Edwin Jarvis is a supporting character in the Marvel Comics titles Iron Man, The Avengers and Spider-Man. He is the loyal household butler of the Stark family. Since the 1990s, the character has appeared in media adaptations of Iron Man and Avengers stories, is reimagined as J. A. R. V. I. S. An artificial intelligence that assists the superhero Iron Man. In the Marvel Cinematic Universe, J. A. R. V. I. S. is voiced by Paul Bettany in the live-action Iron Man and the first two Avengers films while Edwin Jarvis was portrayed by James D'Arcy in the ABC television series Agent Carter. In 2012, Edwin Jarvis was ranked 25th in IGN's list of "The Top 50 Avengers". Jarvis first appeared in Tales of Suspense #59, was created by Stan Lee and Don Heck. Jarvis received an entry in the Official Mightiest Heroes! from an Avengers backup story featuring Jarvis. Born of modest origins, Edwin Jarvis served in the Royal Air Force during World War II and was its champion boxer three years running, he moved to the United States where he became manservant to Howard Stark and Maria Stark and watched over the Starks' mansion after the two deaths.
His name and English origin bears resemblance to Jeeves, the fictional sagacious butler in the books by P. G. Wodehouse; when Iron Man called the Avengers' first meeting and donated the Stark house as the Avengers Mansion headquarters, Jarvis grew accustomed to the guests and served the Avengers for many years thereafter, acting as a father figure to some of the newcomers. Jarvis was there when the first guest, the time-lost Captain America, became a member of the Avengers, he was the only one to stay with the Avengers for their entire existence, a distinction not Captain America can claim. As a result, Captain America has stated that Jarvis should be regarded just as much of an Avenger as he is. Jarvis spent some time as the primary babysitter for Franklin Richards, the super-powered son of Mister Fantastic and the Invisible Woman, when the two Fantastic Four members were residing at the mansion, he served as the sponsor to Silverclaw while the latter was growing up, the future Avengers member has come to regard him as an uncle.
Being a manservant to the Avengers meant that Jarvis has had to deal with their enemies on several occasions. In Avengers # 59 and # 60, he was bound and gagged. Jarvis has been involved in many adventures, including leading the evacuation of a stalled subway train during a citywide disaster and battling a demonically possessed car. Jarvis defended the floating Hydrobase against a horde of robots built by Doctor Doom during the Acts of Vengeance crisis, he was present. He was brutally beaten by Mr. Hyde, it took some time for Jarvis to recover from his injuries. He wore an eyepatch for some time. Jarvis confronted Loki, risking great danger, after realizing the villain had tricked his way inside the mansion, he tendered his resignation during Iron Man's battle with alcoholism, but returned not long afterwards. In his duties as the Avengers' manservant, he was entrusted with items of great power, including the Casket of Ancient Winters; when the New Avengers were formed, Jarvis was called back after taking a holiday "for the first time in years", having been informed that his'special' services were once again needed.
Jarvis confronts Wolverine over the man's poor kitchen etiquette, a battle only new member Spider-Man's Aunt May was able to win. Jarvis struck up a relationship with May that had moved into Stark Tower with Peter Parker and Mary Jane Watson after her house burnt down; when Spider-Man switched sides during the Civil War, however and Mary Jane fled Stark Tower to live in hiding. In a New Avengers Civil War story, Jarvis was shot by an employee, opposed to Tony Stark using technology invented to enforce the Superhuman Registration Act. However, it appears Jarvis recovers from this wound as he is shown to be working again in Civil War: The Initiative, he humorously mentions that if Stark allowed "that Tigra %^#$" in the new incarnation of the Avengers, Tony would need to find someone else to do the laundry. In the 2008 storyline One More Day, Jarvis is given over $2,000,000 by Stark to pay for May's hospital bills following an assassination attempt in the aftermath of Peter's own decision to publicly reveal Spider-Man's true identity.
