Miami Beach, Florida
Miami Beach is a coastal resort city in Miami-Dade County, United States. It was incorporated on March 26, 1915; the municipality is located on natural and man-made barrier islands between the Atlantic Ocean and Biscayne Bay, the latter of which separates the Beach from Miami. The neighborhood of South Beach, comprising the southernmost 2.5 square miles of Miami Beach, along with downtown Miami and the Port of Miami, collectively form the commercial center of South Florida. Miami Beach's estimated population is 92,307 according to the most recent United States census estimates. Miami Beach is the 26th largest city in Florida based on official 2017 estimates from the US Census Bureau, it has been one of America's pre-eminent beach resorts since the early 20th century. In 1979, Miami Beach's Art Deco Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the Art Deco District is the largest collection of Art Deco architecture in the world and comprises hundreds of hotels and other structures erected between 1923 and 1943.
Mediterranean, Streamline Moderne and Art Deco are all represented in the District. The Historic District is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the East, Lenox Court on the West, 6th Street on the South and Dade Boulevard along the Collins Canal to the North; the movement to preserve the Art Deco District's architectural heritage was led by former interior designer Barbara Baer Capitman, who now has a street in the District named in her honor. Miami Beach is governed by six commissioners. Although the mayor runs commission meetings, the mayor and all commissioners have equal voting power and are elected by popular election; the mayor serves for terms of two years with a term limit of three terms and commissioners serve for terms of four years and are limited to two terms. Commissioners are voted for citywide and every two years three commission seats are voted upon. A city manager is responsible for administering governmental operations. An appointed city manager is responsible for administration of the city.
The City Clerk and the City Attorney are appointed officials. In 1870, a father and son and Charles Lum, purchased the land for 75 cents an acre; the first structure to be built on this uninhabited oceanfront was the Biscayne House of Refuge, constructed in 1876 by the United States Life-Saving Service at 72nd Street. Its purpose was to provide food, a return to civilization for people who were shipwrecked; the next step in the development of the future Miami Beach was the planting of a coconut plantation along the shore in the 1880s by New Jersey entrepreneurs Ezra Osborn and Elnathan Field, but this was a failed venture. One of the investors in the project was agriculturist John S. Collins, who achieved success by buying out other partners and planting different crops, notably avocados, on the land that would become Miami Beach. Meanwhile, across Biscayne Bay, the City of Miami was established in 1896 with the arrival of the railroad, developed further as a port when the shipping channel of Government Cut was created in 1905, cutting off Fisher Island from the south end of the Miami Beach peninsula.
Collins' family members saw the potential in developing the beach as a resort. This effort got underway in the early years of the 20th century by the Collins/Pancoast family, the Lummus brothers, Indianapolis entrepreneur Carl G. Fisher; until the beach here was only the destination for day-trips by ferry from Miami, across the bay. By 1912, Collins and Pancoast were working together to clear the land, plant crops, supervise the construction of canals to get their avocado crop to market, set up the Miami Beach Improvement Company. There were bath houses and food stands, but no hotel until Brown's Hotel was built in 1915. Much of the interior land mass at that time was a tangled jungle of mangroves. Clearing it, deepening the channels and water bodies, eliminating native growth everywhere in favor of landfill for development, was expensive. Once a 1600-acre, jungle-matted sand bar three miles out in the Atlantic, it grew to 2,800 acres when dredging and filling operations were completed. With loans from the Lummus brothers, Collins had begun work on a 2½-mile-long wooden bridge, the world's longest wooden bridge at the time, to connect the island to the mainland.
