A comics artist is a person working within the comics medium on comic strips, comic books, or graphic novels. The term may refer to any number of artists who contribute to produce a work in the comics form, from those who oversee all aspects of the work to those who contribute only a part. Within the comic strip format, it is typical for one creator to produce the whole strip. However, it is not uncommon for the writing of the strip and the drawing of the art to be carried out by two different people, a writer and an artist. In some cases, one artist might draw key figures. Many strips were the work of two people. Shortly after Frank Willard began Moon Mullins in 1923, he hired Ferd Johnson as his assistant. For decades, Johnson received no credit. Willard and Johnson traveled about Florida, Los Angeles and Mexico, drawing the strip while living in hotels and farmhouses. At its peak of popularity during the 1940s and 1950s, the strip ran in 350 newspapers. According to Johnson, he had been doing the strip solo for at least a decade before Willard's death in 1958: "They put my name on it then.
I had been doing it about 10 years before that because Willard had heart attacks and strokes and all that stuff. The minute my name went on that his name went off, 25 papers dropped the strip; that shows you that, although I had been doing it ten years, the name means a lot." With regards to the comic book format, the work can be split in many different ways. The writing and the creation of the art can be split between two people, an example being From Hell, written by Alan Moore and drawn by Eddie Campbell; the writing of a comic book story can sometimes be shared between two people, with one person writing the plot and another the script. The artistic work is subdivided on work produced for the larger comic book publishers, with four people working on the art: a penciller, an inker, a colorist and a letterer. Sometimes this combination of four artists is augmented by a breakdown artist. However, this occurs only when an artist fails to meet a deadline or when a writer, sometimes referred to as a scripter, produces breakdown art.
Breakdown art is where the story has been laid out roughly in pencils to indicate panel layouts and character positions within panels but with no details. Such roughs are sometimes referred to as "layouts." The norm of four artists is sometimes reduced to three if the penciller inks his own work being credited within the book as a penciller/inker. John Byrne and Walt Simonson are artists; that these roles are interchangeable, many artists can fulfill different roles. Stan Sakai is a regarded letterer of comic books who creates his own series, Usagi Yojimbo. Producing his autobiographical works, Eddie Campbell has created both scripts and art, plus teaming with his daughter on the coloring. On Cerebus, for the majority of the run, Dave Sim created everything except the backgrounds, which were drawn by Gerhard. Glossary of comics terminology Daily comic strip Mangaka Sunday comics Sunday strip Comic Creators at Curlie
Marvel Comics is the brand name and primary imprint of Marvel Worldwide Inc. Marvel Publishing, Inc. and Marvel Comics Group, a publisher of American comic books and related media. In 2009, The Walt Disney Company acquired Marvel Worldwide's parent company. Marvel started in 1939 the common name in the Golden Age was Timely Comics, by the early 1950s, had become known as Atlas Comics; the Marvel era began in 1961, the year that the company launched The Fantastic Four and other superhero titles created by Steve Ditko, Stan Lee, Jack Kirby and many others. The Marvel brand had been used over the years, but solidified as the company's only brand with in a couple of years. Marvel counts among its characters such well-known superheroes as Captain America, Iron Man, the Hulk, Spider-Man, Black Panther, Doctor Strange, the Silver Surfer, Ghost Rider, the Punisher and Deadpool, such teams as the Avengers, the X-Men, the Fantastic Four, the Midnight Sons, the Defenders, the Guardians of the Galaxy, supervillains including Galactus, Doctor Doom, Ultron, Green Goblin, Red Skull, Doctor Octopus and Venom.
