Detroit is the largest and most populous city in the U. S. state of Michigan, the largest United States city on the United States–Canada border, the seat of Wayne County. The municipality of Detroit had a 2017 estimated population of 673,104, making it the 23rd-most populous city in the United States; the metropolitan area, known as Metro Detroit, is home to 4.3 million people, making it the second-largest in the Midwest after the Chicago metropolitan area. Regarded as a major cultural center, Detroit is known for its contributions to music and as a repository for art and design. Detroit is a major port located on the Detroit River, one of the four major straits that connect the Great Lakes system to the Saint Lawrence Seaway; the Detroit Metropolitan Airport is among the most important hubs in the United States. The City of Detroit anchors the second-largest regional economy in the Midwest, behind Chicago and ahead of Minneapolis–Saint Paul, the 13th-largest in the United States. Detroit and its neighboring Canadian city Windsor are connected through a tunnel and the Ambassador Bridge, the busiest international crossing in North America.
Detroit is best known as the center of the U. S. automobile industry, the "Big Three" auto manufacturers General Motors and Chrysler are all headquartered in Metro Detroit. In 1701, Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, the future city of Detroit. During the 19th century, it became an important industrial hub at the center of the Great Lakes region. With expansion of the auto industry in the early 20th century, the city and its suburbs experienced rapid growth, by the 1940s, the city had become the fourth-largest in the country. However, due to industrial restructuring, the loss of jobs in the auto industry, rapid suburbanization, Detroit lost considerable population from the late 20th century to the present. Since reaching a peak of 1.85 million at the 1950 census, Detroit's population has declined by more than 60 percent. In 2013, Detroit became the largest U. S. city to file for bankruptcy, which it exited in December 2014, when the city government regained control of Detroit's finances.
Detroit's diverse culture has had both local and international influence in music, with the city giving rise to the genres of Motown and techno, playing an important role in the development of jazz, hip-hop and punk music. The erstwhile rapid growth of Detroit left a globally unique stock of architectural monuments and historic places, since the 2000s conservation efforts managed to save many architectural pieces and allowed several large-scale revitalizations, including the restoration of several historic theatres and entertainment venues, high-rise renovations, new sports stadiums, a riverfront revitalization project. More the population of Downtown Detroit, Midtown Detroit, various other neighborhoods has increased. An popular tourist destination, Detroit receives 19 million visitors per year. In 2015, Detroit was named a "City of Design" by UNESCO, the first U. S. city to receive that designation. Paleo-Indian people inhabited areas near Detroit as early as 11,000 years ago including the culture referred to as the Mound-builders.
In the 17th century, the region was inhabited by Huron, Odawa and Iroquois peoples. The first Europeans did not penetrate into the region and reach the straits of Detroit until French missionaries and traders worked their way around the League of the Iroquois, with whom they were at war, other Iroquoian tribes in the 1630s; the north side of Lake Erie was held by the Huron and Neutral peoples until the 1650s, when the Iroquois pushed both and the Erie people away from the lake and its beaver-rich feeder streams in the Beaver Wars of 1649–1655. By the 1670s, the war-weakened Iroquois laid claim to as far south as the Ohio River valley in northern Kentucky as hunting grounds, had absorbed many other Iroquoian peoples after defeating them in war. For the next hundred years no British, colonist, or French action was contemplated without consultation with, or consideration of the Iroquois' response; when the French and Indian War evicted the Kingdom of France from Canada, it removed one barrier to British colonists migrating west.
British negotiations with the Iroquois would both prove critical and lead to a Crown policy limiting the west of the Alleghenies settlements below the Great Lakes, which gave many American would-be migrants a casus belli for supporting the American Revolution. The 1778 raids and resultant 1779 decisive Sullivan Expedition reopened the Ohio Country to westward emigration, which began immediately, by 1800 white settlers were pouring westwards; the city was named by French colonists, referring to the Detroit River, linking Lake Huron and Lake Erie. On July 24, 1701, the French explorer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, along with more than a hundred other settlers began constructing a small fort on the north bank of the Detroit River. Cadillac would name the settlement Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, after Louis Phélypeaux, comte de Pontchartrain, Minister of Marine under Louis XIV. France offered free land to colonists to attract families to Detroit. By 1773, the population of Detroit was 1,400. By 1778, its population was up to 2,144 and it was the third-largest city in the Province of Quebec.
