Post-Impressionism is a predominantly French art movement that developed roughly between 1886 and 1905, from the last Impressionist exhibition to the birth of Fauvism. Post-Impressionism emerged as a reaction against Impressionists concern for the depiction of light. The movement was led by Paul Cézanne, Paul Gauguin, Vincent van Gogh, the term Post-Impressionism was first used by art critic Roger Fry in 1906. Three weeks later, Roger Fry used the term again when he organized the 1910 exhibition, the Post-Impressionists were dissatisfied with what they felt was the triviality of subject matter and the loss of structure in Impressionist paintings, though they did not agree on the way forward. Georges Seurat and his followers concerned themselves with Pointillism, the use of tiny dots of colour. Paul Cézanne set out to restore a sense of order and structure to painting, to make of Impressionism something solid and durable and he achieved this by reducing objects to their basic shapes while retaining the saturated colours of Impressionism.
The Impressionist Camille Pissarro experimented with Neo-Impressionist ideas between the mid-1880s and the early 1890s, Vincent van Gogh used colour and vibrant swirling brush strokes to convey his feelings and his state of mind. Although they often exhibited together, Post-Impressionist artists were not in agreement concerning a cohesive movement, the abstract concerns of harmony and structural arrangement, in the work of all these artists, took precedence over naturalism. Artists such as Seurat adopted a scientific approach to colour. Younger painters during the early 20th century worked in geographically disparate regions and in various categories, such as Fauvism and Cubism. Most of the artists in Frys exhibition were younger than the Impressionists, Fry explained, For purposes of convenience, it was necessary to give these artists a name, and I chose, as being the vaguest and most non-committal, the name of Post-Impressionism. This merely stated their position in time relatively to the Impressionist movement, john Rewald limited the scope to the years between 1886 and 1892 in his pioneering publication on Post-Impressionism, From Van Gogh to Gauguin.
This volume would extend the period covered to other artistic movements derived from Impressionism, though confined to the late 19th, Rewald focused on such outstanding early Post-Impressionists active in France as van Gogh, Gauguin and Redon. Pont-Aven School, implying more than that the artists involved had been working for a while in Pont-Aven or elsewhere in Brittany. Symbolism, a highly welcomed by vanguard critics in 1891. Rewald wrote that the term Post-Impressionism is not a precise one. Convenient, when the term is by definition limited to French visual arts derived from Impressionism since 1886, rewalds approach to historical data was narrative rather than analytic, and beyond this point he believed it would be sufficient to let the sources speak for themselves. Rival terms like Modernism or Symbolism were never as easy to handle, for they covered literature and other arts as well, however, is considered to be a concept which emerged a century in France, and implied an individual approach
A stylus, plural styli or styluses, is a writing utensil, or a small tool for some other form of marking or shaping, for example in pottery. It can be an accessory that is used to assist in navigating or providing more precision when using touchscreens. It usually refers to a narrow elongated staff, similar to a ballpoint pen. Many styluses are heavily curved to be more easily. Another widely used writing tool is the used by blind users in conjunction with the slate for punching out the dots in Braille. Styluses were first used by the ancient Mesopotamians in order to write in cuneiform, cuneiform was entirely based on the wedge-shaped mark that the end of a cut reed made when pushed into a clay tablet, from Latin cuneus = wedge. The linear nature of the writing was dictated by the use of the stylus, in Western Europe styluses were widely used until the late Middle Ages. For learning purposes the stylus was gradually replaced by a writing slate, from the mid-14th century improved water-powered paper mills produced large and cheap quantities of paper and the wax tablet and stylus disappeared completely from daily life.
A different suggestion is that the word does not derive from the Greek word στῦλος and it signifies, An iron instrument, resembling a pencil in size and shape, used for writing upon waxed tablets. Thus, vertere stilum means to erase, and hence to correct, there exists minor controversy about the correct pluralization of stylus. Some assert that stylus is a loanword from Latin and should be pluralised as styli. However, stylus is an English word based on the Latin word stilus, occasionally the pluralisation stylii is seen. Styluses are still used in arts and crafts. Example situations, rubbing off dry transfer letters, tracing designs onto a new surface with carbon paper, styluses are used to engrave into materials like metal or clay. Styluses are used to make dots as found in folk art, oaxaca dot art is created using styluses. In the sound recording industry, a stylus is a phonograph or gramophone needle used to play back sound on gramophone records, several technologies were used to record the sounds, beginning with wax cylinders, almost half a century before the invention of the magnetic cartridge.