Jarvis visibly breaks down upon seeing May in the hospital bed, confessing his deep love to the Parkers. As a consequence of the "One More Day" storyline, Spider-Man's timeline has undergone a major continuity overhaul, including Jarvis's relationship with the Parkers; that year, the Secret Invasion storyline revealed that Edwin Jarvis has been replaced by a Skrull agent for some time. Using a computer virus, he disables a number of Stark Enterprises facilities, as well as Iron Man's armor; this agent obtained access to Tony Stark's records on the Sentry in order to discover weaknesses, as the Skrulls were unable to duplicate Sentry's powers because Sentry's limits were unknown to Iron Man. He approaches Maria Hill on the destroyed S. H. I. E. L. D. Helicarrier in the middle of the ocean and tells Maria to surrender along with the S. H. I. E. L. D. Crew. Maria uses a Life Model Decoy as a distraction while the real one escapes and detonates the S. H. I. E. L. D. Helicarrier. During the fight between Veranke and Criti Noll's forces against the heroes and villains, the Skrull-Jarvis watches from Ave
An Inspector Calls
An Inspector Calls is a play written by English dramatist J. B. Priestley, first performed - in Russian - on 6 July 1945 at Moscow's Kamerny Theatre in the Soviet Union. Interviewed about this Priestley said that the play would have had its premiere in London but a theatre could not be found. Shortly after the play had been completed and his wife were guests at a dinner at the Soviet Embassy in London and a discussion led to Priestley's providing an official with a copy of the script; the play was first performed in English at the Old Vic on 1 October 1946. It is one of Priestley's best known works for the stage and is considered to be one of the classics of mid-20th century English theatre; the play's success and reputation have been boosted by a successful revival by English director Stephen Daldry for the National Theatre in 1992 and a tour of the UK in 2011–2012. The play is a three-act drama which takes place on a single night in April 1912, focusing on the prosperous upper middle-class Birling family, who live in a comfortable home in the fictional town of Brumley, "an industrial city in the north Midlands".
The family is visited by a man calling himself Inspector Goole, who questions the family about the suicide of a young working-class woman, Eva Smith. Long considered part of the repertory of classic drawing room theatre, the play has been hailed as a scathing criticism of the hypocrisies of Victorian and Edwardian English society and as an expression of Priestley's socialist political principles; the play is studied in many schools in the UK as one of the prescribed texts for the English Literature GCSE. At the Birlings' home in April 1912, Arthur Birling – a wealthy factory owner and local politician – and his family are celebrating the engagement of daughter Sheila to Gerald Croft, the son of the owner of one of Birling's competitors, Crofts Limited. In attendance is Arthur's wife Sybil and their children Sheila and Eric, both in their early twenties. Eric, the younger, has a drinking problem, not discreetly ignored and is a major part of the play. After dinner, Arthur speaks about the importance of self-reliance.
He talks about his impending knighthood and about how "a man has to look after himself and his family." A man calling himself Inspector Goole arrives, interrupting the evening and explaining that a woman called Eva Smith has killed herself by drinking strong disinfectant. He implies. Inspector Goole produces a photograph of Eva and shows it to Arthur, who acknowledges that she worked in one of his mills, he admits that he dismissed her from Birling & Co. 18 months ago for her involvement in an abortive workers' strike. He denies responsibility for her death. Sheila enters the room and is drawn into the discussion. After prompting from Goole, she admits to recognising Eva as well, she confesses that Eva served her in a department store and Sheila contrived to have her fired for an imagined slight. She admits that Eva's behaviour had been blameless and that the firing was motivated by Sheila's jealousy and spite towards a pretty working-class woman. Sybil enters the room and Goole continues his interrogation, revealing that Eva was known as Daisy Renton.