When funds ran dry and construction work stalled, Indianapolis millionaire and recent Miami transplant Fisher intervened, providing the financing needed to complete the bridge the following year in return for a land swap deal. That transaction kicked off the island's first real estate boom. Fisher helped by organizing an annual speed boat regatta, by promoting Miami Beach as an Atlantic City-style playground and winter retreat for the wealthy. By 1915, Collins and Fisher were all living in mansions on the island, three hotels and two bath houses had been erected, an aquarium built, an 18-hole golf course landscaped; the Town of Miami Beach was chartered on March 26, 1915. After the town was incorporated in 1915 under the name of Miami Beach, many visitors thought of the beach strip as Alton Beach, indicating just how well Fisher had advertised his interests there; the Lummus property was called Ocean Beach, with only the Collins interests referred to as Miami Beach. Carl Fisher was the main promoter of Miami Beach's development in the 1920s as the site for wealthy industrialists from the north and Midwest to and build their winter homes here.
Many other Northerners were targeted to vacation on the island. To accommodate the wealthy tourists, several grand hotels were built, among them: The Flamingo Hotel, The Fleetwood Hotel, The Floridi
Burbank is a city in Los Angeles County in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of Southern California, United States, 12 miles northwest of downtown Los Angeles. The population at the 2010 census was 103,340. Billed as the "Media Capital of the World" and only a few miles northeast of Hollywood, numerous media and entertainment companies are headquartered or have significant production facilities in Burbank, including Warner Bros. Entertainment, The Walt Disney Company, Nickelodeon Animation Studios, The Burbank Studios, Cartoon Network Studios with the West Coast branch of Cartoon Network, Insomniac Games; the Hollywood Burbank Airport was the location of Lockheed's Skunk Works, which produced some of the most secret and technologically advanced airplanes, including the U-2 spy planes that uncovered the Soviet Union missile components in Cuba in October 1962. Burbank consists of two distinct areas: a downtown/foothill section, in the foothills of the Verdugo Mountains, the flatland section; the city was referred to as "Beautiful Downtown Burbank" on Rowan & Martin's Laugh-In and The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson.
The city was named after David Burbank, a New Hampshire–born dentist and entrepreneur who established a sheep ranch there in 1867. The city of Burbank occupies land, part of two Spanish and Mexican-era colonial land grants, the 36,400-acre Rancho San Rafael, granted to Jose Maria Verdugo by the Spanish Bourbon government in 1784, the 4,063-acre Rancho Providencia created in 1821; this area was the scene of a military skirmish which resulted in the unseating of the Spanish Governor of California, his replacement by the Mexican leader Pio Pico. Remnants of the military battle were found many years in the vicinity of Warner Bros. Studio when residents dug up cannonballs. Dr. David Burbank purchased over 4,600 acres of the former Verdugo holding and another 4,600 acres of the Rancho Providencia in 1867 and built a ranch house and began to raise sheep and grow wheat on the ranch. By 1876, the San Fernando Valley became the largest wheat-raising area in Los Angeles County, but the droughts of the 1860s and 1870s underlined the need for steady water supplies.
A professionally trained dentist, Burbank began his career in Maine. He joined the great migration westward in the early 1850s and, by 1853 was living in San Francisco. At the time the American Civil War broke out he was again well established in his profession as a dentist in Pueblo de Los Angeles. In 1867, he purchased Rancho La Providencia from David W. Alexander and Francis Mellus, he purchased the western portion of the Rancho San Rafael from Jonathan R. Scott. Burbank's property reached nearly 9,200 acres at a cost of $9,000. Burbank would not acquire full titles to both properties until after a court decision known as the "Great Partition" was made in 1871 dissolving the Rancho San Rafael, he became known as one of the largest and most successful sheep raisers in southern California, as a result, he closed his dentistry practice and invested in real estate in Los Angeles. Burbank later owned the Burbank Theatre, which opened on November 27, 1893, at a cost of $150,000. Though the theater was intended to be an opera house, instead it staged plays and became known nationally.
