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Paul Ehrlich

Paul Ehrlich was a Nobel prize-winning German-Jewish physician and scientist who worked in the fields of hematology and antimicrobial chemotherapy. He is credited with finding a cure for syphilis in 1909, he invented the precursor technique to Gram staining bacteria. The methods he developed for staining tissue made it possible to distinguish between different types of blood cells, which led to the capability to diagnose numerous blood diseases, his laboratory discovered arsphenamine, the first effective medicinal treatment for syphilis, thereby initiating and naming the concept of chemotherapy. Ehrlich popularized the concept of a magic bullet, he made a decisive contribution to the development of an antiserum to combat diphtheria and conceived a method for standardizing therapeutic serums. In 1908, he received the Nobel Prize in Medicine for his contributions to immunology, he was the founder and first director of. Born 14 March 1854 in Strehlen in Silesia in what is now south-west Poland. Paul Ehrlich was the second child of Ismar Ehrlich.

His nephew was Fritz Weigert and his cousin was Karl Weigert. His father was an innkeeper and distiller of liqueurs and the royal lottery collector in Strehelen, a town of some 5,000 inhabitants in the province of Lower Silesia, now in Poland, his grandfather, Heymann Ehrlich, had been a successful distiller and tavern manager. Ismar Ehrlich was the leader of the local Jewish community. After elementary school, Paul attended the time-honored secondary school Maria-Magdalenen-Gymnasium in Breslau, where he met Albert Neisser, who became a professional colleague; as a schoolboy, he became fascinated by the process of staining microscopic tissue substances. He retained that interest during his subsequent medical studies at the universities of Breslau, Freiburg im Breisgau and Leipzig. After obtaining his doctorate in 1882, he worked at the Charité in Berlin as an assistant medical director under Theodor Frerichs, the founder of experimental clinical medicine, focusing on histology and color chemistry.

He married Hedwig Pinkus in 1883 in the synagogue in Neustadt. The couple had two daughters and Marianne. Hedwig was a sister of Max Pinkus, an owner of the textile factory in Neustadt. After completing his clinical education and habilitation at the prominent Charité medical school and teaching hospital in Berlin in 1886, Ehrlich traveled to Egypt and other countries in 1888 and 1889, in part to cure a case of tuberculosis which he had contracted in the laboratory. Upon his return he established a private medical practice and small laboratory in Berlin-Steglitz. In 1891, Robert Koch invited Ehrlich to join the staff at his Berlin Institute of Infectious Diseases, where in 1896 a new branch, the Institute for Serum Research and Testing, was established for Ehrlich's specialization. Ehrlich was named its founding director. In 1899 his institute moved to Frankfurt am Main and was renamed the Institute of Experimental Therapy. One of his important collaborators there was Max Neisser. In 1904, Ehrlich received a full position of honorary professor from the University of Göttingen.

In 1906 Ehrlich became the director of the Georg Speyer House in Frankfurt, a private research foundation affiliated with his institute. Here he discovered in 1909 the first drug to be targeted against a specific pathogen: Salvarsan, a treatment for syphilis, at that time one of the most lethal and infectious diseases in Europe. Among the foreign guest scientists working with Ehrlich were two Nobel Prize winners, Henry Hallett Dale and Paul Karrer; the institute was renamed Paul Ehrlich Institute in Ehrlich's honour in 1947. In 1914 Ehrlich signed the controversial Manifesto of the Ninety-Three, a defense of Germany's World War I politics and militarism. On 17 August 1915 Ehrlich died on 20 August in Bad Homburg vor der Höhe. Wilhelm II the German emperor, wrote in a telegram of condolence, “I, along with the entire civilized world, mourn the death of this meritorious researcher for his great service to medical science and suffering humanity. Paul Ehrlich was buried at Frankfurt. In the early 1870s, Ehrlich's cousin Karl Weigert was the first person to stain bacteria with dyes and to introduce aniline pigments for histological studies and bacterial diagnostics.