The region's economy was based on the lucrative fur trade, in which nume
Audrey Faith McGraw, known professionally as Faith Hill, is an American singer and record producer. She is one of the most successful country artists of all time, having sold more than 40 million albums worldwide. Hill is married to American singer Tim McGraw. Hill's first two albums, Take Me as I Am and It Matters to Me, were major successes and placed a combined three number ones on Billboard's country charts, she achieved mainstream and crossover success with her next two albums and Breathe. Faith spawned her first international success in early 1998, "This Kiss", while Breathe became one of the best-selling country albums of all time, led by the huge crossover success of the songs "Breathe" and "The Way You Love Me", it earned Hill three Grammy Awards. In 2001, she recorded "There You'll Be" for the Pearl Harbor soundtrack and it became an international success and her best-selling single in Europe. Hill's next two albums and Fireflies, were both commercial successes. Hill has won five Grammy Awards, 15 Academy of Country Music Awards, six American Music Awards, several other awards.
Her Soul2Soul II Tour 2006 with McGraw became the highest-grossing country tour of all time. In 2001, she was named one of the "30 Most Powerful Women in America" by Ladies Home Journal. In 2009, Billboard named her as the No. 1 Adult Contemporary artist of the 2000s decade and as the 39th best artist. From 2007 to 2012, Hill was the voice of NBC Sunday Night Football's intro song. In 2019, Hill will receive a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. Hill was born in Ridgeland, north of Jackson, Mississippi, she was adopted as an infant, named Audrey Faith Perry. She was raised in the nearby town of Star, 20 miles outside of Jackson, her adoptive parents and Ted Perry, raised her with their two biological sons in a devout Christian environment. Hill's vocal talent was apparent early, she had her first public performance, at a 4-H luncheon, when she was seven. In 1976, a few days before her 9th birthday, she attended a concert by Elvis Presley at the State Fair Coliseum, in Jackson, which impressed her deeply.
By the time she was a teenager, Hill was a regular performer at area churches those not in her own Baptist denomination. At 17, Hill formed a band, she graduated from McLaurin Attendance Center in 1986, attended college at Hinds Junior College in Raymond, Mississippi. At times, she sang for prisoners at the Hinds County Jail, her song of choice being "Amazing Grace". At age 19 she quit school to pursue her dream of being a country singer. In her early days in Nashville, Hill auditioned to be a backup singer for Reba McEntire, but failed to secure the job. After a stint selling T-shirts, Hill became a secretary at a music publishing firm. Hill landed a job at a local McDonald's restaurant franchise, which she disliked intensely. "Fries, cash register – I did it all, I hated it," she has said. In 1988, she married music publishing executive Daniel Hill. A co-worker heard Hill singing to herself one day, soon the head of her music publishing company was encouraging her to become a demo singer for the firm.
She supplemented this work by singing backup vocals for songwriter Gary Burr, who performed his new songs at Nashville's Bluebird Cafe. During one of those performances, Martha Sharp, an executive from Warner Bros. Records was in the audience, impressed with Hill's voice, began the process of signing her to a recording contract. Shortly after the release of her album, Hill's marriage fell apart, she and Daniel Hill divorced in 1994. Hill's debut album was Take Me as I Am. Hill became the first female country singer in 30 years to hold Billboard's number one position for four consecutive weeks when "Wild One" managed the feat in 1994, her version of "Piece of My Heart" went to the top of the country charts in 1994. The album sold a total of 3 million copies. Other singles from the album include "Take Me as I Am"; the recording of Faith's second album was delayed by surgery to repair a ruptured blood vessel on her vocal cords. It Matters to Me appeared in 1995 and was another success, with the title track becoming her third number-one country single.