The theatre featured famous actors of the time including Fay Bainter and Marjorie Rambeau, until it had deteriorated into a burlesque house. When the area that became Burbank was settled in the 1870s and 1880s, the streets were aligned along what is now Olive Avenue, the road to the Cahuenga Pass and downtown Los Angeles; these were the roads the Native Americans traveled and the early settlers took their produce down to Los Angeles to sell and to buy supplies along these routes. At the time, the primary long-distance transportation methods available to San Fernando Valley residents were stagecoach and train. Stagecoaching between Los Angeles and San Francisco through the Valley began in 1858; the Southern Pacific Railroad arrived in the Valley in 1876, completing the route connecting San Francisco and Los Angeles. A shrewd businessman, foreseeing the value of rail transport, Burbank sold Southern Pacific Railroad a right-of-way through the property for one dollar; the first train passed through Burbank on April 5, 1874.
A boom created by a rate war between the Santa Fe and Southern Pacific brought people streaming into California shortly thereafter, a group of speculators purchased much of Burbank's land holdings in 1886 for $250,000. One account suggests Burbank may have sold his property because of a severe drought that year, which caused a shortage of water and grass for his livestock. 1,000 of his sheep died due to the drought conditions. The group of speculators who bought the acreage formed the Providencia Land and Development Company and began developing the land, calling the new town Burbank after its founder, began offering farm lots on May 1, 1887; the townsite had Burbank Boulevard/Walnut Avenue as the northern boundary, Grandview Avenue as the southern boundary, the edge of the Verdugo Mountains as the eastern boundary and Clybourn Avenue was the western border. The establishment of a water system in 1887 allowed farmers to irrigate their orchards and provided a stronger base for agricultural development.
The original plot of the new townsite of Burbank extended from what is now Burbank Boulevard on the north, to Grandview Avenue in Glendale, California on the south, from the top of the Verdugo Hills on the east to what is now known as Clybourn Avenue on the west. At the same time, the arrival of the railroad provided immediate access for the farmers to bring crops to market. Packing houses and warehouses were built alo
Batesville is a city in Franklin and Ripley counties in the U. S. state of Indiana. The population was 6,520 at the 2010 census; the Batesville Casket Company is headquartered here. Medical technology company Hill-Rom has a substantial presence in the town, employing over 1,700 people at its office and manufacturing campus. Batesville is noted for its central location between Indianapolis and Louisville. Central Batesville Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2011. Batesville was founded by owner of the John Callahan Trust Company; the company bought land and created new towns along rail lines that it began since Dunn was president of the Cincinnati and Indianapolis Railroad. Joshua Bates, who platted the town of Batesville, is thought to be the source of the name. On November 1, 1853, the first train from Cincinnati to Indianapolis passed through Batesville. Once the railway opened and Bates constructed more buildings. George Sims laid out Batesville's first addition in 1858.
The following year, German immigrant Henry Boehringer became Batesville's first major builder. A three-story building with a basement on East Pearl Street became known as the Boehringer Hall because of the dance floor on the third story; the Catholic congregation used the basement. Louis Walter established Batesville's first gristmill in 1858. Between 1860 and 1870, Boehringer built a row of apartments and homes on the north side of Batesville on Boehringer Street. Along with building the apartments and housing, Boehringer owned the lot where the Ward School now stands. In 1863 Conrad Rapp bought Walter's gristmill. In 1865, John Brinkman built a hotel and restaurant called the Sherman House, named after William Tecumseh Sherman, a major general that led the Union Army to its final victory of the Civil War in a campaign that became known as "Sherman's March to the Sea". Sebastian Messersmith built Union Hall in 1865, it was a two-story building on the west side of Main Street |Main Street and just north of South Street |South Street.
Union Hall was used by the fire department for meetings and it was used by the public school while the school building was being rebuilt. It was used as a boarding house for mill workers and visiting lumber salesman; this was an important building to the citizens of Batesville. Batesville has been known for its many factories built between the present. In 1873 the Greeman Bracket Company began manufacturing under the Greeman family name, one of the leading businesses for 30 years; the Schrader Furniture Factory was built in 1873, but had to be rebuilt in 1875 after the factory was destroyed by a fire. When the founder Herman Schrader died, the business was bought by John Hillenbrand|John and William Hillenbrand. In 1874, the Union Furniture Factory burned down and the Blank Bros. Furniture Manufacturing Company was erected the following year. In 1879, Batesville published its first newspaper, The Prairie Farmer. During the 1880s the town of Batesville started its first form of government appointed by the community.