During his studies in Strassburg under the anatomist Heinrich Wilhelm Waldeyer, Ehrlich continued the research started by his cousin in pigments and staining tissues for microscopic study. He spent his eighth university semester in Freiburg im Breisgau investigating the red dye dahlia, giving rise to his first publication. In 1878 he followed his dissertation supervisor Julius Friedrich Cohnheim to Leipzig, that year obtained a doctorate with a dissertation entitled "Contributions to the Theory and Practice of Histological Staining". One of the most outstanding results of his dissertation investigations was the discovery of a new cell type. Ehrlich discovered in the protoplasm of supposed plasma cells a granulate which could be made visible with the help of an alkaline dye, he thought this granulate was a sign of good nourishment, accordingly named these cells mast cells, (from the German word for an anim

Giacomo Bini

Giacomo Bini was a Franciscan priest. Ordained in 1964, he worked as a missionary in Africa, was appointed Minister General of the Order of the Friars Minor for the period 1997–2003, he was fluent in Italian, English and Kiswahili. Bini was born in Ostra Vetere, Ancona in 1938, he entered a seminary at an early age, where he received his secondary education, entered the Franciscan order on 18 September 1956, at the age of 18. He made his Solemn Profession on 7 September 1963, was consecrated to the priesthood on 14 March 1964, he subsequently pursued further studies in both Paris, where he attended the Institut Catholique for two years, at Strasbourg, where he obtained the title of Doctor in Religious Sciences at the University of Strasbourg in 1971. His thesis was entitled Penance in St. Basil of Caesarea, his early roles ranged from Definitor, instructor in liturgy at the regional seminary of Fano, master of studies for prospective friars undergoing their novitiate, provincial vicar of the Marche region, both guardian and parish priest at Urbino.

In 1982, after expressing a wish to participate in the Africa project of his order, he was incardinated the Vice Province of St. Francis of Africa and Madagascar to establish the Rwanda Order of Friars Minor. Bini's functions were those of Vicar Provincial; the project envisaged three principles: Living as a Franciscan fraternity dedicated to listening and service for reciprocal conversion. To live in a small parish in a poor area. Bini, together with Brother Raoul de Buisseret and Brother Anselmo Doglio arrived in Rwanda on 21 February 1983, were soon joined by two other brothers, Vjeko Curic, Paolo Lombardo, in August of the same year; each represented different traditions of the Franciscan order, according to the impression of a Rwandan who served his postulancy with them. Monsignor Perraudin, Bishop of Kabgayi, offered them a choice for their mission between Musambira or a base on a hilltop near the smaller town of Kivumu closer to the city of Gitarama in the Muhanga District, they chose the latter, while mastering Kiswahili at Kigali, built with local help a friary at Kivumu, inaugurated in January 1984.

On 7 October 1984 the parish of "St. Mary of the Angels" was established with Giacomo Bini as its first parish priest, their ministries differed in emphasis: fra Anselmo tendered the mission's gardens and chickens. The new community kept close communion with the Poor Clares, who had established a mission in Kamonyi in 1982, some years with a Belgian order, the Franciscan Sisters of the Kingdom of Jesus, who were based in Zaire. Bini superintended vocational training both in Rwanda and Tanzania. Among 100 young Rwandans desiring to entering the novitiate, just five were selected for postulancy, the first group on 29 September 1985. From 1993 to 1997 he served as Provincial Minister of the Vice Province of St. Francis of Africa and Madagascar in Nairobi. Shortly after his appointment, in 1994 a wave of genocidal violence against the Tutsi ethnic minority broke out. Br. Georges Gashugi, a Rwandan friar on the eve of his consecration, was hauled from a truck in late April 1994, identified as a Tutsi and slaughtered: his last wish, to be allowed to die in his Franciscan tunic, was denied.