Most of Marvel's fictional characters operate in a single reality known as the Marvel Universe, with most locations mirroring real-life places. Pulp-magazine publisher Martin Goodman founded the company known as Marvel Comics under the name Timely Publications in 1939. Goodman, who had started with a Western pulp in 1933, was expanding into the emerging—and by already popular—new medium of comic books. Launching his new line from his existing company's offices at 330 West 42nd Street, New York City, he held the titles of editor, managing editor, business manager, with Abraham Goodman listed as publisher. Timely's first publication, Marvel Comics #1, included the first appearance of Carl Burgos' android superhero the Human Torch, the first appearances of Bill Everett's anti-hero Namor the Sub-Mariner, among other features; the issue was a great success. While its contents came from an outside packager, Inc. Timely had its own staff in place by the following year; the company's first true editor, writer-artist Joe Simon, teamed with artist Jack Kirby to create one of the first patriotically themed superheroes, Captain America, in Captain America Comics #1.
It, proved a hit, with sales of nearly one million. Goodman formed Timely Comics, Inc. beginning with comics cover-dated April 1941 or Spring 1941. While no other Timely character would achieve the success of these three characters, some notable heroes—many of which continue to appear in modern-day retcon appearances and flashbacks—include the Whizzer, Miss America, the Destroyer, the original Vision, the Angel. Timely published one of humor cartoonist Basil Wolverton's best-known features, "Powerhouse Pepper", as well as a line of children's funny-animal comics featuring characters like Super Rabbit and the duo Ziggy Pig and Silly Seal. Goodman hired his wife's cousin, Stanley Lieber, as a general office assistant in 1939; when editor Simon left the company in late 1941, Goodman made Lieber—by writing pseudonymously as "Stan Lee"—interim editor of the comics line, a position Lee kept for decades except for three years during his military service in World War II. Lee wrote extensively for Timely.
Goodman's business strategy involved having his various magazines and comic books published by a number of corporations all operating out of the same office and with the same staff. One of these shell companies through which Timely Comics was published was named Marvel Comics by at least Marvel Mystery Comics #55; as well, some comics' covers, such as All Surprise Comics #12, were labeled "A Marvel Magazine" many years before Goodman would formally adopt the name in 1961. The post-war American comic market saw superheroes falling out of fashion. Goodman's comic book line dropped them for the most part and expanded into a wider variety of genres than Timely had published, featuring horror, humor, funny animal, men's adventure-drama, giant monster and war comics, adding jungle books, romance titles and medieval adventure, Bible stories and sports. Goodman began using the globe logo of the Atlas News Company, the newsstand-distribution company he owned, on comics cover-dated November 1951 though another company, Kable News, continued to distribute his comics through the August 1952 issues.
This globe branding united a line put out by the same publisher and freelancers through 59 shell companies, from Animirth Comics to Zenith Publications. Atlas, rather than innovate, took a proven route of following popular trends in television and movies—Westerns and war dramas prevailing for a time, drive-in movie monsters another time—and other comic books the EC horror line. Atlas published a plethora of children's and teen humor titles, including Dan DeCarlo's Homer the Happy Ghost and Homer Hooper. Atlas unsuccessfully attempted to revive superheroes from late 1953 to mid-1954, with the Human Torch, the Sub-Mariner, Captain America. Atlas did not achieve any breakout hits and, according to Stan Lee, Atlas survived chiefly because it produced work cheaply, at a passable quality; the first modern comic books under the Marvel Comics brand w
East Liverpool, Ohio
East Liverpool is a city in Columbiana County, United States. The population was 11,195 at the time of the 2010 census, it borders the states of Pennsylvania and West Virginia. East Liverpool is included in the Salem, OH Micropolitan Statistical Area 40 miles from both Youngstown as well as downtown Pittsburgh, it was referred to as the "Pottery Capital of the World" due to the large number of potteries in the city. The city is known as the hometown of former NCAA Division I football coach Lou Holtz, it was the destination for the body of bank robber Pretty Boy Floyd, taken there for embalming. The Beginning Point of the U. S. Public Land Survey is just east of the city center, on the Ohio–Pennsylvania border; because of its role in the ceramics industry, the town is one of the settings in author Holly Black's award-winning middle-grade novel, Doll Bones. East Liverpool traces its European-American settlement to 1798 when Thomas Fawcett purchased 1,100 acres of land along the Ohio River in what was Jefferson County.
