A viscount or viscountess is a title used in certain European countries for a noble of varying status. In many countries a viscount, its historical equivalents, was a non-hereditary, administrative or judicial position, did not develop into an hereditary title until much later. In the case of French viscounts, it is customary to leave the title untranslated as vicomte and vicomtesse; the word viscount comes from Old French visconte, itself from Medieval Latin vicecomitem, accusative of vicecomes, from Late Latin vice- "deputy" + Latin comes. During the Carolingian Empire, the kings appointed counts to administer provinces and other smaller regions, as governors and military commanders. Viscounts were appointed to assist the counts in their running of the province, took on judicial responsibility; the kings prevented the offices of their counts and viscounts from becoming hereditary, in order to consolidate their position and limit chance of rebellion. The title was in use in Normandy by at least the early 11th century.
Similar to the Carolingian use of the title, the Norman viscounts were local administrators, working on behalf of the Duke. Their role was to administer justice and to collect taxes and revenues being castellan of the local castle. Under the Normans, the position developed into a hereditary one, an example of such being the viscounts in Bessin; the viscount was replaced by bailiffs, provosts. As a rank in British peerage, it was first recorded in 1440, when John Beaumont was created Viscount Beaumont by King Henry VI; the word viscount corresponds in the UK to the Anglo-Saxon shire reeve. Thus early viscounts were normally given their titles by the monarch, not hereditarily, they were a late introduction to the British peerage, on the evening of the Coronation of Queen Victoria in 1838, the Prime Minister Lord Melbourne explained to her why: I spoke to Ld M. about the numbers of Peers present at the Coronation, & he said it was quite unprecedented. I observed that there were few Viscounts, to which he replied "There are few Viscounts," that they were an old sort of title & not English.
In Belgium a few families are recognised as Viscounts: Viscount of Audenaerde Viscount of Hombeke Viscount de Spoelberch Viscount Eyskens Viscount Frimout Viscount Poullet A viscount is the fourth rank in the British peerage system, standing directly below an earl and above a baron. There are 270 viscountcies extant in the peerages of the British Isles, though most are secondary titles. In British practice, the title of a viscount may be either a place name, a surname, or a combination thereof: examples include the Viscount Falmouth, the Viscount Hardinge and the Viscount Colville of Culross, respectively. An exception exists for Viscounts in the peerage of Scotland, who were traditionally styled "The Viscount of ", such as the Viscount of Arbuthnott. In practice, however few maintain this style, instead using the more common version "The Viscount " in general parlance, for example Viscount of Falkland, referred to as Viscount Falkland. A British viscount is addressed in speech as Lord, while his wife is Lady, he is formally styled "The Right Honourable The Viscount ".
The children of a viscount are known as The Honourable. The title of viscount was introduced to the Peerage of Ireland in 1478 with the creation of the title of Viscount Gormanston, the senior viscountcy of Britain and Ireland, held today by Jenico Preston, 17th Viscount Gormanston. Other early Irish viscountcies were Viscount Baltinglass, Viscount Clontarf, Viscount Mountgarret and Viscount Decies. A British custom is the use of viscount as a courtesy title for the heir of an earl or marquess; the peer's heir apparent will sometimes be referred to as a viscount, if the second most senior title held by the head of the family is a viscountcy. For example, the eldest son of the Earl Howe is Viscount Curzon, because this is the second most senior title held by the Earl. However, the son of a marquess or an earl can be referred to as a viscount when the title of viscount is not the second most senior if those above it share their name with the substantive title. For example, the second most senior title of the Marquess of Salisbury is the Earl of Salisbury, so his heir uses the lower title of Viscount Cranborne.
Sometimes the son of a peer can be referred to as a viscount when he could use a more senior courtesy title which differs in name from the substantive title. Family tradition plays a role in this. For example, the eldest son of the Marquess of Londonderry is Viscount Castlereagh though the Marquess is the Earl Vane. A viscount's coronet of rank bears 16 silver balls around the rim. Like all heraldic coronets, it is worn at the coronation of a sovereign, but a viscount has the right to bear his coronet of rank on his coat of arms, above the shield. In this guise, the coronet is shown featuring 9 silver balls; the island of Jersey still retains an officer whose function is purely to administer orders of the island's judiciary, whose position remains non-hereditary. The role of the Viscount of Jersey (French: V
James Gillray was a British caricaturist and printmaker famous for his etched political and social satires published between 1792 and 1810. Many of his works are held at the National Portrait Gallery in London. Gillray has been called "the father of the political cartoon", with his works satirizing George III, prime ministers and generals. Regarded as being one of the two most influential cartoonists, the other being William Hogarth, Gillray's wit and humour, knowledge of life, fertility of resource, keen sense of the ludicrous, beauty of execution, at once gave him the first place among caricaturists, he was born in London. His father, a native of Lanark, had served as a soldier: he lost an arm at the Battle of Fontenoy and was admitted, first as an inmate and subsequently as an outdoor pensioner, at Chelsea Hospital. Gillray commenced life by learning letter-engraving. Finding this employment irksome, he wandered for a time with a company of strolling players. After a chequered experience, he returned to London and was admitted as a student in the Royal Academy, supporting himself by engraving, issuing a considerable number of caricatures under fictitious names.