One of the earliest missionaries, from Croatia, Vjeko Curic, who had gone on to master the Kinyarwanda language of Rwanda, proved instrumental in both saving many Tutsi from falling victims of the genocide and in helping Hutus, targeted for revenge when the first wave of violence passed, was shot dead by a hired gunman whom he had helped, in Kigali on 31 January 1998. His funeral was attended by thousands of Africans, members of both the Islamic and Jewish communities. In his address on the occasion as Minister General of the order, Bini recalled that Vjeko had predicted months earlier that,'those whom I saved will kill me'. On 14 May 1997, at the General Chapter meeting at St. Mary of the Angels near Assisi Bini was elected the successor of St Francis and leader of the worldwide Order of Franciscan Friars, a role he covered for a period of six years, until 2003. During his superintendence, as part of a renewal of old links between the Tuscan chapter of the Franciscans and the people of Lithuania, a Franciscan hermitage was established in July 2000 on the Hill of Crosses near Šiauliai, for the occasion Pope John Paul II wrote a letter of appreciation to Bini and his confrères.

As head of the Franciscan Order, the official Catholic'custos of the Holy Land', he was active in seeking to resolve diplomatically the impasse created during the Israeli siege of the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem in 2002 during the Al-Aqsa Intifada. He was present at Mount Nebo to greet Pope John Paul II at his starting point for his pilgrimage to Israel and the Palestinian Authority. Subsequently, on the occasion of the General Chapter Meeting of 2003, the Pope addressed Bini and his order in an extended letter covering their functions and mission. In 2007, Bini established a European Missionary Fraternity in Palestrina bound to a similar entity in Istanbul, in the wake of discussions conducted at a General Curia seminar the preceding year dedicated to evangelization in Europe; the aim wa


A Burschenschaft is one of the traditional Studentenverbindungen of Germany and Chile. Burschenschaften were founded in the 19th century as associations of university students inspired by liberal and nationalistic ideas, they were involved in the March Revolution and the unification of Germany. After the formation of the German Empire in 1871, they faced a crisis, as their main political objective had been realized. So-called Reformburschenschaften were established, but these were dissolved by the National Socialist regime in 1935/6. In West Germany, the Burschenschaften were re-established in the 1950s, but they faced a renewed crisis in the 1960s and 1970s, as the mainstream political outlook of the German student movement of that period swerved to the radical left. 160 Burschenschaften exist today in Germany and Chile. The first one, called Urburschenschaft, was founded on June 12, 1815 at Jena as an association drawn from all German university students inspired by liberal and patriotic ideas.

Like the Landsmannschaften or the Corps, a student association based on particular German region, the Burschenschaft members engaged in duelling. However, its main purpose was to break down society lines and to destroy rivalry in the student body, to improve student life and increase patriotism, it was intended to draw its members from a broader population base than the Corps. Indeed, the group was known for its middle-class membership while the Corps' was aristocratic. At first, a significant component of its membership were students who had taken part in the German wars of liberation against the Napoleonic occupation of Germany, its motto was “honor, fatherland”, the original colors were red-black-red with a golden oak leaves cluster, which might be based on the uniform of the Lützow Free Corps, being a corps of volunteer soldiers during the wars of liberation. The Burschenschaften were student associations. However, their most important goal was to foster loyalty to the concept of a united German national state as well as strong engagement for freedom and democracy.

Quite Burschenschaften decided to stress extreme nationalist or sometimes liberal ideas, leading in time to the exclusion of Jews, who were considered to be un-German. All Burschenschaften were banned as revolutionary by Klemens Wenzel von Metternich of Austria when he issued the reactionary Carlsbad Decrees in 1819. Many Burschenschafter took part in the Hambacher Fest in 1832 and the democratic Revolution in 1848/49. After this revolution had been suppressed, plenty of leading Burschenschafter, such as Friedrich Hecker and Carl Schurz, went abroad. After the foundation of the German Empire in 1871, the Burschenschaften movement faced a severe crisis, as one major goal had been achieved to some extent: German unification. In the 1880s, a renaissance movement, the Reformburschenschaften, led by the ideas of Küster and many new B! B! were founded. It was during this time until the 1890s when members turned towards anti-Semitic outlook since it provided an approach to achieving the fraternity's fundamental goal.