In 1802 he platted the town of St. Clair, named for Arthur St. Clair, who at that time was Governor of the Northwest Territory, it was called Fawcettstown for a time by the residents. In 1816, they changed the name to Liverpool, it was incorporated as East Liverpool in 1834 when Liverpool Township in Medina County objected to possible confusion. James Bennett, an English potter, established the pottery industry in East Liverpool about 1840, it became the community's leading employer. East Liverpool became known as "The Crockery City." Potters from Staffordshire, England began pouring into East Liverpool. They were attracted by higher wages, but by the prospect of land ownership. By 1879, there were twenty-four potteries in East Liverpool, nearly all of whom were English immigrants and their families; as late as 1900, East Liverpool remained "essentially a transplanted potting town of Englishmen". Up until the turn of the century 85% percent of the population could trace its heritage to English background.
After the English, the second largest ethnic group in East Liverpool were German settlers. From 1870 through 1890, the US Census showed that the city more than doubled in population each decade, as it attracted new industrial workers with the growth of the pottery industry. By 1910, it had more than 20,000 people. East Liverpool once produced more than half of the United States's annual ceramics output. Throughout East Liverpool's ceramics history, there were more than 300 potteries. Of these potteries, three continue to operate in the area: the American Mug & Stein Company, the Hall China Company, the Homer Laughlin China Company. In the mid-19th century, East Liverpool produced most of the yellowware pottery used in the United States. Among the most famous of East Liverpool's ceramics was the porcelain known as Lotus Ware. Produced by Knowles, Taylor & Knowles in the 1890s, this Moorish- and Persian-influenced artware swept the competition at the 1893 World's Fair in Chicago, it is considered to be the finest porcelain produced in the US.
The Museum of Ceramics in downtown East Liverpool has the world's largest public display of Lotus Ware. As of 1914, East Liverpool was served by the Pittsburgh Railroad; the city reached its peak population of more than 26,000 in 1970, but East Liverpool's pottery industry had begun its decline by the mid-1960s or so. As with other industries, production moved to developing countries; this cost many jobs and population in the Ohio/West Virginia area, as people moved away in search of work. In the mid-1990s, the city renovated its downtown district. To improve its urban design, it installed Great Depression-era lightposts, developed a new center called Devon's Diamond, reconstructed the old high school's clocktower; this building is now the home of the East Liverpool High School Alumni Association. Downtown – East Liverpool's centralized business district, located on the "flats" in the river valley. Downtown is considered to lie between U. S. Route 30 in the west and Walnut streets in the east, West 2nd Street in the South, Moore and Grant streets in the North.
The heart of the business center during the first half of the nineteenth century was located between the Ohio River and 3rd Street. However, during the second half of the century, as East Liverpool attracted more industry and the population grew, the center of business moved north between 4th and 6th Streets. Business remained near the river until the regional economic depression beginning in the 1960s. A freeway was constructed between the river and downtown, leading to demolition of much of the original business center between 2nd and 3rd Streets. Only a few residents, a few small industries, the Broadway Wharf remain near 2nd Street and the river, both now geographically separated from Downtown by the highway. West End – The western end of the city is located between the Ohio State Routes 7/11/39/U. S. Route 30 freeway in the east, Shadyside Road in the west, Riverside Park in the south and Hazel Street in the north; until the freeway project in the 1960s and'70s, the West End was "connected" to Downtown.