The first mayor was George M. Hillenbrand; the first town board served without pay. The board consisted of five officers: Jacob Blank Jr. John Lehmkuehler, John Hillenbrand, William Hillenbrand, Christian Schwieler. Much of the money, put toward the town came directly out of the officers' pockets. For example, in February 1883, they donated $153.06 to go toward paying for the town's bills. By September, when the financial report was reviewed, Batesville only had $1.82 in its account. During 1883, Batesville began major road construction. In 1884 Batesville organized the Batesville Casket Company, it was managed by J. Spiegel and purchased by George M. Hillenbrand in February 1906. In 1884, the town jail was completed at a cost of $211.55. The inmates were forced to break stone to pay for their stay in the prison. Several developments took place in 1887, including new additions to the town and telephone connections to the town of Oldenburg; these developments were funded by a grant applied for by Mr. Haverkos.
In 1887, John Hillenbrand and Victor Oberting opened a stone quarry on some of Mr. Hillenbrand's land near Batesville. In December 1887, the town hall was completed; the town hall was separated into two parts: one for the town board and the other for the fire company. The town hall was rented out for public gatherings. In March 1888, the school board made a decision to construct an addition onto the schoolhouse; this proposal estimated that the total cost of the addition would be $1,500. In 1888, the first city attorney was appointed at a salary of $35 per year, many new businesses were added. In this year, Henry F. E. Schrader opened a tin shop and built homes. Henry H. Kramer started a grocery store on the corner of Walnut and Boehringer; as well as new stores, a covered bridge was built over the Laughery Creek, making travel much easier. In 1889, Batesville paved its roads with stone that came from the Hillenbrand and Oberting Stone Quarry; as well as the paving of the roads, Batesville opened the Batesville State Bank.
In February 1890, Batesville had built its first sidewalks. In the 1890s, street lamps were introduced to Batesville; these lamps were oil lamps. However, in October, a proposal was written to turn them all into electric lamps, but the proposal was denied. On January 29, 1894, the first electric lamp was placed in front of Town Hall. In 1895 a petition was accepted to build another school; the total estimated cost would be $5,700. The land
Entrepreneurship is the process of designing and running a new business, initially a small business. The people who create these businesses are called entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship has been described as the "capacity and willingness to develop and manage a business venture along with any of its risks in order to make a profit". While definitions of entrepreneurship focus on the launching and running of businesses, due to the high risks involved in launching a start-up, a significant proportion of start-up businesses have to close due to "lack of funding, bad business decisions, an economic crisis, lack of market demand—or a combination of all of these. A broader definition of the term is sometimes used in the field of economics. In this usage, an Entrepreneur is an entity which has the ability to find and act upon opportunities to translate inventions or technology into new products: "The entrepreneur is able to recognize the commercial potential of the invention and organize the capital and other resources that turn an invention into a commercially viable innovation."
In this sense, the term "Entrepreneurship" captures innovative activities on the part of established firms, in addition to similar activities on the part of new businesses. Entrepreneurship is the act of being an entrepreneur, or "the owner or manager of a business enterprise who, by risk and initiative, attempts to make profits". Entrepreneurs oversee the launch and growth of an enterprise. Entrepreneurship is the process by which either an individual or a team identifies a business opportunity and acquires and deploys the necessary resources required for its exploitation. Early-19th-century French economist Jean-Baptiste Say provided a broad definition of entrepreneurship, saying that it "shifts economic resources out of an area of lower and into an area of higher productivity and greater yield". Entrepreneurs create something new, something different—they change or transmute values. Regardless of the firm size, big or small, they can partake in entrepreneurship opportunities; the opportunity to become an entrepreneur requires four criteria.