Members viewed the Jews as a problem that hampered the unification of Germany and the achievement of new values the organization advanced. There were members who resigned to protest a resolution adopted at an Eisenach meeting declaring that Burschenschaft "have no Jewish members and do not plan to have any in the future." Historical records show that the fraternity again accepted Jewish members on since it was not in favor of racist antisemitism. In 1935/36, most Burschenschaften north of the Austrian Alps were dissolved by the Nazi government or transformed and fused with other Studentenverbindungen into so-called Kameradschaften; some Nazis and Nazi opponents were members of Burschenschaften. Theodor Herzl, an Austrian Jewish journalist who founded modern political Zionism, was a member of a Burschenschaft. However, he resigned. While in communist East Germany Burschenschaften were prohibited as representatives of a bourgeois attitude to be extinguished, in West Germany most Burschenschaften were refounded in the 1950s.

Some of them had to be transferred into other cities, since Germany had lost great parts of its territories after the Second World War, many Burschenschaften from East Germany tried to find a new home. The allied victors had forbidden refounding Burschenschaften but this could not be upheld in a liberal surrounding. In the 1970s and 1980s, the Burschenschaften, as many other student fraternities, underwent a crisis: a lack of new members and strong attacks by the leftist student community. In the 1990s many Burschenschaften that had left Eastern Germany in the 1940s and 1950s returned to their traditional home universities in the East. 160 Burschenschaften still exist today and many are organized in different organizations ranging from progressive to nationalistic. Among the latter is the Deutsche Burschenschaft organization, which represents about a third of the Burschenschaften. Others are organized in the Schwarzburgbund, the Neue Deutsche Burschenschaft or the Allgemeine Deutsche Burschenschaft.

While the DB still insists upon Fichte's idea of a German nation based on language and culture, the NeueDB favors defining Germany as the political Germany established by the German Basic Law in 1949 and altered by the 1990 unific

Chance Meeting (album)

Chance Meeting is an album by jazz guitarists Tal Farlow and Lenny Breau, released in 1997. While being profiled in a PBS documentary, it was suggested to Farlow that he be paired with a younger jazz guitarist, he suggested Breau and the two guitarists performed this set at a small nightclub in Rumson, New Jersey. It was their only performance together. In his review for Allmusic, music critic Ken Dryden wrote the musicians "complement one another's playing as if they had worked as a regular duo. Breau, on his seven-string guitar, is a bundle of energy most of the time, with flurries of notes accompanied by his flawless rhythm. Of course, the senior player is no slouch as a soloist on any of the eight standards heard on this CD... It's too bad that this enjoyable session was only a one-time affair." In reviewing the release for JazzTimes, critic Jim Ferguson wrote "The mutual admiration between the players is obvious throughout the nine impromptu performances... More than sophisticated chordal structures and harmonics, the thing that these two geniuses-a generation apart-really have in common is the music, which eloquently speaks for itself."

"I Love You" – 5:24 "Satin Doll" – 7:03 "My Funny Valentine" – 8:40 "All the Things You Are" – 11:33 "Conversation" – 2:34 "Cherokee" – 4:30 "What Is This Thing Called Love?" – 6:56 "Broadway" – 6:03 "My Foolish Heart" – 7:00 Tal Farlow – guitar Lenny Breau – guitar Lyn Christiebass on "All the Things You Are" and "Cherokee" Nat Garratano – drums on "All the Things You Are" and "Cherokee"Production notes: Randy Bachman – executive producer John Dildine – engineer Guitarchives web site

Home on the Range (1946 film)