Several other top 10 singles followed, more than 3 million copies of the album were sold. The fifth single from the album, was written by Alan Jackson. Other singles from the album include "You Can't Lose Me", "Someone Else's Dream", "Let's Go to Vegas". During this period, Hill appeared on the acclaimed PBS music program Austin City Limits. In spring 1996, Hill began the Spontaneous Combustion Tour with country singer Tim McGraw. At that time, Hill had become engaged to her former producer, Scott Hendricks, McGraw had broken an engagement. McGraw and Hill were attracted to each other and began an affair. After discovering that Hill was pregnant with their first child, the couple married on October 6, 1996; the couple have three daughters together: Maggie Elizabeth and Audrey Caroline. Since their marriage, Hill and McGraw have endeavored never to be apart for more than three consecutive days. After the release of It Matters to Me, Hill took a three-year break from recording to give
Alan Eugene Jackson is an American country singer and songwriter. He is known for blending traditional honky tonk and mainstream country sounds and penning many of his own songs. Jackson has recorded 16 studio albums, three greatest hits albums, two Christmas albums, two gospel albums and several compilations. Jackson has sold over 80 million records, with 66 titles on the Billboard Hot Country Singles & Tracks chart. Of the 66 titles, six featured singles, 38 have reached the top five and 35 have claimed the number one spot. Out of 15 titles to reach the Billboard Top Country Albums chart, nine have been certified multi-platinum, he is the recipient of two Grammy Awards, 16 CMA Awards, 17 ACM Awards and nominee of multiple other awards. He is a member of the Grand Ole Opry, was inducted into the Georgia Music Hall of Fame in 2001, he was inducted into the Country Music Hall of Fame in 2017 by Loretta Lynn and into the Nashville Songwriters Hall of Fame in 2018. Jackson was born to Joseph Eugene "Daddy Gene" Jackson and Ruth Musick "Mama Ruth" Jackson in Newnan and has four older siblings.
He, his father and sisters lived in a small home built around his grandfather's old toolshed. The family is of English descent. At one point, his bed was in the hallway for lack of room, his mother lived in the home until she died on January 7, 2017. Jackson sang in church as a child, his first job, at 12, was in a shoe store. He wrote his first song in 1983; as a youth, Jackson listened to gospel music, but otherwise he was not a major music fan until a friend introduced him to the music of Gene Watson, John Anderson, Hank Williams Jr. Jackson attended the local Elm Street Elementary and Newnan High School, started a band after graduation; when he was 27, Jackson and his wife of six years, moved from Newnan to Nashville, where he hoped to pursue music full-time. In Tennessee, Jackson got his first job in The Nashville Network's mailroom. Denise Jackson connected him with Glen Campbell, who helped jumpstart his career. Jackson signed with Arista, in 1989, he became the first artist signed to the newly formed Arista Nashville branch of Arista Records.
Arista released Jackson's debut single, "Blue Blooded Woman", in late 1989. Although the song failed to reach top 40 on Hot Country Songs, he reached number three by early 1990 with "Here in the Real World"; this song served as the title track to his debut album, Here in the Real World, which included two more top five hits and his first number one, "I'd Love You All Over Again". Don't Rock the Jukebox was the title of Jackson's second album. Released in 1991, it included four number-one singles: the title track, "Someday", "Dallas" and "Love's Got a Hold on You", the number three "Midnight in Montgomery". Jackson co-wrote several songs on Randy Travis' 1991 album High Lonesome. A Lot About Livin', his third album, accounted for the number one hits "She's Got the Rhythm" and "Chattahoochee", plus the top five hits "Tonight I Climbed the Wall", "Mercury Blues" and " You Can't Have It All". "Chattahoochee" won him the 1994 Country Music Association awards for Single and Song of the Year. In 1994 Jackson left his management company, Ten Ten Management, which had overseen his career up to that point, switched to Gary Overton.