First, there must be situations to recombine resources to generate profit. Second, entrepreneurship requires differences between people, such as preferential access to certain individuals or the ability to recognize information about opportunities. Third, taking on risk is a necessity. Fourth, the entrepreneurial process requires the organization of resources; the entrepreneur is a factor in and the study of entrepreneurship reaches back to the work of Richard Cantillon and Adam Smith in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. However, entrepreneurship was ignored theoretically until the late 19th and early 20th centuries and empirically until a profound resurgence in business and economics since the late 1970s. In the 20th century, the understanding of entrepreneurship owes much to the work of economist Joseph Schumpeter in the 1930s and other Austrian economists such as Carl Menger, Ludwig von Mises and Friedrich von Hayek. According to Schumpeter, an entrepreneur is a person, willing and able to convert a new idea or invention into a successful innovation.
Entrepreneurship employs what Schumpeter called "the gale of creative destruction" to replace in whole or in part inferior innovations across markets and industries creating new products including new business models. In this way, creative destruction is responsible for the dynamism of industries and long-run economic growth; the supposition that entrepreneurship leads to economic growth is an interpretation of the residual in endogenous growth theory and as such is hotly debated in academic economics. An alternative description posited by Israel Kirzner suggests that the majority of innovations may be much more incremental improvements such as the replacement of paper with plastic in the making of drinking straws; the exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunities may include: Developing a business plan Hiring the human resources Acquiring financial and material resources Providing leadership Being responsible for both the venture's success or failure Risk aversionEconomist Joseph Schumpeter saw the role of the entrepreneur in the economy as "creative destruction" – launching innovations that destroy old industries while ushering in new industries and approaches.
For Schumpeter, the changes and "dynamic disequilibrium brought on by the innovating entrepreneur the norm of a healthy economy". While entrepreneurship is associated with new, for-profit start-ups, entrepreneurial behavior can be seen in small-, medium- and large-sized firms and established firms and in for-profit and not-for-profit organizations, including voluntary-sector groups, charitable organizations and government. Entrepreneurship may operate within an entrepreneurship ecosystem which includes: Government programs and services that promote entrepreneurship and support entrepreneurs and start-ups Non-governmental organizations such as small-business associations and organizations that offer advice and mentoring to entrepreneurs Small-business advocacy organizations that lobby governments for increased support for entrepreneurship programs and more small business-friendly laws and regulations Entrepreneurship resources and facilities Entrepreneurship education and training programs offered by schools and universities Financing In the 2000s, usage of the term "entrepreneurship" expanded to include how and why some individuals ide
Waikiki is a neighborhood of Honolulu on the south shore of the island of Oʻahu in the United States state of Hawaii. Waikiki is most famous for Waikiki Beach, one of six beaches in the district, along with Queen's Beach, Kuhio Beach, Gray's Beach, Fort DeRussy Beach and Kahanamoku Beach. Waikiki Beach is entirely man-made. Waikiki is home to public places including Kapiʻolani Park, Fort DeRussy, Kahanamoku Lagoon, Kūhiō Beach Park and Ala Wai Harbor; the Hawaiian language name Waikīkī means spouting fresh water, for springs and streams that fed wetlands that once separated Waikiki from the interior. The area was a retreat for Hawaiian royalty in the 1800s who enjoyed surfing there on early forms of longboards. A few small hotels opened in the 1880s. In 1893, Greek-American George Lycurgus leased the guest house of Allen Herbert and renamed it the "Sans Souci" creating one of the first beach resorts; that year Robert Louis Stevenson stayed at the resort. The area at coordinates 21°15′49″N 157°49′17″W is still called "Sans Souci Beach".
Waikiki has had erosion problems since the late-1800s, because hotels and homes were built too close to the natural shoreline, while seawalls and other structures blocked the natural ebb and flow of sand along the beach. By 1950, more than 80 structures, including seawalls, groins and storm drains, occupied the Waikiki shoreline; the area became filled with large resort hotels, such as the Hilton Hawaiian Village, the Hyatt Regency Waikiki, Marriott Waikiki, Sheraton Waikiki, historic hotels dating back to the early 20th century. The beach hosts many events, including surf competitions, outdoor performances, hula dancing and outrigger canoe races; the many amenities and hotels enable Waikiki to generate 42 percent of Hawaiʻi's visitor revenue. In the early 1900s, Waikiki was home to many wetlands, which were believed to harbor disease-carrying mosquitoes. To get rid of the mosquitoes, islanders created the Ala Wai canal; the canal known as the Waikiki Drainage Canal, was created by a Hawaiian dredging company run by Walter F. Dillingham.