However, like the riverfront area of Downtown, it is now geographically isolated on the other side of the freeway. It is home to the city's football stadium; the West End has two distinct small neighborhoods: Sunnyside – Between Lisbon and West 9th streets to the south and Hazel Street in the north. Jethro – South of West 8th Street, between Gaston Avenue in the east and Edwards Street in the west. Before the rapid growth of the city in
The Rawhide Kid is a fictional Old West cowboy appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. A heroic gunfighter of the 19th-century American West, unjustly wanted as an outlaw, he is one of Marvel's most prolific Western characters, he and other Marvel western heroes have on rare occasions guest-starred through time travel in such contemporary titles as The Avengers and West Coast Avengers. In two mature-audience miniseries, in 2003 and 2010, he is depicted as gay; the Rawhide Kid debuted in a 16-issue series from Atlas Comics. Most of the covers from the series were produced by acclaimed artists either Joe Maneely or John Severin, but Russ Heath and Fred Kida. Interior art for the first five issues was with Dick Ayers at the reins thereafter. After a hiatus, the Rawhide Kid was revamped for what was now Marvel Comics by writer Stan Lee, penciler Jack Kirby and inker Ayers. Continuing the Atlas numbering with issue #17, the title now featured a diminutive yet confident, soft-spoken fast gun underestimated by bullying toughs, owlhoots, crooked saloon owners and other archetypes squeezed through the prism of Lee & Kirby's anarchic imagination.
As in the outsized, exuberantly exaggerated action of the later-to-come World War II series Sgt. Fury and His Howling Commandos, The Rawhide Kid was now a freewheeling romp of energetic slapstick action across cattle ranches, horse troughs, corrals and swinging chandeliers. Stringently moral, the Kid showed a gleeful pride in his shooting and his acrobatic fight skills — never picking arguments but forced to surprise lummoxes far bigger than he. Through retcon, bits of and pieces of the Atlas and Silver Age characters' history meshed, so that the unnamed infant son of settlers the Clay family, orphaned by a Cheyenne raid, was raised by Texas Ranger Ben Bart on a ranch near Rawhide, Texas. Older brother Frank Clay, captured by Native Americans escaped and became a gambler, while eldest brother Joe Clay became sheriff of the town of Willow Flats. Shortly after Johnny's 18th birthday, Ben Bart was murdered. A misunderstanding between the Kid and a sheriff over a cattle rustler the Kid wounded in self-defense led to the hero's life as a fugitive.
Kirby continued as penciler through #32, while helping to launch the Fantastic Four, the Hulk and other iconic characters of the "Marvel revolution". He drew covers through issue #47. Issues #33-35 were drawn by EC Comics veteran Jack Davis — some of the last color comics he would draw before gaining fame at the black-and-white, satirical comics magazine Mad. After several issues by Ayers, followed by a single issue by long-time Kid Colt artist Jack Keller, Larry Lieber, Lee's writer brother, began his nine-year run as the series' writer-artist, which lasted over 75 issues from 1964–1973. Lieber said in 1999, I don't remember. I think. I didn't do enough of the superheroes to know. What I didn't prefer was the style, developing, it didn't appeal to me.... Maybe there was just too much humor in it, or too much something.... I remember, at the time, I wanted to make everything serious. I didn't want to give a light tone to it; when I did Rawhide Kid, I wanted people to cry as if they were watching High Noon or something....
I'm a little unclear about going to Rawhide Kid. I know that at the time I wanted — what's the expression? — a little space for myself or something, I wanted to do a little drawing again. Rawhide Kid's full name was revealed in issue # 60 in the Letter's Column as John Barton Clay. By 1973, as superheroes became ascendant, The Rawhide Kid became a reprint title, though bearing new covers by such prominent artists as Gene Colan, Gil Kane and Paul Gulacy, it ended publication with issue #151. This initial volume of the series included a single annual publication, cover-titled Rawhide Kid King-Size Special; as well, including many Jack Kirby-drawn stories, appeared in the 1968-1976 title The Mighty Marvel Western. The Rawhide Kid appeared as a middle-aged character in a four-issue miniseries, The Rawhide Kid vol. 2, by writer Bill Mantlo and penciler Herb Trimpe. The Rawhide Kid reappeared in the four-issue miniseries, Blaze of Glory, by writer John Ostrander and artist Leonardo Manco, a 2002 four-issue sequel, Apache Skies, by the same creative team.