Nowadays mostly vinyl records are used, when playing the record, the stylus is placed in the grooves of the record. By spinning the record, the start to vibrate caused by the shape of the grooves
Grand Central Terminal
Grand Central Terminal is a commuter, rapid transit railroad terminal at 42nd Street and Park Avenue in Midtown Manhattan in New York City, United States. Its platforms, all ground, serve 41 tracks on the upper level and 26 on the lower, though the total number of tracks along platforms. The terminal serves commuters traveling on the Metro-North Railroad to Westchester, until 1991, the terminal served Amtrak, which moved to nearby Pennsylvania Station upon completion of the Empire Connection. The East Side Access project is underway to bring Long Island Rail Road service to the terminal, Grand Central Terminal has intricate designs both on its inside and outside. In addition, it contains a vast interior main concourse, the terminal is one of the worlds most visited tourist attractions, with 21.9 million visitors in 2013. Unlike other Metro-North stations, Grand Central Terminal is not owned by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Grand Central Station is the name of the nearby U. S. Post Office station at 450 Lexington Avenue, but may refer to the Grand Central – 42nd Street subway station that is located next to the terminal.
The tracks are numbered according to their location in the terminal building, the upper-level tracks are numbered 11 to 42 east to west. Tracks 22 and 31 were removed in the late 1990s to build concourses for Grand Central North, Track 12 was removed to expand the platform between tracks 11 and 13 and track 14 is only used for loading a garbage train. The lower level has 27 tracks, numbered 100 to 126, east to west, only tracks 102–112, odd-numbered tracks are usually on the east side of the platform, even-numbered tracks on the west. Grand Central Terminal has both monumental spaces and meticulously crafted detail, especially on its facade, in a February 2013 BBC News article, historian David Cannadine described it as one of the most majestic buildings of the twentieth century. In 2013, Grand Central Terminal hosted 21.6 million visitors, among them are chain stores, including a Starbucks coffee shop, a Rite Aid pharmacy and, as of December 2011, an Apple Store. Other chain restaurants include a Shake Shack, Grand Central Terminals 49-acre basements are among the largest in the city.
This includes M42, a secret sub-basement under the terminal that contains the AC to DC converters used to supply DC traction current to the tracks. The exact location of M42 is a guarded secret and does not appear on maps, though it has been shown on the History Channel program Cities of the Underworld. Two of the rotary converters were not removed in the late 20th century when solid-state ones took over their job. During World War II, this facility was closely guarded because its sabotage would have impaired troop movement on the Eastern Seaboard. It is said that any unauthorized person entering the facility during the war risked being shot on sight, abwehr sent two spies to sabotage it, they were arrested by the FBI before they could strike
Etching is traditionally the process of using strong acid or mordant to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio in the metal. In modern manufacturing, other chemicals may be used on other types of material, as a method of printmaking, it is, along with engraving, the most important technique for old master prints, and remains in wide use today. In a number of variants such as microfabrication etching and photochemical milling it is a crucial technique in much modern technology. In traditional pure etching, a plate is covered with a waxy ground which is resistant to acid. The artist scratches off the ground with an etching needle where he or she wants a line to appear in the finished piece. The échoppe, a tool with an oval section, is used for swelling lines. The plate is dipped in a bath of acid, technically called the mordant or etchant. The acid bites into the metal where it is exposed, leaving behind lines sunk into the plate, the remaining ground is cleaned off the plate.