Home on the Range is a 1946 American Western film directed by R. G. Springsteen and written by Betty Burbridge; the film stars Lorna Gray, Bob Nolan, Tom Chatterton, Robert Blake and LeRoy Mason. The film was released on April 1946, by Republic Pictures. Monte Hale as Monte Hale Lorna Gray as Bonnie Garth Bob Nolan as Bob Sons of the Pioneers as Ranch Hands / Musicians Tom Chatterton as Grizzly Garth Robert Blake as Cub Garth LeRoy Mason as Dan Roy Barcroft as Henchman Kenne Duncan as Henchman Budd Buster as Sheriff Jack Kirk as Rancher Benson John Hamilton as State Official Home on the Range on IMDb

Steve Sviggum

Steven A. "Steve" Sviggum is a Minnesota politician, a former member of the University of Minnesota Board of Regents, an executive assistant to and communications director for the Republican caucus in the Minnesota Senate. A former Speaker and member of the Minnesota House of Representatives, Sviggum represented District 28B in the southeastern part of the state; the area was known as District 25A until the 1982 legislative redistricting, as District 26A until the 1992 redistricting, has included all or portions of Dakota, Goodhue, Steele, Wabasha and Winona counties. Of Norwegian-American ancestry, Sviggum was born in September 1951, he received a B. A. in mathematics from St. Olaf College in Northfield, worked as both a teacher and a farmer. Sviggum was first elected to the House in 1978, he served as minority leader from April 17, 1992 to 1999, became Speaker after the 1998 elections, when the Republicans took control of the House. He began his speakership under unusual circumstances, as 1998 saw the election of Reform Party candidate Jesse Ventura as governor while the Democrats retained control of the Minnesota Senate.

Sviggum was the leader of the Republicans in a government divided among three political parties. In 2003 Sviggum alleged that then-State Representative Rebecca Otto had knowingly distributed false campaign materials. Otto was indicted. In the 2006 election, the Democrats regained control of the House, ending Sviggum's tenure as Speaker. Though he won reelection to his House seat, he chose not seek a leadership position in the next session. Democrat Margaret Anderson Kelliher succeeded him as Speaker. On June 26, 2007, Governor Tim Pawlenty announced that Sviggum would succeed Scott Brenner as Minnesota Commissioner of Labor and Industry, he resigned from his House seat and took over the position on July 17, 2007, serving until December 2010. A special election held on August 7, 2007, to determine Sviggum's successor was won by Republican Steve Drazkowski of Wabasha. On December 2, 2010, in the waning days of the Pawlenty administration, Sviggum was appointed Commissioner of the Minnesota Management and Budget Office, the department responsible for preparing budget proposals for the governor.

He served just over a month, leaving office with Pawlenty on January 3, 2011. Sviggum and former Representative Laura Brod were elected to the University of Minnesota's Board of Regents on February 21, 2011, by a joint meeting of the Minnesota House and Senate, he is serving a six-year term on the 12-member body, charged with overseeing the University of Minnesota system. On January 16, 2012, Sviggum was named communications director and executive assistant for the Republican caucus in the Minnesota Senate. Sviggum replaced Michael Brodkorb, who had resigned in the wake of a scandal involving former Senate Majority Leader Amy Koch. Sviggum was criticized for his intention to remain a regent during his tenure with the Senate. Senate Minority Leader Tom Bakk said. Sviggum admitted that taxpayers should not have paid for pamphlets created by the Minnesota Senate Republican communications department and used by 15 Republican Senators for Republican attendees of precinct caucuses, he publicly apologized for using taxpayer's resources to produce campaign materials.

On June 11, 2012, the Minnesota Office of Administrative Hearings ruled that sufficient evidence existed for a complaint the Minnesota DFL Party filed against Sviggum and 14 Republican Senators regarding the pamphlets to continue. The complaint against Senator Doug Magnus was dismissed. Steve Sviggum at Minnesota Legislators Past & Present University of Minnesota Humphrey School of Public Affairs Profile Minnesota House of Representatives Website for Steve Sviggum Appearances on C-SPAN