Gerald starts at the mention of the name and Sheila becomes suspicious. Gerald admits, he arranged to see her again. Goole reveals that Gerald had installed Eva as his mistress, gave her money and promises of continued support before ending the relationship. Arthur and Sybil are horrified. An ashamed Gerald exits the room. Sheila acknowledges his nature and credits him for speaking truthfully but signals that their engagement is over. After Gerald returns, Sheila hands the ring, which Gerald had given her earlier in the evening, back to him. Goole identifies Sybil as the head of a women's charity. Despite Sybil's haughty responses, she admits that Eva and destitute, had asked the committee for financial aid. Sybil had convinced the committee that the girl was a liar and that her application should be denied. Despite vigorous cross-examination from Goole, Sybil denies any wrongdoing. Sheila begs her mother not to continue, but Goole plays his final card, making Sybil declare that the "drunken young man" who had made Eva pregnant should give a "public confession, accepting all the blame".
Eric enters the room, after brief questioning from Goole, he breaks down, admitting that he drunkenly raped Eva before meeting with her several times and stole £50 from his father's business to help her when she became pregnant. When Eva realised that the money had been stolen, she refused it. Arthur and Sybil are outraged by Eric's actions, the evening dissolves into angry recriminations. Goole's questioning revealed that each member of the family had contributed to Eva's despondency and suicide, he reminds the Birlings that actions have consequences and that all people are intertwined in one society. As Goole leaves he warns that "If men will not learn that lesson they will be taught it in fire and blood and anguish" - an allusion to the impending World War. Gerald returns. Arthur makes a call to the chief constable. Gerald points out that as Goole was lying about being a policeman, Eva Smith may not have commit suicide or have existed. Placing a second call, Gerald determines; the elder Birlings and Gerald celebrate, with Arthur dismissing the evening's eve
Julius Caesar (play)
The Tragedy of Julius Caesar is a history play and tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written in 1599. It is one of several plays written by Shakespeare based on true events from Roman history, which include Coriolanus and Antony and Cleopatra. Although the play is named Julius Caesar, Brutus speaks more than four times as many lines as the title character; the play opens with two tribunes discovering the commoners of Rome celebrating Julius Caesar's triumphant return from defeating the sons of his military rival, Pompey. The tribunes, insulting the crowd for their change in loyalty from Pompey to Caesar, attempt to end the festivities and break up the commoners, who return the insults. During the feast of Lupercal, Caesar holds a victory parade and a soothsayer warns him to "Beware the ides of March", which he ignores. Meanwhile, Cassius attempts to convince Brutus to join his conspiracy to kill Caesar. Although Brutus, friendly towards Caesar, is hesitant to kill him, he agrees that Caesar may be abusing his power.
They hear from Casca that Mark Antony has offered Caesar the crown of Rome three times and that each time Caesar refused it with increasing reluctance, in hopes that the crowd watching the exchange would beg him to accept the crown, yet the crowd applauded Caesar for denying the crown, upsetting Caesar, due to his wanting to accept the crown. On the eve of the ides of March, the conspirators meet and reveal that they have forged letters of support from the Roman people to tempt Brutus into joining. Brutus reads the letters and, after much moral debate, decides to join the conspiracy, thinking that Caesar should be killed to prevent him from doing anything against the people of Rome if he were to be crowned. After ignoring the soothsayer, as well as his wife Calpurnia's own premonitions, Caesar goes to the Senate; the conspirators approach him with a fake petition pleading on behalf of Metellus Cimber's banished brother. As Caesar predictably rejects the petition and the others stab him. At this point, Caesar utters the famous line "Et tu, Brute?", concluding with "Then fall, Caesar!"
The conspirators make clear that they committed this murder for the good of Rome, not for their own purposes, do not attempt to flee the scene. Brutus delivers an oration defending his own actions, for the moment, the crowd is on his side. However, Mark Antony makes a subtle and eloquent speech over Caesar's corpse, beginning with the much-quoted "Friends, countrymen, lend me your ears!" In this way, he deftly turns public opinion against the assassins by manipulating the emotions of the common people, in contrast to the rational tone of Brutus's speech, yet there is method in his rhetorical speech and gestures: he reminds them of the good Caesar had done for Rome, his sympathy with the poor, his refusal of the crown at the Lupercal, thus questioning Brutus's claim of Caesar's ambition. Antony as he states his intentions against it, rouses the mob to drive the conspirators from Rome. Amid the violence, an innocent poet, Cinna, is confused with the conspirator Lucius Cinna and is taken by the mob, which kills him for such "offenses" as his bad verses.