The plate is inked all over, and the ink wiped off the surface, the plate is put through a high-pressure printing press together with a sheet of paper. The paper picks up the ink from the lines, making a print. The process can be repeated many times, typically several hundred impressions could be printed before the shows much sign of wear. The work on the plate can be added to by repeating the whole process, Etching has often been combined with other intaglio techniques such as engraving or aquatint. The process as applied to printmaking is believed to have been invented by Daniel Hopfer of Augsburg, Hopfer was a craftsman who decorated armour in this way, and applied the method to printmaking, using iron plates. Apart from his prints, there are two examples of his work on armour, a shield from 1536 now in the Real Armeria of Madrid. The switch to copper plates was made in Italy. On the other hand, the handling of the ground and acid need skill and experience, prior to 1100 AD, the New World Hohokam independently utilized the technique of acid etching in marine shell designs.
Jacques Callot from Nancy in Lorraine made important technical advances in etching technique and he developed the échoppe, a type of etching-needle with a slanting oval section at the end, which enabled etchers to create a swelling line, as engravers were able to do. Callot appears to have responsible for an improved, recipe for the etching ground
Robert de Montesquiou
Marie Joseph Robert Anatole, Comte de Montesquiou-Fézensac, was a French aesthete, Symbolist poet, art collector and dandy. He is reputed to have been the inspiration both for Jean des Esseintes in Joris-Karl Huysmans À rebours and, most famously, for the Baron de Charlus in Prousts À la recherche du temps perdu, Robert de Montesquiou was a scion of the French Montesquiou-Fézensac Family. With his wifes dowry, Thierry bought a Charnizay manor, built a mansion in Paris and he was a successful stockbroker who left a substantial fortune. Robert was the last of Count Thierrys children, brothers Gontran and Aymery and his cousin, Élisabeth, comtesse Greffulhe, was one of Marcel Prousts models for the duchesse de Guermantes. He had a influence on Émile Gallé, a glass artist he collaborated with and commissioned major works from. The French artist Antonio de La Gandara produced several portraits of the Comte and he wrote the verses found in the optional choral parts of Gabriel Faurés Pavane. Montesquious homosexual tendencies were patently obvious, but he may in fact have lived a chaste life and he had no affairs with women, although in 1876 he reportedly once slept with the great actress Sarah Bernhardt, after which he vomited for twenty-four hours.
He had aristocratic women friends, but much preferred the company of bright, in 1885, he began a close long-term relationship with Gabriel Yturri, a handsome South American immigrant, from Tucuman, Argentina who became his secretary and lover. After Yturri died of diabetes, Henri Pinard replaced him as secretary in 1908, a chronology of his life can be found at the University of Napierville, Quebec. Dr Joan Evans, who owned the copyright to An Adventure, accepted this solution and his poetry has been called untranslatable, and was poorly received by critics at the time
Luisa, Marchesa Casati Stampa di Soncino, known as Luisa Casati, was an Italian heiress and patroness of the arts in early 20th-century Europe known for her eccentricities. As the concept of quaintrelle was re-developed, Marchesa Casati fitted the utmost example by saying, Luisa Adele Rosa Maria Amman was born in Milan, youngest of two daughters of Alberto Amman and his wife Lucia. Her father was of Austrian descent, while her mother was Italian and Austrian, Alberto Amman father was made a count by King Umberto I. Countess Amman died when Luisa was thirteen, and Count Amman died two years later, making his daughters and her sister, reportedly the wealthiest women in Italy. In 1900, she married Camillo, Marchese Casati Stampa di Soncino, the couples only child, Cristina Casati Stampa di Soncino, was born the following year. The Casatis maintained separate residences for the duration of their marriage and they were legally separated in 1914. They remained married until Marchese Casatis death in 1946, the following year the Viscountess Hastings married Honourable Wogan Philipps, that marriage produced no children.
Octavius Black, the founder of The Mind Gym, a mind-development system based in London, was at Eton with David Cameron, to whom he remains close, married to Tory barrister Joanne Cash. Moorea Hastings was so unmaternal that, on learning she was pregnant, when Wyatt sued for divorce on grounds of her adultery, he was, given full custody of the child. A celebrity and femme fatale, the Marchesas famous eccentricities dominated and delighted European society for nearly three decades, the beautiful and extravagant hostess to the Ballets Russes was something of a legend among her contemporaries. She astonished society by parading with a pair of leashed cheetahs and she captivated artists and literary figures such as Robert de Montesquiou, Romain de Tirtoff, Jean Cocteau, and Cecil Beaton. She had a long affair with the author Gabriele dAnnunzio. The character of La Casinelle, who appeared in two novels by Michel Georges-Michel, Dans la fete de Venise and Nouvelle Riviera, was inspired by her. In 1910, Casati took up residence at the Palazzo Venier dei Leoni and her soirées there would become legendary.