His caricatures are all in etching, some with aquatint, a few using stipple technique. None can be described as engravings, although this term is loosely used to describe them. Hogarth's works were the study of his early years. Paddy on Horseback, which appeared in 1779, is the first caricature, his. Two caricatures on Admiral Rodney's naval victory at the Battle of the Saintes, issued in 1782, were among the first of the memorable series of his political sketches; the name of Gillray's publisher and print seller, Hannah Humphrey—whose shop was first at 227 Strand in New Bond Street in Old Bond Street, in St James's Street—is inextricably associated with that of the caricaturist himself. Gillray lived with Miss Humphrey during the entire period of his fame, it is believed that he several times thought of marrying her, that on one occasion the pair were on their way to the church, when Gillray said: "This is a foolish affair, Miss Humphrey. We live comfortably together. There is no evidence, however, to support the stories which scandalmongers invented about their relations.
One of Gillray's prints, "Twopenny Whist," is a depiction of four individuals playing cards, the character shown second from the left, an ageing lady with eyeglasses and a bonnet, is believed to be an accurate depiction of Miss Humphrey. Gillray's plates were exposed in Humphrey's shop window. One of his prints, Very Slippy-Weather, shows Miss Humphrey's shop in St. James's Street in the background. In the shop window a number of Gillray's published prints, such as Tiddy-Doll the Great French Gingerbread Maker, Drawing Out a New Batch of Kings. Gillray's eyesight began to fail in 1806, he began wearing spectacles but they were unsatisfactory. Unable to work to his previous high standards, James Gillray became depressed and started drinking heavily, he produced his last print in September 1809. As a result of his heavy drinking Gillray suffered from gout throughout his life, his last work, from a design by Bunbury, is entitled Interior of a Barber's Shop in Assize Time, is dated 1811. While he was engaged on it he became mad, although he had occasional intervals of sanity, which he employed on his last work.
The approach of madness may have been hastened by his intemperate habits. In July 1811 Gillray attempted to kill himself by throwing himself out of an attic window above Humphrey's shop in St James's Street. Gillray lapsed into insanity and was looked after by Hannah Humphrey until his death on 1 June 1815 in London. A number of his most trenchant satires are directed against George III, after examining some of Gillray's sketches, said "I don't understand these caricatures." Gillray revenged himself for this utterance by his caricature entitled, A Connoisseur Examining a Cooper, which he is doing by means of a candle on a "save-all". During the French Revolution, Gillray took a conservative stance. A number of these were published in the Anti-Jacobin Review, he is not, however, to be thought of as a keen political adherent of either the Whig or the Tory party. The times in which Gillray lived were peculiarly favourable to the growth of a great school of caricature. Party warfare was carried on with not a little bitterness.
Gillray's incomparable wit and humour, knowledge of life, fertility of resource, keen sense of the ludicrous, beauty of execution, at once gave him the first place among caricaturists. He is honourably distinguished in the history of caricature by the fact that his sketches are real works of art; the ideas embodied in some of them are sublime and poetically magnificent in their intensity of meaning, while the forthrightness—which some have called coarseness—which others display is characteristic of the general freedom of treatment common in all intellectual departments in the 18th century. The historical value of Gillray's work has been recognized by many disce
Kingdom of Sardinia
The Kingdom of Sardinia was a state in Southern Europe from the early 14th until the mid-19th century. When it was acquired by the Duke of Savoy in 1720, it was a former Iberian state as well as a member of the Council of Aragon. However, the Savoyards united it with their possessions on the Italian mainland and, by the time of the Crimean War in 1853, had built the resulting kingdom into a strong power; the composite state under the rule of Savoy in this period may be called Savoy-Sardinia or Piedmont-Sardinia, or the Kingdom of Piedmont to emphasise that the island of Sardinia had always been of secondary importance to the monarchy. The formal name of the entire Savoyard state was the "States of His Majesty the King of Sardinia", its final capital was the capital of Savoy since the mid 16th century. The kingdom consisted of the islands of Corsica and Sardinia, sovereignty over both of, claimed by the Papacy, which granted them as a fief, the regnum Sardiniae et Corsicae, to King James II of Aragon in 1297.