Brutus next attacks Cassius for soiling the noble act of regicide by having accepted bribes. The two are reconciled after Brutus reveals that his beloved wife committed suicide under the stress of his absence from Rome; that night, Caesar's ghost appears to Brutus with a warning of defeat. At the battle and Brutus, knowing that they will both die, smile their last smiles to each other and hold hands. During the battle, Cassius has his servant kill him after hearing of the capture of his best friend, Titinius. After Titinius, not captured, sees Cassius's corpse, he commits suicide. However, Brutus wins that stage of the battle. With a heavy heart, Brutus battles again the next day, he commits suicide by running on his own sword, held for him by a loyal soldier. The play ends with a tribute to Brutus by Antony, who proclaims that Brutus has remained "the noblest Roman of them all" because he was the only conspirator who acted, in his mind, for the good of Rome. There is a small hint at the friction between Mark Antony and Octavius which characterises another of Shakespeare's Roman plays and Cleopatra.
The main source of the play is Thomas North's translation of Plutarch's Lives. Shakespeare makes Caesar's triumph take place on the day of Lupercalia instead of six months earlier. For dramatic effect, he makes the Capitol the venue of Caesar's death rather than the Curia Pompeia. Caesar's murder, the funeral, Antony's oration, the reading of the will and the arrival of Octavius all take place on the same day in the play; however the assassination took place on 15 March, the will was published on 18 March, the funeral was on 20 March, Octavius arrived only in May. Shakespeare makes the Triumvirs meet in Rome instead of near Bononia to avoid
Hertfordshire is one of the home counties in the south east of England. It is bordered by Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire to the north, Essex to the east, Greater London to the south, Buckinghamshire to the west. For government statistical purposes, it is placed in the East of England region. In 2013, the county had a population of 1,140,700 in an area of 634 square miles; the four towns that have between 50,000 and 100,000 residents are Hemel Hempstead, Watford and St Albans. Hertford, once the main market town for the medieval agricultural county, derives its name from a hart and a ford, used as the components of the county's coat of arms and flag. Elevations are high for the region in the west; these reach over 800 feet in the western projection around Tring, in the Chilterns. The county's borders are the watersheds of the Colne and Lea. Hertfordshire's undeveloped land is agricultural and much is protected by green belt; the county's landmarks span many centuries, ranging from the Six Hills in the new town of Stevenage built by local inhabitants during the Roman period, to Leavesden Film Studios.
The volume of intact medieval and Tudor buildings surpasses London, in places in well-preserved conservation areas in St Albans which includes some remains of Verulamium, the town where in the 3rd century an early recorded British martyrdom took place. Saint Alban, a Romano-British soldier, took the place of a Christian priest and was beheaded on Holywell Hill, his martyr's cross of a yellow saltire on a blue field is reflected in the flag and coat of arms of Hertfordshire. Hertfordshire is well-served with railways, providing good access to London; the largest sector of the economy of the county is in services. Hertfordshire was the area assigned to a fortress constructed at Hertford under the rule of Edward the Elder in 913. Hertford is derived from meaning deer crossing; the name Hertfordshire is first recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 1011. Deer feature in many county emblems. There is evidence of humans living in Hertfordshire from the Mesolithic period, it was first farmed during the Neolithic period and permanent habitation appeared at the beginning of the Bronze Age.