Casati collected a menagerie of animals, and patronized fashion designers such as Fortuny. From 1919 to 1920 she lived at Villa San Michele in Capri and her time on the Italian island, tolerant home to a wide collection of artists, gay men, and lesbians in exile, was described by British author Compton Mackenzie in his diaries. She was muse to Italian Futurists such as F. T. Marinetti, Fortunato Depero, and Umberto Boccioni. Augustus Johns portrait of her is one of the most popular paintings at the Art Gallery of Ontario, Jack Kerouac wrote poems about it, by 1930, Casati had amassed a personal debt of $25 million
Impressionism originated with a group of Paris-based artists whose independent exhibitions brought them to prominence during the 1870s and 1880s. The Impressionists faced harsh opposition from the art community in France. The development of Impressionism in the arts was soon followed by analogous styles in other media that became known as impressionist music. Radicals in their time, early Impressionists violated the rules of academic painting and they constructed their pictures from freely brushed colours that took precedence over lines and contours, following the example of painters such as Eugène Delacroix and J. M. W. Turner. They painted scenes of modern life, and often painted outdoors. Previously, still lifes and portraits as well as landscapes were painted in a studio. The Impressionists found that they could capture the momentary and transient effects of sunlight by painting en plein air, the Impressionists, developed new techniques specific to the style. The public, at first hostile, gradually came to believe that the Impressionists had captured a fresh and original vision, even if the art critics and art establishment disapproved of the new style.
In the middle of the 19th century—a time of change, as Emperor Napoleon III rebuilt Paris, the Académie was the preserver of traditional French painting standards of content and style. Historical subjects, religious themes, and portraits were valued, the Académie preferred carefully finished images that looked realistic when examined closely. Paintings in this style were made up of brush strokes carefully blended to hide the artists hand in the work. Colour was restrained and often toned down further by the application of a golden varnish, the Académie had an annual, juried art show, the Salon de Paris, and artists whose work was displayed in the show won prizes, garnered commissions, and enhanced their prestige. The standards of the juries represented the values of the Académie, represented by the works of artists as Jean-Léon Gérôme. In the early 1860s, four young painters—Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Alfred Sisley and they discovered that they shared an interest in painting landscape and contemporary life rather than historical or mythological scenes.
A favourite meeting place for the artists was the Café Guerbois on Avenue de Clichy in Paris, where the discussions were led by Édouard Manet. They were soon joined by Camille Pissarro, Paul Cézanne, during the 1860s, the Salon jury routinely rejected about half of the works submitted by Monet and his friends in favour of works by artists faithful to the approved style. In 1863, the Salon jury rejected Manets The Luncheon on the Grass primarily because it depicted a woman with two clothed men at a picnic. While the Salon jury routinely accepted nudes in historical and allegorical paintings, the jurys severely worded rejection of Manets painting appalled his admirers, and the unusually large number of rejected works that year perturbed many French artists
A pastel is an art medium in the form of a stick, consisting of pure powdered pigment and a binder. The pigments used in pastels are the same as used to produce all colored art media, including oil paints. The color effect of pastels is closer to the natural dry pigments than that of any other process, Pastels have been used by artists since the Renaissance, and gained considerable popularity in the 18th century, when a number of notable artists made pastel their primary medium. An artwork made using pastels is called a pastel, Pastel used as a verb means to produce an artwork with pastels, as an adjective it means pale in color. Pastel sticks or crayons consist of powdered pigment combined with a binder. The exact composition and characteristics of an individual pastel stick depends on the type of pastel and it varies by individual manufacturer. Dry pastels have historically used binders such as gum arabic and gum tragacanth, methyl cellulose was introduced as a binder in the twentieth century.