His fourth album was titled Who I Am, it contained four number one hits: a cover of the Eddie Cochran standard "Summertime Blues", followed by "Livin' on Love", "Gone Country" and "I Don't Even Know Your Name". An additional track from the album, a cover of Rodney Crowell's "Song for the Life", made number six. In late 1994, Clay Walker reached number one with "If I Could Make a Living", which Jackson co-wrote. Jackson appeared in the 1996 "When Harry Kept Delores" episode of Home Improvement, performing "Mercury Blues"; the Greatest Hits Collection was released on October 24, 1995. The disc contained 17 hits, two newly recorded songs, the song "Home" from Here in the Real World that had never been released as a single; these first two songs both made number one. Everything I Love followed in 1996, its first single was a cover of Tom T. Hall's "Little Bitty", which Jackson took to the top of the charts in late 1996; the album included the number one hit "There Goes" and a number two cover of Charly McClain's 1980 single "Who's Cheatin' Who".
The album's fifth single was "A House with No Curtains", which became his first release since 1989 to miss the top 10. High Mileage was led off by the number four "I'll Go On Loving You". After it came the album's only number one hit, "Right on the Money", co-written by Phil Vassar. With Jackson's release of Under the Influence in 1999, he took the double risk on an album of covers of country classics while retaining a traditional sound when a rock- and pop-tinged sound dominated country radio; when the Country Music Association asked George Jones to trim his act to 90 seconds for the 1999 CMA awards, Jones decided to boycott the event. In solidarity, Jackson interrupted his own song and launched into Jones's song "Choices" and walked offstage. Alan was known for wearing a mullet since 1989. Before he had short hair. After country music changed toward pop music in the 2000s, he and George Strait criticized the state of country music in the song "Murder on Music Row"; the song sparked debate in the country music community about whether "traditional" country music was dead or not.
Despite the fact that the song was not released as a single, it became the highest-charting nonseasonal album cut (not available in any retail single configu
George Harvey Strait Sr. is an American country music singer, songwriter and music producer. George Strait is known as the "King of Country" and is considered one of the most influential and popular recording artists of all time, he is known for his neotraditionalist country style, cowboy look, being one of the first and main country artists to bring country music back to its roots and away from the pop country era in the 1980s. Strait's success began when his first single "Unwound" was a hit in 1981. During the 1980s, seven of his albums reached number one on the country charts. In the 2000s, Strait was named Artist of the Decade by the Academy of Country Music, was elected into the Country Music Hall of Fame, won his first Grammy award for the album Troubadour. Strait was named CMA Entertainer of the Year in 1989, 1990 and 2013, ACM Entertainer of the Year in 1990 and 2014, he has been nominated for more CMA and ACM awards and has more wins in both categories than any other artist. By 2009, he broke Conway Twitty's previous record for the most number-one hits on Billboard's Hot Country Songs chart when his 44 number one singles surpassed Twitty's 40.
Counting all music charts, Strait has amassed a total of 60 number-one hits, breaking a record previously set by Twitty, giving him more number one songs than any other artist in any genre of music. Strait is known for his touring career when he designed a 360-degree configuration and introduced festival style tours. For example, the Strait Tours earned $99 million in three years, his concert at AT&T Stadium in Arlington, Texas, in June 2014 drew 104,793 people, marking a new record for largest indoor concert in North America. Strait was successful innovating country music and in numerous aspects of being a part of popular music. Strait has sold more than 100 million records worldwide, making him one of the best-selling music artists of all time, his certifications from the RIAA include 13 multi-platinum, 33 platinum, 38 gold albums. His best-selling album is Pure Country, his highest certified album is Strait Out of the Box. According to the RIAA, Strait is the 12th best-selling album recording artist in the United States overall.