This was followed by tribes settling in the area during the Iron Age. Following the Roman conquest of Britain in AD 43, the aboriginal Catuvellauni submitted and adapted to the Roman life. Saint Alban, a Romano-British soldier, took the place of a Christian priest and was beheaded on Holywell Hill, his martyr's cross of a yellow saltire on a blue field is reflected in the flag and coat of arms of Hertfordshire as the yellow field to the stag or Hart representing the county. He is the Patron Saint of Hertfordshire. With the departure of the Roman Legions in the early 5th century, the now unprotected territory was invaded and colonised by the Anglo-Saxons. By the 6th century the majority of the modern county was part of the East Saxon kingdom; this short lived kingdom collapsed in the 9th century, ceding the territory of Hertfordshire to the control of the West Anglians of Mercia. The region became an English shire in the 10th century, on the merger of the West Saxon and Mercian kingdoms. A century William of Normandy received the surrender of the surviving senior English Lords and Clergy at Berkhamsted, resulting in a new Anglicised title of William the Conqueror before embarking on an uncontested entry into London and his coronation at Westminster.
Hertfordshire was used for some of the new Norman castles at Bishop's Stortford, at King's Langley, a staging post between London and the royal residence of Berkhamsted. The Domesday Book recorded the county as having nine hundreds. Tring and Danais became one—Dacorum—from Danis Corum or Danish rule harking back to a Viking not Saxon past; the other seven were Braughing, Cashio, Hertford and Odsey. The first shooting-down of a zeppelin over Great Britain during WW1 happened in Cuffley; as London grew, Hertfordshire became conveniently close to the English capital. However, the greatest boost to Hertfordshire came during the Industrial Revolution, after which the population rose dramatically. In 1903, Letchworth became the world's first garden city and Stevenage became the first town to redevelop under the New Towns Act 1946. From the 1920s until the late 1980s, the town of Borehamwood was home to one of the major British film studio complexes, including the MGM-British Studios. Many well-known films were made here including the first three Star Wars movies.
The studios used the name of Elstree. American director Stanley Kubrick not only used to shoot in those studios but lived in the area until his death. Big Brother UK and Who Wants To Be A Millionaire? have been filmed there. EastEnders is filmed at Elstree. Hertfordshire has seen development at Warner Bros. Studios, Leavesden. On 17 October 2000, the Hatfield rail crash killed four people with over 70 injured; the crash exposed the shortcomings of Railtrack, which saw speed restrictions and major track replacement. On 10 May 2002, the second of the Potters Bar rail accidents occurred killing seven people.
Jennifer Lynn Connelly is an American actress, who began her career as a child model. She appeared in magazine and television advertising, before she made her film acting debut in the crime film Once Upon a Time in America. Connelly continued modeling and acting, starring in a number of films, including the horror film Phenomena, the musical fantasy film Labyrinth, the romantic comedy Career Opportunities, the period superhero film The Rocketeer, she gained critical acclaim for her work in the science fiction film Dark City, for playing a drug addict in Darren Aronofsky's drama Requiem for a Dream. In 2002, Connelly won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for portraying Alicia Nash in Ron Howard's biopic A Beautiful Mind, her subsequent credits include the Marvel superhero film Hulk, in which she played Bruce Banner's love interest Betty Ross, the horror film Dark Water, the drama Blood Diamond, the science fiction film The Day the Earth Stood Still, the romantic comedy He's Just Not That Into You, the biopic Creation.
In the 2010s, she took on supporting roles in Aronofsky's epic film Noah and in Robert Rodriguez's action film Alita: Battle Angel. Connelly was named Amnesty International Ambassador for Human Rights Education in 2005, she has been the face of Balenciaga fashion advertisements, as well as for Revlon cosmetics. In 2012, she was named the first global face of the Shiseido Company. Magazines, including Time, Vanity Fair and Esquire, as well as the Los Angeles Times newspaper, have included her on their lists of the world's most beautiful women. Connelly was born in New York, in the Catskill Mountains, she is the daughter of Ilene, an antiques dealer, Gerard Karl Connelly, a clothing manufacturer. Her father was Roman Catholic, of Irish and Norwegian descent. Connelly's mother was Jewish, was educated at a yeshiva. Connelly was raised in Brooklyn Heights, near the Brooklyn Bridge, where she attended Saint Ann's, a private school specializing in the arts, her father suffered from asthma, so the family moved to Woodstock, New York, in 1976 to escape the city smog.