Often a chalk or gypsum component is present and they are available in varying degrees of hardness, the softer varieties being wrapped in paper. Some pastel brands use pumice in the binder to abrade the paper, dry pastel media can be subdivided as follows, Soft pastels, This is the most widely used form of pastel. The sticks have a portion of pigment and less binder. The drawing can be readily smudged and blended, but it results in a proportion of dust. White chalk may be used as a filler in producing pale, Pan Pastels, These are formulated with a minimum of binder in flat compacts and applied with special Soft micropore sponge tools. A 21st-century invention, Pan Pastels can be used for the painting or in combination with soft. Hard pastels, These have a portion of binder and less pigment. These can be used with other pastels for drawing outlines and adding accents, hard pastels are traditionally used to create the preliminary sketching out of a composition. However, the colors are brilliant and are available in a restricted range in contrast to soft pastels.
Pastel pencils, These are pencils with a pastel lead and they are useful for adding fine details. In addition, pastels using a different approach to manufacture have been developed, Oil pastels, These have a soft, buttery consistency and they are dense and fill the grain of paper and are slightly more difficult to blend than soft pastels, but do not require a fixative
He is considered by critics and writers to be one of the most influential authors of the 20th century. Proust was born in Auteuil at the home of his great-uncle on 10 July 1871 and he was born during the violence that surrounded the suppression of the Paris Commune, and his childhood corresponded with the consolidation of the French Third Republic. Prousts father, Adrien Proust, was a prominent pathologist and epidemiologist, studying cholera in Europe and he wrote numerous articles and books on medicine and hygiene. Prousts mother, Jeanne Clémence Weil, was the daughter of a wealthy Jewish family from Alsace and well-read, she demonstrated a well-developed sense of humour in her letters, and her command of English was sufficient to help with her sons translations of John Ruskin. Proust was raised in his fathers Catholic faith and he was baptized and confirmed as a Catholic, but he never formally practiced that faith. He became an atheist and was somewhat of a mystic, by the age of nine, Proust had had his first serious asthma attack, and thereafter he was considered a sickly child.
Proust spent long holidays in the village of Illiers, in 1882, at the age of eleven, Proust became a pupil at the Lycée Condorcet, but his education was disrupted by his illness. Despite this he excelled in literature, receiving an award in his final year, thanks to his classmates, he was able to gain access to some of the salons of the upper bourgeoisie, providing him with copious material for In Search of Lost Time. As a young man, Proust was a dilettante and a social climber whose aspirations as a writer were hampered by his lack of self-discipline. His reputation from this period, as a snob and an amateur, contributed to his troubles with getting Swanns Way. It is through Mme Arman de Caillavet that he made the acquaintance of Anatole France, Proust had a close relationship with his mother. To appease his father, who insisted that he pursue a career, after exerting considerable effort, he obtained a sick leave that extended for several years until he was considered to have resigned. He never worked at his job, and he did not move from his parents apartment until after both were dead and his life and family circle changed markedly between 1900 and 1905.
In February 1903, Prousts brother, Robert Proust and his father died in November of the same year. Finally, and most crushingly, Prousts beloved mother died in September 1905 and she left him a considerable inheritance. His health throughout this period continued to deteriorate, Proust spent the last three years of his life mostly confined to his bedroom, sleeping during the day and working at night to complete his novel. He died of pneumonia and an abscess in 1922. He was buried in the Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris, Proust was involved in writing and publishing from an early age
The Brooklyn Museum is an art museum located in the New York City borough of Brooklyn. At 560,000 square feet, the museum is New York Citys third largest in physical size, the museum initially struggled to maintain its building and collection, only to be revitalized in the late 20th century, thanks to major renovations. Significant areas of the collection include antiquities, specifically their collection of Egyptian antiquities spanning over 3,000 years, African and Japanese art make for notable antiquities collections as well. American art is represented, starting at the Colonial period. Artists represented in the collection include Mark Rothko, Edward Hopper, Norman Rockwell, Winslow Homer, Edgar Degas, Georgia OKeeffe, the museum has a Memorial Sculpture Garden which features salvaged architectural elements from throughout New York City. The roots of the Brooklyn Museum extend back to the 1823 founding by Augustus Graham of the Brooklyn Apprentices’ Library in Brooklyn Heights, in 1890, under its director Franklin Hooper, Institute leaders reorganized as the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences and began planning the Brooklyn Museum.