In contrast to the character's depicted appearance — a small-statured, clean-cut redhead — these latter two series depicted him with shoulder-length dark hair, wearing a less stylized, more appropriate outfit than his classic one. A controversial five-issue miniseries, Rawhide Kid vol. 3, titled "Slap Leather" was published biweekly by Marvel's mature-audience MAX imprint. Here the character was depicted as homosexual, with a good portion of the dialogue dedicated to innuendo to this effect; the series, written by Ron Zimmerman, drawn by artist John Severin, was labeled with a "Parental Advisory Explicit Content" warning on the cover. Series editor Axel Alonso said, "We thought. Enigmatic cowboy rides into dusty little desert town victimized by desperadoes, saves the day, wins everyone's heart rides off into
Horror comics are comic books, graphic novels, black-and-white comics magazines, manga focusing on horror fiction. In the US market, horror comic books reached a peak in the late 1940s through the mid-1950s, when concern over content and the imposition of the self-censorship Comics Code Authority contributed to the demise of many titles and the toning down of others. Black-and-white horror-comics magazines, which did not fall under the Code, flourished from the mid-1960s through the early 1980s from a variety of publishers. Mainstream American color comic books experienced a horror resurgence in the 1970s, following a loosening of the Code. While the genre has had greater and lesser periods of popularity, it occupies a firm niche in comics as of the 2010s. Precursors to horror comics include detective and crime comics that incorporated horror motifs into their graphics, early superhero stories that sometimes included the likes of ghouls and vampires. Individual horror stories appeared as early as 1940.
The first dedicated horror comic books appear to be Gilberton Publications' Classic Comics #13, with its full-length adaptation of Robert Louis Stevenson's Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, Avon Publications' anthology Eerie #1, the first horror comic with original content. The first horror-comics series is the anthology Adventures into the Unknown, premiering in 1948 from American Comics Group under the imprint B&I Publishing; the horror tradition in sequential-art narrative traces back to at least the 12th-century Heian period Japanese scroll "Gaki Zoshi", or the scroll of hungry ghosts and the 16th-century Mixtec codices. In the early 20th-century, pulp magazines developed the horror subgenre "weird menace", which featured sadistic villains and graphic scenes of torture and brutality; the first such title, Popular Publications' Dime Mystery, began as a straight crime fiction magazine but evolved by 1933 under the influence of Grand Guignol theater. Other publishers joined in, though Popular dominated the field with Dime Mystery, Horror Stories, Terror Tales.
While most weird-menace stories were resolved with rational explanations, some involved the supernatural. After the fledgling medium of comic books became established by the late 1930s, horror-fiction elements began appearing in superhero stories, with vampires, misshapen creatures, mad scientists and other tropes that bore the influence of the Universal horror films of the 1930s and other sources. In 1935, National Periodicals published the first story of Doctor Occult by Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster in New Fun Comics # 6, where he confronts Vampire Master. In Detective Comics # 31-32, Batman fights a vampire. By the mid-1940s, some detective and crime comics had incorporated horror motifs such as spiders and eyeballs into their graphics, featured stories adapted from the literary horror tales of Edgar Allan Poe or other writers, or stories from the pulps and radio programs; the single-issue Harvey Comics anthologies Front Page Comic Book, bearing a cover with a knife-wielding, skeletal ghoul, Strange Story, introduced writer-artist Bob Powell's character the Man in Black, an early comic-book example of the type of omniscient-observer host used in such contemporary supernatural and suspense radio dramas as Inner Sanctum and The Whistler.