Four years the family returned to Brooklyn Heights, Connelly returned to Saint Ann's. When Connelly was 10 years old, an advertising executive friend of her father suggested she audition as a model, her parents sent a picture of her to the Ford Modeling Agency, which shortly after added her to its roster. Connelly began modeling for print advertisements before moving on to television commercials. In an interview with The Guardian, she revealed that, after having done some modeling, she had no aspirations to become an actress, she appeared on the covers of several issues of Seventeen in 1986 and 1988. In December 1986, she recorded two pop songs for the Japanese market: "Monologue of Love" and "Message of Love", she sang in phonetic Japanese. When her mother began taking her to acting auditions, Connelly was selected for a supporting role as the aspiring dancer and actress Deborah Gelly in Sergio Leone's 1984 gangster epic Once Upon a Time in America; the role required her to perform a ballet routine.
During the audition, who had no ballet training, tried to imitate a ballerina. Her performance, the similarity of her nose to Elizabeth McGovern's, who played the character as an adult, convinced the director to cast her. Connelly described the movie as "an idyllic introduction to movie-making". While Once Upon a Time in America was being filmed, Connelly made her first television appearance, in the episode "Stranger in Town" of the British series Tales of the Unexpected. Connelly's first leading role was in Italian giallo-director Dario Argento's 1985 film Phenomena. In the film, she plays a girl who psychically communicates with insects to pursue the killer of students of the Swiss school where she has enrolled. Connelly next had the lead in the coming-of-age movie Seven Minutes in Heaven, released the same year. Of her early career, Connelly said, "Before I knew it, became what I did, it was a peculiar way to grow up, combined with my personality." She described feeling like "a kind of walking puppet" through her adolescence, without having time alone to deal with the attention her career was generating.
Connelly gained public recognition with Jim Henson's 1986 film Labyrinth with David Bowie, in which she played Sarah, a teenager on a quest to rescue her brother Toby from the world of goblins. Although a disappointment at the box office, the film became a cult classic; the New York Times, while noting the importance of her part, panned her portrayal: "Jennifer Connelly as Sarah is disappointing.... She looks right, but she lacks conviction and seems to be reading rehearsed lines that are recited without belief in her goal or real need to accomplish it." Two years she starred as a ballet student in the Italian film Étoile, portrayed college student Gabby in Michael Hoffman's Some Girls. Balancing work and school, she studied English for two years at Yale University in 1988 and 1989, before transferring to Stanford University in 1990 to study drama. There, she trained with Howard Fine and Harold Guskin. Encouraged by her parents to continue with her film career, Connelly left college and returned to the movie industry the same year.
In 1990, Dennis Hopper directed The Hot Spot, in which Connelly played Gloria Harper, a woman being blackmailed. The film was a box office failure but Connelly was praised. Stephen Schaefer wrote for USA Today, "Anyone looking for proof that little girls do grow up fast i
Oliver Twist. The story centres on orphan Oliver Twist, born in a workhouse and sold into apprenticeship with an undertaker. After escaping, Oliver travels to London, where he meets "The Artful Dodger", a member of a gang of juvenile pickpockets led by the elderly criminal, Fagin. Oliver Twist is notable for its unromantic portrayal by Dickens of criminals and their sordid lives, as well as for exposing the cruel treatment of the many orphans in London in the mid-19th century; the alternative title, The Parish Boy's Progress, alludes to Bunyan's The Pilgrim's Progress, as well as the 18th-century caricature series by William Hogarth, A Rake's Progress and A Harlot's Progress. In this early example of the social novel, Dickens satirises the hypocrisies of his time, including child labour, the recruitment of children as criminals, the presence of street children; the novel may have been inspired by the story of Robert Blincoe, an orphan whose account of working as a child labourer in a cotton mill was read in the 1830s.