The project took about seven years, 1921-1928. In the early 20th century, Duke Kahanamoku became a well-known surfer in Waikiki. Throughout his life and after competing in the Olympics, many people around the world wanted to learn to surf. Duke's influence made Waikiki beach a surfing hotspot. "Dukes", a club in Waikiki named for Kahanamoku, helped Don Ho produce music and hosted the longest-running show in Waikiki. In the 1920s and 1930s sand was imported from Manhattan Beach, via ship and barge. In the early 1900s, plans for the Ala Wai Canal were developed to help with drainage and seawalls and groynes began to appear; these helped build sand at one beach, but appropriated sand from others. Before 1950, Waikiki beaches were continuous, they became separated into some with sandy beach and others without. Following World War II, Waikiki beach restoration efforts have occurred every few years. Sand was imported to this artificial beach from the 1920s to the 1970s, once by boat and barge from Southern California.
1,730 feet of shoreline was replenished at a cost of $2.4 million following chronic erosion of more than a foot a year. Importing stopped in the 1970s. In March 1971, the Department of the Army Pacific Ocean Division, created a Draft Environmental Statement for the Kuhio Beach Sector of Waikiki, which aimed to improve the overall quality and size of the fading and narrowing shoreline. On October 29–November 4, 2000, the first FINA World Open Water Swimming Championships, were held in the waters off Waikiki Beach. A partial restoration was completed in the spring of 2012; the project imported sand from nearby shoals and widened the 1,700-foot long beach by about 37 feet between the Royal Hawaiian Hotel concrete groyne and the Kūhiō Beach crib wall. The project temporarily restored the beach to its 1985 shoreline. Two aging sandbag groyne structures were removed in 2012. In 2017, beach erosion worsened with “king tides” along with elevated sea level. Honolulu's mayor stated: “I’m not a scientist, but I’ll get a jackhammer in there and remove all the concrete that’s there creating this backwash and sucking out more sand, plus it’s just downright dangerous.”
The neighborhood extends to Diamond Head on the east. Waikiki Beach is noted for its views of the Diamond Head tuff cone, its warm and cloud-free climate and its surf break; the Waikiki skyline is filled with high-rises and resort hotels. Half of the beach is marked off for surfers. For some distance into the ocean the water is quite shallow, with numerous rocks on the bottom; the waves can have some force on windy days. The surf is known for its long rolling break, making it ideal for long boarding, tandem surfing and beginners; as a result of shoreline development, Waikiki has eight distinct beaches. They are Ft. DeRussy, Duke Kahanamoku, Royal Hawaiian, Kapiolani and Kaimana. Since 1951, nearly 80,000 cubic meters of sand have been added to restore Waikiki beaches. Today, however, it is believed that little of the added sand remains. From the beach the sunset in the sea is visible from mid-September to late March Ala Moana Beach Park, Hawaii's single most popular beach, is adjacent to but not technically part of Waikiki, was artificially made.
Waikiki's main thoroughfare is Kalakaua Avenue, named after King Kalakaua, whic
Bernarr Macfadden was an American proponent of physical culture, a combination of bodybuilding with nutritional and health theories. He founded the long-running magazine publishing company Macfadden Publications, he was the predecessor of Charles Atlas and Jack LaLanne, has been credited with beginning the culture of health and fitness in the United States. Born in Mill Spring, Macfadden changed his first and last names to give them a greater appearance of strength, he thought "Bernarr" sounded like the roar of a lion, that "Macfadden" was a more masculine spelling of his last name. As a young child, Macfadden was sickly. After being orphaned by the time he was 11, he was placed with a farmer and began working on the farm; the hard work and wholesome food on the farm turned him into a fit boy. When he was 13, however, he moved to St. Louis and took a desk job, his health reverted again and by 16 he described himself as a "physical wreck". He became a vegetarian, he regained his previous health. Macfadden founded Physical Culture magazine in 1899, was editor up to the August 1912 issue.