Beginning in 1324, James and his successors conquered the island of Sardinia and established de facto their de jure authority. In 1420, after the Sardinian-Catalan War, the last competing claim to the island was bought out. After the union of the crowns of Aragon and Castile, Sardinia became a part of the burgeoning Spanish Empire. In 1720, the island was ceded by the Habsburg and Bourbon claimants to the Spanish throne to Duke Victor Amadeus II of Savoy. While in theory the traditional capital of the island of Sardinia and seat of its viceroys was Cagliari, the Piedmontese city of Turin was the de facto capital of Savoy; when the mainland domains of the House of Savoy were occupied and annexed by Napoleonic France, the king of Sardinia made his permanent residence on the island for the first time in its history. The Congress of Vienna, which restructured Europe after Napoleon's defeat, returned to Savoy its mainland possessions and augmented them with Liguria, taken from the Republic of Genoa.
In 1847–48, through the "Perfect Fusion", the various Savoyard states were unified under one legal system with their capital in Turin, granted a constitution, the Statuto Albertino. There followed the annexation of Lombardy, the central Italian states and the Two Sicilies and the Papal States. On 17 March 1861, to more reflect its new geographic extent, the Kingdom of Sardinia changed its name to the Kingdom of Italy, its capital was moved first to Florence and to Rome; the Savoy-led Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia was thus the legal predecessor of the Kingdom of Italy, which in turn is the predecessor of the present-day Italian Republic. In 238 BC Sardinia became, along with a province of the Roman Empire; the Romans ruled the island until the middle of the 5th century, when it was occupied by the Vandals, who had settled in north Africa. In 534 AD it was reconquered by the Romans, but now from Byzantium, it remained a Byzantine province until the Arab conquest of Sicily in the 9th century. After that, communications with Constantinople became difficult, powerful families of the island assumed control of the land.
Facing Arab attempts to sack and conquer, while having no outside help, Sardinia utilized the principle of translatio imperii and continued to organize itself along the ancient Roman and Byzantine model. The island was not the personal property of the ruler and of his family, as was the dominant practice in western Europe, but rather a separate entity and during the Byzantine Empire, a monarchical republic, as it had been since Roman times. Starting from 705–706, Saracens from north Africa harassed the population of the coastal cities. Information about the Sardinian political situation in the following centuries is scarce. Due to Saracen attacks, in the 9th century Tharros was abandoned in favor of Oristano, after more than 1800 years of occupation. There is a record of another massive Saracen sea attack in 1015–16 from the Balearics, commanded by Mujāhid al-ʿĀmirī; the Saracen attempt to invade the island was stopped by the Judicates with the support of the fleets of the maritime republics of Pisa and Genoa, free cities of the Holy Roman Empire.
Pope Benedict VIII requested aid from the maritime republics of Pisa and Genoa in the struggle against the Arabs. After the Great Schism, Rome made many efforts to restore Latinity to the Sardinian church and society, to reunify the island under one Catholic ruler, as it had been for all of southern Italy, when the Byzantines had been driven away by Catholic Normans; the title of "Judge" was a Byzantine reminder of the Greek church and state, in times of harsh relations between eastern and western churches. Before the Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica, the Archons or, in Latin, who reigned in the island from the 9th or 10th century until the beginning of the 11th century, can be considered real kings of all Sardinia though nominal vassals of the Byzantine emperors. Of these sovereigns only two names are known: Turcoturiu and
Second Anglo-Mysore War
The Second Anglo–Mysore War was a conflict between the Kingdom of Mysore and the British East India Company from 1780 to 1784. At the time, Mysore was a key French ally in India, the conflict between Britain against the French and Dutch in the American Revolutionary War sparked Anglo–Mysorean hostilities in India; the great majority of soldiers on the company side were raised, trained and commanded by the company, not the British government. However, the company's operations were bolstered by Crown troops sent from Britain, by troops sent from Hanover, ruled by Britain's King George III. Following the British seizure of the French port of Mahé in 1779, Mysorean ruler Hyder Ali opened hostilities against the British in 1780, with significant success in early campaigns; as the war progressed, the British recovered some territorial losses. Both France and Britain sent troops and naval squadrons from Europe to assist in the war effort, which widened in 1780 when Britain declared war on the Dutch Republic.