It is that Dickens's own youthful experiences contributed as well. Oliver Twist has been the subject of numerous adaptations for various media, including a successful musical play, Oliver!, the multiple Academy Award-winning 1968 motion picture. Disney put its spin on the novel with the animated film called Oliver & Company in 1988; the novel was published in monthly instalments in the magazine Bentley's Miscellany, from February 1837 to April 1839. It was intended to form part of Dickens's serial, The Mudfog Papers. George Cruikshank provided one steel etching per month to illustrate each instalment; the novel first appeared in book form six months before the initial serialisation was completed, in three volumes published by Richard Bentley, the owner of Bentley's Miscellany, under the author's pseudonym, "Boz". It included 24 steel-engraved plates by Cruikshank; the first edition was titled: Oliver Twist, or, The Parish Boy's Progress. Serial publication dates: I – February 1837 II – March 1837 III – April 1837 IV – May 1837 V – July 1837 VI – August 1837 VII – September 1837 VIII – November 1837 IX – December 1837 X – January 1838 XI – February 1838 XII – March 1838 XIII – April 1838 XIV – May 1838 XV – June 1838 XVI – July 1838 XVII – August 1838 XVIII – October 1838 XIX – November 1838 XX – December 1838 XXI – January 1839 XXII – February 1839 XXIII – March 1839 XXIV – April 1839 Oliver Twist is born and raised into a life of poverty and misfortune in a workhouse in the fictional town of Mudfog, located 70 miles north of London.
Orphaned by his mother's death in childbirth and his father's mysterious absence, Oliver is meagerly provided for under the terms of the Poor Law and spends the first nine years of his life living at a baby farm in the'care' of a woman named Mrs. Mann. Oliver is brought up with few comforts. Around the time of Oliver's ninth birthday, Mr. Bumble, the parish beadle, removes Oliver from the baby farm and puts him to work picking and weaving oakum at the main workhouse. Oliver, who toils with little food, remains in the workhouse for six months. One day, the hungry boys decide to draw lots; this task falls to Oliver himself, who at the next meal comes forward trembling, bowl in hand, begs Mr. Bumble for gruel with his famous request: "Please, sir, I want some more". A great uproar ensues; the board of well-fed gentlemen who administer the workhouse hypocritically offer £5 to any person wishing to take on the boy as an apprentice. Mr. Gamfield, a brutal chimney sweep claims Oliver. However, when he begs despairingly not to be sent away with "that dreadful man", a kindly magistrate refuses to sign the indentures.
Mr. Sowerberry, an undertaker employed by the parish, takes Oliver into his service, he treats Oliver better and, because of the boy's sorrowful countenance, uses him as a mourner at children's funerals. Mr. Sowerberry is in an unhappy marriage, his wife looks down on Oliver and loses few opportunities to underfeed and mistreat him, he suffers torment at the hands of Noah Claypole, an oafish and bullying fellow apprentice and "charity boy", jealous of Oliver's promotion to mute, Charlotte, the Sowerberrys' maidservant, in love with Noah. Wanting to bait Oliver, Noah insults the memory of Oliver's biological mother, calling her "a regular right-down bad'un". Enraged, Oliver assaults the much bigger boy. Mrs. Sowerberry takes Noah's side, helps him to subdue and beat Oliver, compels her husband and Mr. Bumble, sent for in the aftermath of the fight, to beat Oliver again. Once Oliver is being sent to his room for the night he weeps; the next day Oliver escapes from the Sowerberrys' house and decides to run away to London to seek a better life.
Nearing London Oliver encounters Jack Dawkins, a pickpocket more known by the nickname the "Artful Dodger", his sidekick, a boy of a humorous nature named Charley Bates, but Oliver's innocent and trusting nature fails to see any dishonesty in their actions. The Dodger provides Oliver with a free meal and tells him of a gentleman in London who will "give him lodgings for nothing, never ask for change". Grateful for the unexpected assista