Aided by long-time Supervising Editor Fulton Oursler, Macfadden grew a publishing empire, including Liberty, True Detective, True Story, True Romances, Dream World, Ghost Stories, the once-familiar movie magazine Photoplay, the tabloid newspaper, The New York Graphic. Macfadden's magazines included SPORT, a preeminent sports magazine prior to Time Inc.'s Sports Illustrated. Ghost Stories was a nod in the direction of the growing field of pulp magazines, though it was a large-size magazine that preserved Macfadden's confessional style for most of its stories. In 1928, Macfadden made more overt moves into the pulps with, for example, Red Blooded Stories, Flying Stories, Tales of Danger and Daring; these were all unsuccessful. In 1929, Macfadden underwrote the Good Story Magazine Company. Macfadden titles like Ghost Stories and Flying Stories continued as Good Story publications. Other intended Macfadden pulps, like Thrills of the Jungle and Love and War Stories, originated as Good Story magazines.
In 1931, Macfadden purchased the assets of the Mackinnon-Fly magazine publishers, which gave him the pioneering sci-fi pulp Amazing Stories, several other titles. This made Good Story expendable and financial support was withdrawn immediately; the Teck titles lasted under Macfadden control until being sold in the late'30s, after which Macfadden was absent from the pulp field. Macfadden contributed to many articles and books including The Virile Powers of Superb Manhood, MacFadden's Encyclopedia of Physical Culture, Fasting for Health, The Milk Diet. Macfadden popularized the practice of fasting, associated with illnesses such as anorexia nervosa, he felt that fasting was one of the surest ways to physical health. Many of his subjects would fast for a week in order to rejuvenate their body, he claimed that "a person could exercise unqualified control over all types of disease while revealing a degree of strength and stamina such as would put others to shame" through fasting. He saw fasting as. Macfadden had photographs of himself taken before and after fasts to demonstrate their positive effects on the body.
For example, one photograph showed Macfadden lifting a 100-pound dumbbell over his head after a seven-day fast. He promoted fasting by appealing to racial prejudices, suggesting that fasting was a practice of self-denial that only civilized white men would choose to embrace. Macfadden acknowledged the difficulties of fasting and did not support it as an ascetic practice but rather because he believed its ultimate benefits outweighed its costs, he was opposed to the consumption of white bread, which he called the "staff of death". Macfadden established many "healthatoriums" in the eastern and midwestern states; these institutions offered educational programs such as "The Physical Culture Training School". Although he gained his reputation for physical culture and fitness, he gained much notoriety for his views on sexual behavior, he viewed intercourse as a healthy activity and not a procreative one. This was a different attitude, he attempted to found a "Physical Culture City" in Monroe Township, Middlesex County, New Jersey, which folded after a few years and became the vacation-cabin neighborhood, suburban development of Outcalt.
Nicknamed "Body Love Macfadden" by Time – a moniker he detested – he was branded a "kook" and a charlatan by many, arrested on obscenity charges, denounced by the medical establishment. Throughout his life, he campaigned tirelessly against processed foods and prudery. Macfadden made an unsuccessful attempt to found a religion, "cosmotarianism", based on physical culture, he claimed that his regimen would enable him to reach the age of 150. His Macfadden Foundation established two boarding schools for young boys and girls in Westchester County, New York, the Macfadden School in Briarcliff Manor and the Tarrytown School in Tarrytown; the Macfadden School took the younger children, with some being as young as 3. On March 7, 1943, the advertisement in The New York Times Magazine for the Tarrytown School read: "To Meet the Needs of a Nation at War"; the boys at the Tarrytown School wore uniforms and were subject to military t