George Harvey Strait Sr. was born on May 18, 1952, in Poteet, Texas, to John Byron Strait Sr. and Doris Jean Couser. He grew up in nearby Pearsall, in Frio County, where his father was a junior high school mathematics teacher and the owner of a 2,000-acre cattle ranch outside of Big Wells, Texas; the family worked at the ranch in the summers. When George was in the fourth grade, his father and mother were divorced, his mother moved away with his sister, Pency. George and his brother John Jr. were raised by their father. Strait began his musical interest while attending Pearsall High School, where he played in a rock and roll garage band; the Beatles were popular. "The Beatles were big", Strait confirmed. "I listened to them a lot and that whole bunch of groups that were popular then". His musical preference soon turned to country with singers Hank Thompson, Lefty Frizzell, Merle Haggard, George Jones, Bob Wills, Hank Williams, Frank Sinatra influencing his style. Strait did not tune to the country music radio as a youth listening to the news and the farmer's report.
His introduction to country music came by way of live performances, according to Strait, could be heard in every town in Texas. He eloped with his high school sweetheart, Norma; the couple married in Spain on December 4, 1971. That same year, he enlisted in the United States Army. While stationed at Fort Bragg in North Carolina as a part of the 82nd Airborne Division, Strait began performing with a U. S. Army-sponsored band, "Rambling Country", which played off-base under the name "Santee". On October 6, 1972, while still in Fort Bragg and Norma had their first child, Jenifer. After Strait was honorably discharged from the Army in 1975, he enrolled at Southwest Texas State University in San Marcos and graduated with a degree in agriculture.it is now just Texas State. During his college years, Strait joined the country band Stoney Ridge, answering a flyer the band posted around campus looking for a new vocalist. Strait renamed the group the Ace in the Hole Band and became the lead, they opened for national acts such as The Texas Playboys.
Soon, his band was given the opportunity to record several Strait-penned singles including "That Don't Change The Way I Feel About You," and "I Can't Go On Dying Like This" for the Houston-based D label. However, the songs never achieved wide recognition, Strait continued to manage his family cattle ranch during the day in order to make some extra cash. While he continued to play with his band, without any real connections to the recording industry, Strait became friends with Erv Woolsey, who operated one of the bars in which the Ace in the Hole band played, who had worked for the major label MCA Records. Woolsey convinced some of his Music Row connections to come to Texas and to listen to Strait and his band play. Impressed with the performance, but concerned that they couldn't market the Western Swing sound that the band featured, they left without a deal. After several unsuccessful trips to Nashville in search of a record deal in which Strait was turned down by every label in town, he considered giving up music altogether.
He was o
Patty Loveless is an American country music singer. Since her emergence on the country music scene in late 1986 with her first album, Loveless has been one of the most popular female singers of neotraditional country, she has recorded albums in the country pop and bluegrass genres. Loveless was born in Pikeville and raised in Elkhorn City and Louisville, Kentucky, she rose to stardom thanks to her blend of honky tonk and country-rock and a plaintive, emotional ballad style. Throughout her career, Loveless has sold 15 million albums worldwide. Loveless has charted more than 40 cuts on the Billboard Hot Country Songs charts, including five in the No. 1 position: "Timber, I'm Falling in Love", "Chains", "Blame It on Your Heart", "You Can Feel Bad", "Lonely Too Long". She has recorded 14 studio albums, she has been a member of the Grand Ole Opry since 1988. Loveless was married to Terry Lovelace, from whom she derived her professional name, from 1976 to 1986, she has been married to Emory Gordy Jr., her record producer, since 1989.
Patty Loveless was born January 1957 in Pikeville, Kentucky. She was the sixth of seven children born to John Ramey of Elkhorn City, Kentucky. Like many men in the area, Mr. Ramey worked as a coal miner. Loveless' interest in music started. In 1969, when she was twelve, the Ramey family moved to Kentucky; the move was necessitated from her father's struggles with Coalworker's pneumoconiosis, or black lung disease. This was caused by years of breathing in the coal dust. Loveless graduated from Fairdale High School in 1975, her older sister, Dottie Ramey, an aspiring country singer performed at small clubs in eastern Kentucky with her brother Roger, billed as the Swinging Rameys. Traveling with Dottie and Roger to Fort Knox in 1969 and hearing her sister perform on stage, Patty Ramey decided that she would like to become a performer as well; when Dottie married in 1969 and quit performing, Roger persuaded Patty to perform onstage for the first time at a country jamboree in Hodgenville, Kentucky. The forum consisted of foldout chairs in a small auditorium and was called the "Lincoln Jamboree".