In 1783 news of a preliminary peace between France and Britain reached India, resulting in the withdrawal of French support from the Mysorean war effort. The British also sought to end the conflict with Mysore, the British government ordered the Company to secure peace with Mysore; this resulted in the 1784 Treaty of Mangalore, restoring the status quo ante bellum under terms company officials such as Warren Hastings found unfavourable. Hyder Ali ruled Mysore. Stung by what he considered a British breach of faith during an earlier war against the Marathas, Hyder Ali committed himself to a French alliance to seek revenge against the British. Upon the French declaration of war against Britain in 1778, aided by the popularity of philosopher Benjamin Franklin, the British East India Company resolved to drive the French out of India, by taking the few enclaves of French possessions left on the subcontinent; the company began by capturing Pondicherry and other French outposts in 1778. They captured the French controlled port at Mahé on the Malabar coast in 1779.
Mahé was of great strategic importance to Hyder, who received French-supplied arms and munitions through the port, Hyder had not only explicitly told the British it was under his protection, he had provided troops for its defence. Hyder set about forming a confederacy against the British, which, in addition to the French, included the Marathas and the Nizam of Hyderabad. In July 1780 Hyder Ali invaded the Carnatic with an army of 80,000, he descended through the passes of the Eastern Ghats, burning villages as he went, before laying siege to British forts in northern Arcot. The British responded by sending a force of 5,000 to lift the sieges. From his camp at Arcot Hyder Ali sent part of his army under the command of his eldest son, Tipu Sultan, to intercept a British force from Guntur sent to reinforce Colonel Hector Munro's army 145 miles to the north at Madras. On the morning of 10 September 1780, the British force from Guntur under the command of Colonel William Baillie came under heavy fire from Tipu's guns near Pollilur.
Baillie formed his force into a long square formation and began to move forward. However, Hyder Ali's cavalry broke through the formation's front, inflicting many casualties and forcing Baillie to surrender. Out of the British force of 3,820 men, 336 were killed; the defeat was considered to be the East India Company's most crushing loss in India at that time. Munro reacted to the defeat by retreating to Madras, abandoning his baggage and dumping his cannons in the water tank at Kanchipuram, a small town some 50 kilometres south of Madras. Naravane states in fact that it was a massacre with only 50 officers and 200 men taken prisoner, one of them Baille. Instead of following up the victory and pressing on for a decisive victory at Madras, Hyder Ali instead renewed the siege at Arcot, which he captured on 3 November; this decision gave the British time to shore up their defences in the south, despatch reinforcements under the command of Sir Eyre Coote to Madras. Coote, though repulsed at Chidambaram, defeated Hyder Ali three times in succession in the battles of Porto Novo and Sholinghur, while Tipu was forced to raise the siege of Wandiwash, besieged Vellore instead.
The arrival of Lord Macartney as governor of Madras in the summer of 1781 included news of war with the Dutch Republic. Macartney ordered the seizure of the Dutch outposts in India, the British captured the main Dutch outpost at Negapatam after three weeks of siege in November 1781 against defenses that included 2,000 of Hyder Ali's men; this forced Hyder Ali to realize that he could never defeat a power that had command of the sea, since British naval support contributed to the victory. Tipu defeated Colonel Braithwaite at Annagudi near Tanjore on 18 Feb 1782; this army consisted of 300 cavalry, 1400 sepoys and 10 field pieces. Tipu took the entire detachment as prisoners. In December 1781 Tipu had seized Chittur from British hands; these operations gave Tipu valuable military experience. Both Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan gained alliances with Ali Raja Bibi Junumabe II and the Muslim Mappila community and met with Muslim Malay from Melacca under Dutch service. During the summer of 1782 company officials in Bombay sent additional troops to Tellicherry, from whence they began operations against Mysorean holdings in the Malabar.