The initial design for the Brooklyn Museum was four times as large as the actualized version, Daniel Chester French, the noted sculptor of the Lincoln Memorial, was the principal designer of the pediment sculptures and the monolithic 12. 5-foot figures along the cornice. The figures were created by 11 sculptors and carved by the Piccirilli Brothers, by 1920, the New York City Subway reached the museum with a subway station, this greatly improved access to the once-isolated museum from Manhattan and other outer boroughs. The Brooklyn Institutes director Franklin Hooper was the museums first director and he was followed by Philip Newell Youtz, Laurance Page Roberts, Isabel Spaulding Roberts, Charles Nagel, Jr. and Edgar Craig Schenck. Thomas S. Buechner became the director in 1960, making him one of the youngest directors in the country. Buechner oversaw a major transformation in the way the museum displayed art and brought some one thousand works that had languished in the museums archives and put them on display.
Buechner played a role in rescuing the Daniel Chester French sculptures from destruction due to an expansion project at the Manhattan Bridge in the 1960s. The Brooklyn Museum changed its name to Brooklyn Museum of Art in 1997, on March 12,2004, the museum announced that it would revert to its previous name. In April 2004, the museum opened the James Polshek-designed entrance pavilion on the Eastern Parkway façade, in September 2014, Lehman announced that he was planning to retire around June 2015. In May 2015, Creative Time president and artistic director Anne Pasternak was named the Museums next director, member institutions occupy land or buildings owned by the City of New York and derive part of their yearly funding from the City. The Brooklyn Museum supplements its earned income with funding from Federal and State governments, as well as donations by individuals. Major benefactors include Frank Lusk Babbott, the museum is the site of the annual Brooklyn Artists Ball which has included celebrity hosts such as Sarah Jessica Parker and Liv Tyler.
The Brooklyn Museum exhibits collections that seek to embody the rich heritage of world cultures
Giovanni Boldini was an Italian genre and portrait painter who lived and worked in Paris for most of his career. According to a 1933 article in Time magazine, he was known as the Master of Swish because of his style of painting. Boldini was born in Ferrara, the son of a painter of religious subjects and he only infrequently attended classes at the Academy of Fine Arts, but in Florence, met other realist painters known as the Macchiaioli, who were Italian precursors to Impressionism. Their influence is seen in Boldinis landscapes which show his spontaneous response to nature, moving to London, Boldini attained success as a portraitist. He completed portraits of members of society including Lady Holland. From 1872 he lived in Paris, where he became a friend of Edgar Degas and he was nominated commissioner of the Italian section of the Paris Exposition in 1889, and received the Légion dhonneur for this appointment. In 1897 he had an exhibition in New York. He participated in the Venice Biennale in 1895,1903,1905 and he died in Paris on 11 July 1931.
A Boldini portrait of his former muse Marthe de Florian, a French actress, was discovered in a Paris flat in late 2010, a love-note and a biographical reference to the work painted in 1888, when the actress was 24, cemented its authenticity. A full-length portrait of the lady in the clothing and accessories. The discovery of his painting in the 70-years-empty apartment forms the background to Michelle Gables 2014 novel A Paris Apartment, T. Panconi, Luomo e la pittura, Pisa 1998 E. Savoia, Giovanni Boldini. Catalogo ragionato, Torino,2002 E. Savoia, G. Boldini, dalla macchia alla sperimentazione dinamica, Bologna 2003 T. Panconi, Boldini Mon Amour, Pisa 2008 E. Savoia, Giovanni Boldini. Capolavori e opere inedite dallatelier dellartista, Milano 2011 S. Bosi, E. Savoia, capolavori e opere inedite dallatelier dellartista, by Enzo Savoia, Bottegantica,60 exhibits, from 25/02/2011 to 28/05/2011. Media related to Giovanni Boldini at Wikimedia Commons Virtual Gallery and reference 77 works by Giovanni Boldini Giovanni Boldini.
it Giovanni Boldini. Capolavori e opere inedite dallatelier dellartista wikiart. org Growing public domain of Boldinis paintings Video excerpt from the ballet Franca Florio, regina di Palermo on YouTube