the west passing through Washington, D. C. the Patapsco River to the northeast passing through Baltimore, the Patuxent River between the two. The 908-square-mile Patuxent watershed had a growing population of 590,769 in 2000, it is the largest and longest river within Maryland, its watershed is the largest within the state. The river source, 115 miles from the Chesapeake, is in the hills of the Maryland Piedmont near the intersection of four counties – Howard, Frederick and Carroll, only 0.6 miles from Parr's Spring, the source of the south fork of the Patapsco River. Flowing in a southeastward direction, the Patuxent crosses the urbanized corridor between Baltimore and Washington, D. C. and opens up into a navigable tidal estuary near the colonial seaport of Queen Anne in Prince George's County, just southeast of Bowie, finding the Chesapeake Bay 52 miles later.

The fifty-two mile-long tidal estuary is never wider than 2.3 miles. It marks the boundary between Montgomery, Prince George's, Charles and St. Mary's counties on the west and Howard, Anne Arundel, Calvert counties on the east; the Chesapeake estuary's deepest point, 130 feet below sea level, is in the lower Patuxent. The two largest cities in the watershed are Laurel, Maryland. There is a percentage of agricultural activity in the region as well; the mid and lower banks of the river have marshland ecosystems. Many of those ecosystems are protected on the state and local levels; the most notable of which include Jug Bay Wetlands Sanctuary, Merkle Wetlands Sanctuary, Patuxent River Park, along with many more. Farther north, there is the 20 square mile Patuxent Research Refuge, which helps to protect Patuxent River wildlife; the Little Patuxent River, the Middle Patuxent River, the Western Branch are the three largest tributaries. The Middle Patuxent flows into the Little Patuxent just upstream from the historic Savage Mill in Savage.

The Little Patuxent joins the Patuxent just southwest of Crofton. The Middle Patuxent flows 24 miles through the middle of Howard County, while the Little Patuxent flows 38 miles through northeast and southeast Howard County and western Anne Arundel County. Western Branch originates under the name Folly Branch in the Wingate Drive area of the northern part of Glenn Dale, assuming the name "Western Branch" in Woodmore, continuing southward through Prince George's County, joined by Collington Branch before it joins the Patuxent near Upper Marlboro. Native Americans have lived along the Patuxent River since at least 6500 BC. An archaeological dig at Pig Point uncovered some of the oldest known artifacts in the Mid Atlantic states, including pottery and spear points and remnants of wigwams and foodways; the site was a center of trade in the region and has one of the best unbroken archaeological records on the East Coast. The Pig Point site includes remnants of the oldest structures found in Maryland, wigwam post holes dating to the 3rd century.

The Patuxent River was first named on the detailed map resulting from the 1608 voyage upriver by Jamestown, Virginia settler John Smith. Captain Smith got as far as the rough vicinity of the present-day Merkle Wildlife Sanctuary area, 40 miles from the Chesapeake near what is now the Anne Arundel–Calvert–Prince George's County tripoint; this was most the second visit by Europeans to the Patuxent, as in June 1588 a small Spanish expedition under Vicente Gonzalez is believed to have anchored for the night in the Patuxent mouth. The river was an important colonial shipping port with the government's garrison situated at the mouth of the river where Charles Calvert was first Collector in 1673. In 1699, Thomas Browne, a Patuxent Ranger, followed the river from the Snowden plantation to where Clarksville is sited. In 1702 George Plater I was the naval officer having earlier served as Collector after Calvert, Sewall and Payne held the collectorship. By the mid and late 17th century colonists spread upriver to Mt. Calvert and Billingsley Point, two 18th-century mansions 43.5 miles upriver from the Chesapeake that are today part of Patuxent River Park.

By the 1730s, the Snowden iron ore furnace just southeast of Laurel, was shipping "pig iron" downriver from the current vicinity of the 1783 Montpelier Mansion part of Patuxent River Park. In August 1814, Commodore Joshua Barney and his Chesapeake Bay Flotilla were trapped in the Patuxent by the British fleet under Admiral Sir George Cockburn. To keep them from British hands, Barney's men ignited the magazines of his ships in the four mile stretch above Pig Point (44 miles upriver from the Chesapeake when the British approached; the British launched their attack on Washington, D. C. from their warships in the Patuxent at Benedict, 22 miles away. From there, the troops marched through, Upper Marlboro, Bladensburg and on to Washington. Tobacco farming dominated the Patuxent's economy for the two centuries following white settlement, with about sixty percent of Maryland's tobacco coming from the Patuxent valley by the late 18th century. Destruction of the plantations by the British and of the soil by centuries of tobacco farming brought the mid and lower Patuxent valley into a period of decline that would last until the 1930s, when there were fewer residents in the Patuxent's Calvert County than there were in the 1840

Carl L. Rasch

Carl L. Rasch was a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the District of Montana. Born in Schleswig-Holstein, German Confederation, Rasch received a Bachelor of Philosophy degree from Cornell College in Mount Vernon, Iowa, in 1889 and a Bachelor of Laws from Chicago College of Law in 1890, he was in private practice in Helena, Montana starting in 1891. He was the United States Attorney for the District of Montana from 1902 to 1908. On April 26, 1910, Rasch was nominated by President William Howard Taft to a seat on the United States District Court for the District of Montana vacated by Judge William Henry Hunt, he was confirmed by the United States Senate on May 2, 1910, received his commission the same day. Rasch served in that capacity for less than 18 months, resigning on October 15, 1911. Rasch returned to private practice in Helena from 1911 until his death, from 1933 to 1938 was general counsel to the Western Life Insurance Company, he died on February 1961, in Helena.

Carl L. Rasch at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center

Ranks of the Imperial Japanese Navy

The following graphs present the rank insignia of the Imperial Japanese Navy from its establishment in 1868 to its defeat during World War II in 1945. These designs were used from 1931 onwards. Cap badges: All warrant and commissioned officer ranks had the same names as their army counterparts. For seamen and petty officers, which were selected from enlisted men or conscripts and given one year of training in the Navy PO Academy, the naming changed in November 1942. Both of the names were equal in rank; the branch of the Navy in which non-executive personnel served was indicated by a color code. For officers, including midshipmen, it was the color of cloth placed as background to the cuff stripes, on both sides of the gold lace on the shoulder boards, as longitudinal piping on the collar patches. Midshipmen and cadets wore a colored anchor on the cap, which cadets wore on the shoulder boards as well; the branch of enlisted men was denoted by the color of the Chrysanthemum flower on their rank patch.

Army ranks of the Japanese Empire during World War II Comparative military ranks Military of Japan Military rank