She with her brother performed several songs. Patty Ramey joined her brother Roger and started singing together at several clubs in Louisville, under the name "Singin' Swingin' Rameys". Loveless and her brother would perform in various clubs in the Louisville area. A local radio announcer, Danny King with a country radio station in Louisville was a supporter of the Ramey kids. Whenever there was an opportunity for them to appear on stage, he would call up the Rameys and try to get them a booking, it was her brother Roger who took Patty Ramey to Nashville, Tennessee, in 1971. Having grown up listening to the music of the Grand Ole Opry both in Pikeville, in Louisville, Roger had moved to Nashville in 1970 and became a producer with The Porter Wagoner Show; when they arrived in Nashville, Roger went to Porter Wagoner's office without an appointment and managed to introduce his sister to Wagoner. Roger was able to convince Wagoner to listen to his sister sing, she performed a song she wrote for their father, called "Sounds of Loneliness".
To both Roger and Patty's surprise, Wagoner thumped his hand on his desk and said he was going to help her out. Wagoner introduced them to his singing partner at the time, Dolly Parton, encouraged her to go back home and finish school, although he did invite her to travel with him and Dolly Parton on weekends during the summer. In 1973 Bill Anderson, Connie Smith, the Wilburn Brothers, Jean Shepard were scheduled to appear in a touring Grand Ole Opry show in Louisville Gardens. However, Jean Shepard was caught in a flood, she wasn't able to make it in. Danny King, sensing an opportunity, gave the Rameys a call. Loveless and her brother Roger appeared in the show for about 15 minutes on stage; the Wilburn Brothers listened to Patty Ramey and after her performance asked her if she had sung professionally. She explained that she had worked with Porter Wagoner some and had traveled with him and Dolly Parton on weekends and during the summers. Doyle Wilburn asked if she wanted to come to Nashville and work with their band to replace their female singer, to which Patty Ramey agreed.
Between 1973 and 1975 Patty Ramey traveled with the Wilburns on weekends and during the summers when school was out. Loveless's parents insisted. Doyle Wilburn was grooming Ramey as his lead female singer, he held a music publishing contract on her with Sure-Fire music, his songwriting agency, as Wilburn realized that she was a talented songwriter. In addition, during the summer when the group wasn't on the road, Doyle Wilburn had Patty Ramey work at his various enterprises in Nashville, having her wait on tables in one of his restaurants and clerking at his Music Mart USA record store. After graduation from Fairdale High School in Louisville, Kentucky, in 1975 Patty Ramey became a full-time member of the Wilburn Brother's band as their lead female singer. About this time she met Terry Lovelace. Lovelace came from a small town in western North Carolina, Kings Mountain, shared many things in common with Loveless. At first Patty kept her friendship and her growing relationship with Lov
The LP is an analog sound storage medium, a vinyl record format characterized by a speed of 33 1⁄3 rpm, a 12- or 10-inch diameter, use of the "microgroove" groove specification. Introduced by Columbia in 1948, it was soon adopted as a new standard by the entire record industry. Apart from a few minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums. At the time the LP was introduced, nearly all phonograph records for home use were made of an abrasive shellac compound, employed a much larger groove, played at 78 revolutions per minute, limiting the playing time of a 12-inch diameter record to less than five minutes per side; the new product was a 12- or 10-inch fine-grooved disc made of PVC and played with a smaller-tipped "microgroove" stylus at a speed of 33 1⁄3 rpm. Each side of a 12-inch LP could play for about 22 minutes. Only the microgroove standard was new, as both vinyl and the 33 1⁄3 rpm speed had been used for special purposes for many years, as well as in one unsuccessful earlier attempt to introduce a long-playing record for home use by RCA Victor.