Hyder Ali sent Tipu and a strong force to counter this threat, the latter had pinned this force at Panianee when he learned of Hyder Ali's sudden death due to cancer. Tipu's precipitate departure from the scene provided some relief to the British force, but Bomb
A cadet is a trainee. The term is used to refer to those training to become an officer in the military a person, a junior trainee, its meaning may vary between countries. The term is used in civilian contexts and as a general attributive, for example in its original sense of a branch of a ruling house, not in the direct line of succession; the term comes from the French term "cadet" for younger sons of a noble family. In Commonwealth countries, including the United Kingdom, a cadet is a member of one of the cadet forces. In the United Kingdom these are the Combined Cadet Force, the Sea/Royal Marine Cadets, Army Cadets and the Air Training Corps. Military officers in training are called officer cadets. In Canada, the term "cadet" refers to an officer in training, with the official rank names as Officer Cadet for the Air Force and Army and Naval Cadet for the Navy, it refers to any member of the Royal Canadian Army Cadets, Royal Canadian Air Cadets or Royal Canadian Sea Cadets. These three organizations are volunteer youth groups administered by the Department of National Defence.
In Germany, the rank Cadet only exists in the German Navy for officers in training. In the Army and the Luftwaffe, officers in training have the rank of a Fahnenjunker or Ensign before they are promoted into the rank of a Lieutenant. In the Philippines, the term cadet is used in military attached organizations, but it is more distinctive in the service academies of the Philippines, such as these are the Philippine Military Academy, the Philippine National Police Academy, Philippine Merchant Marine Academy. Graduates of these service academies, are automatically given officer commission in the Armed Forces of the Philippines, the Philippine National Police, Philippine Coast Guard, the Bureau of Fire Protection, Bureau Of Jail Management and Penology. Graduates of PMMA are given reserve officer status in the Philippine Navy and go to private shipping firms; the term cadet is applicable to the enrollees of Citizen's Army Training and Reserve Officer Training Corps. Service academy cadets are thought to be between the NCO and Officers ranks, NCO consider cadets as rank higher to them.
Punishments for the cadets depends on their violations. If a cadet violated the rules and regulations of Philippine Military Training and the rules of the school itself, the cadet will get punished by either doing push-ups, pumping, or squat. In Ireland, a Cadet is a pupil of the Military College, which carries out officer training for the Air Corps and Naval Service. Training takes two years and the Cadets are split into Senior and Junior Grades and Classes. In Norway, a "cadet" is a pupil of either of the three Krigsskolen, which educate commanding officers for either the Army, the Navy or to the Air Force. In the United States, cadet refers to a full-time college student, concurrently in training to become a commissioned officer of the armed forces. Students at the United States Military Academy, the United States Air Force Academy, the United States Coast Guard Academy hold the rank of Cadet, United States Army. In contrast, students at the United States Naval Academy and those enrolled in the Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps at civilian colleges and universities are referred to as "midshipman" vice cadet and hold Midshipman rank in the United States Navy and United States Naval Reserve, respectively.
Students at the United States Merchant Marine Academy and the preponderance of students at the Maine Maritime Academy, the Massachusetts Maritime Academy, the California Maritime Academy and the State University of New York Maritime College, though called cadets at their respective institutions hold the rank of Midshipman, United States Merchant Marine Reserve, United States Naval Reserve. Some state-sponsored military colleges, including The Citadel, Virginia Military Institute and private military college, Norwich University, refer to their students as cadets. In Australia Cadet refers to an officer in training; the official rank is Officer Cadet however OCDT's in the Royal Military College—Duntroon are referred to as Staff Cadet for historical reasons. In the British and Commonwealth as well as Russian service, these groups of boys or youths are organized and trained on volunteer military lines; the Antigua and Barbuda Cadet Corps consists of students between the ages of 12 and 19. It Is a voluntary youth organization, sponsored by the government and people of Antigua & Barbuda that acquires its membership from the Secondary School.
The main objective is to provide training and personal development to the youths through paramilitary activities and embrace community activities. The training is woman to become model citizens. Emphasis during training is based on discipline, loyalty and good citizenry. Presently, the cadet corps has 200 active members and falls under the direct command of Colonel Glyne V. Dunnah, a regular officer of the Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force, is a part of the ABDF. There are two categories in the Cadet Corps: Infantry Cadets. Ranks start from Recruit—WNCO. In Australia, a "cadet" can be a person aged betwee
Siege of Toulon
The Siege of Toulon was a military operation by Republican forces against a Royalist rebellion in the southern French city of Toulon. After the arrest of the Girondist deputies on the 2 June 1793, there followed a series of insurrections within the French cities of Lyon, Avignon, Nîmes and Marseille. In Toulon, the revolutionaries evicted the existing Jacobin faction but were soon supplanted by the more numerous royalists. Upon the announcement of the recapture of Marseille and of the reprisals which had taken place there at the hands of the revolutionaries, the royalist forces, directed by the Baron d'Imbert, called for aid from the Anglo-Spanish fleet. On 28 August, Admiral Sir Samuel Hood of the Royal Navy and Admiral Juan de Lángara of the Spanish Navy, committed a force of 13,000 British, Spanish and Piedmontese troops to the French royalists' cause; this was a serious blow to the republic, as the city had a key naval arsenal and was the base for 26 ships of the line. Without this port there was no hope for French naval ambitions.