Although the LP was suited to classical music because of its extended continuous playing time, it allowed a collection of ten or more pop music recordings to be put on a single disc. Such collections, as well as longer classical music broken up into several parts, had been sold as sets of 78 rpm records in a specially imprinted "record album" consisting of individual record sleeves bound together in book form; the use of the word "album" persisted for the one-disc LP equivalent. The prototype of the LP was the soundtrack disc used by the Vitaphone motion picture sound system, developed by Western Electric and introduced in 1926. For soundtrack purposes, the less than five minutes of playing time of each side of a conventional 12-inch 78 rpm disc was not acceptable; the sound had to play continuously for at least 11 minutes, long enough to accompany a full 1,000-foot reel of 35 mm film projected at 24 frames per second. The disc diameter was increased to 16 inches and the speed was reduced to 33 1⁄3 revolutions per minute.
Unlike their smaller LP descendants, they were made with the same large "standard groove" used by 78s. Unlike conventional records, the groove started at the inside of the recorded area near the label and proceeded outward toward the edge. Like 78s, early soundtrack discs were pressed in an abrasive shellac compound and played with a single-use steel needle held in a massive electromagnetic pickup with a tracking force of five ounces. By mid-1931, all motion picture studios were recording on optical soundtracks, but sets of soundtrack discs, mastered by dubbing from the optical tracks and scaled down to 12 inches to cut costs, were made as late as 1936 for distribution to theaters still equipped with disc-only sound projectors. Syndicated radio programming was distributed on 78 rpm discs beginning in 1928; the desirability of longer continuous playing time soon led to the adoption of the Vitaphone soundtrack disc format. 16-inch 33 1⁄3 rpm discs playing about 15 minutes per side were used for most of these "electrical transcriptions" beginning about 1930.
Transcriptions were variously recorded inside out with an outside start. Longer programs, which required several disc sides, pioneered the system of recording odd-numbered sides inside-out and even-numbered sides outside-in so that the sound quality would match from the end of one side to the start of the next. Although a pair of turntables was used, to avoid any pauses for disc-flipping, the sides had to be pressed in a hybrid of manual and automatic sequencing, arranged in such a manner that no disc being played had to be turned over to play the next side in the sequence. Instead of a three-disc set having the 1–2, 3–4 and 5–6 manual sequence, or the 1–6, 2–5 and 3–4 automatic sequence for use with a drop-type mechanical record changer, broadcast sequence would couple the sides as 1–4, 2–5 and 3–6; some transcriptions were recorded with a vertically modulated "dale" groove. This was found to allow deeper bass and an extension of the high-end frequency response. Neither of these was a great advantage in practice because of the limitations of AM broadcasting.
Today we can enjoy the benefits of those higher-fidelity recordings if the original radio audiences could not. Transcription discs were pressed only in shellac, but by 1932 pressings in RCA Victor's vinyl-based "Victrolac" were appearing. Other plastics were sometimes used. By the late 1930s, vinyl was standard for nearly all kinds of pressed discs except ordinary commercial 78s, which continued to be made of shellac. Beginning in the mid-1930s, one-off 16-inch 33 1⁄3 rpm lacquer discs were used by radio networks to archive recordings of their live broadcasts, by local stations to delay the broadcast of network programming or to prerecord their own productions. In the late 1940s, magnetic tape recorders were adopted by the networks to pre-record shows or repeat them for airing in different time zones, but 16-inch vinyl pressings continued to be used into the early 1960s for non-network distribution of prerecorded programming. Use of the LP's microgroove standard began in the late 1950s, in the 1960s the discs were reduced to 12 inches, becoming physically indistinguishable from ordinary LPs.
Unless the quantity required was small, pressed discs were a more economica