As a result, any desire to challenge the Allies, the British, for control of the seas would be out of the question. In addition, its loss could set a dangerous precedent for other areas that menaced the republic with revolt; the survival of the Republic was at stake. On 1 October, Baron d'Imbert proclaimed the young Louis XVII to be king of France, hoisted the French royalist flag of the fleur de lys, delivering the town of Toulon to the British navy; the troops of the army said to be of the "Carmagnoles", under the command of General Jean François Carteaux, arrived at Toulon on 8 September, after those troops had recovered Avignon and Marseille, Ollioules. They joined up with the 6,000 men of the Alpine Maritime Army, commanded by General Jean François Cornu de La Poype, who had just taken La Valette-du-Var, sought to take the forts of Mont Faron, which dominated the city to the East, they were reinforced by 3,000 sailors under the orders of Admiral de Saint Julien, who refused to serve the British with his chief, Trogoff.
A further 5,000 soldiers under General La Poype were attached to the army to retake Toulon from the Army of Italy. The Chief of Artillery, commander Elzéar Auguste de Dommartin, having been wounded at Ollioules, had the young captain Napoleon Bonaparte imposed upon him by the special representatives of the Convention and Napoleon's friends —Augustin Robespierre and Antoine Christophe Saliceti. Bonaparte had been in the area escorting a convoy of powder wagons en route to Nice and had stopped in to pay his respects to his fellow Corsican, Saliceti. Bonaparte had been present in the army since the Avignon insurrection, was imposed on Dommartin in this way despite the mutual antipathy between the two men. Despite the mutual dislike between Bonaparte and the chief of artillery, the young artillery officer was able to muster an artillery force, worthy of a siege of Toulon and the fortresses that were built by the British in its immediate environs, he was able to requisition cannon from the surrounding area.
Guns were taken from Marseille and the Army of Italy. The local populace, eager to prove its loyalty to the republic which it had rebelled against, was blackmailed into supplying the besieging force with animals and supplies, his activity resulted in the acquisition of 100 guns for the force. With the help of his friends, the deputies Saliceti and Augustin Robespierre, who held power of life and death, he was able to compel retired artillery officers from the area to re-enlist; the problem of manning the guns was not remedied by this solution alone, under Bonaparte's intensive training he instructed much of the infantry in the practice of employing and firing the artillery that his efforts had acquired. However, in spite of this effort, Bonaparte was not as confident about this operation as was his custom; the officers serving with him in the siege were incompetent, he was becoming concerned about the needless delays due to these officers' mistakes. He was so concerned that he wrote a letter of appeal to the Committee of Public Safety requesting assistance.
To deal with his superiors who were wanting in skill, he proposed the appointment of a general for command of the artillery, succeeding himself, so that "... command respect and deal with a crowd of fools on the staff with whom one has to argue and lay down the law in order to overcome their prejudices and make them take steps which theory and practice alike have shown to be axiomatic to any trained officer of this corps". After some reconnaissance, Bonaparte conceived a plan which envisaged the capture of the forts of l'Eguillette and Balaguier, on the hill of Cairo, which would prevent passage between the small and large harbours of the port, so cutting maritime resupply, necessary for those under siege. Carteaux, sent only a weak detachment under Major General Delaborde, which failed in its attempted conquest on 22 September; the allies now alerted, built "Fort Mulgrave", so christened in honour of the British commander, Henry Phipps, 1st Earl of Mulgrave, on the summit of the hill. It was supported by three smaller ones, called Saint-Phillipe, Saint-Côme, Saint-Charles.
The impregnable collection was nicknamed, by the French, "Little Gibraltar". Bonaparte was dissatisfied by the sole battery—called the "Mountain", positioned on the height of Saint-Laurent since 19 September, he established another, on the shore of Brégallion, called the "sans-culottes". Hood attempted to silence it, without success, but the British fleet was obliged to harden its resolve along the coast anew, becaus