As cultural historian David Hajdu notes, comic-book horror: Issue #7 of publisher Prize Comics' flagship title, Prize Comics, introduced writer-artist Dick Briefer's eight-page feature "New Adventures of Frankenstein", an updated version of novelist Mary Shelley's much-adapted Frankenstein monster. Called "America's first ongoing comic book series to fall squarely within the horror genre" by historian Don Markstein, "he first real horror series" by horror-comics historian Lawrence Watt-Evans, the feature ran through Prize Comics #52 before becoming a humor series and being revived in horrific form in the series Frankenstein #18-33. Gilberton Publications' 60-page Classic Comics #12 adapted Washington Irving's short story "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" as a backup feature to Irving's "Rip Van Winkle" in a package titled Rip Van Winkle and the Headless Horseman; the next issue, Classic Comics #13, adapted Robert Louis Stevenson's horror novella Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde as the full-length story Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, making it the earliest known dedicated horror comic book.
Historian Ron Goulart, making no mention of those earlier literary adaptations, identifies Avon Publications' Eerie #1, dated January 1947 and sold in late 1946, as "the first out-and-out horror comic book". Its cover featured a red-eyed, pointy-eared fiend threatening a rope-bound, beautiful young woman in a scanty red evening gown, set amid a moonlit ruin; the anthology offered six occult stories involving the likes of a ghost and a zombie. While all but one writer are unknown — Edward Bellin, who teamed with young artist Joe Kubert on the nine-page "The Man-Eating Lizards" — the artists include George Roussos and Fred Kida. After this first issue, the title went dormant, but reappeared in 1951 as Eerie, beginning with a new #1 and running 17 issues. Goulart identifies the long-running Adventures into the Unknown, from American Comics Group under the imprint B&I Publishing, as "the first continuing-series horror comic"; the first two issues, which included art by Fred Guardineer and others, featured horror stories of ghosts, haunted houses, killer puppets and other supernatural beings and locales.
The premiere included a seven-page, abridged adaptation of Horace Walpole's seminal gothic novel T
Morbius, the Living Vampire
Morbius the Living Vampire, a.k.a. Dr. Michael Morbius, Ph. D. M. D. is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Created by writer Roy Thomas and designed by penciler Gil Kane, the character first appeared as an antagonist in The Amazing Spider-Man #101. Despite his initial status as one of Spider-Man's horror-based rogues, Morbius went on to become a brooding and gritty, albeit heroic and tragically flawed antihero in his own series and other titles. Morbius' true identity is that of a former award-winning biochemist named Michael Morbius, imbued with pseudo-vampiric superhuman abilities and physical traits stemming from a failed biochemical experiment, intended to cure his rare blood disorder, as opposed to supernatural means, with the rest of his appearances featuring his struggles with his inhuman-like vampiric persona, his insatiable lust for human blood and his subsequent efforts to cure his horrific condition, along with his eventual stint as a brutal and nightmarish vigilante.
The character has appeared in video games. Jared Leto will portray the character in a live-action film adaptation set to be part of Sony's Marvel Universe. Morbius debuted in The Amazing Spider-Man #101 following the February 1971 updating of the comic-book industry's self-censorship board, the Comics Code Authority, that lifted a ban on vampires and certain other supernatural characters, it was the first issue of Marvel Comics' flagship Spider-Man series written by someone other than character co-creator and editor-in-chief Stan Lee. Lee, busy writing a screenplay for an unproduced science fiction movie, bequeathed the series to his right-hand editor, Roy Thomas. "We were talking about doing Dracula. Other than that, he didn't specify what we should do," Thomas said in 2009, adding that part of the character conception came from an unspecified science-fiction film of Thomas' youth, depicting a man turned into a vampire by radiation rather than magic. Thomas said that the name "Morbius" was not deliberately taken from the antagonist Doctor Morbius in the movie Forbidden Planet.
Thomas and penciler co-creator Gil Kane created the character as a man, given pseudo-vampiric abilities and traits via scientific rather than supernatural means. Kane based the character's look on that of actor Jack Palance. A tragic and sympathetic antagonist in his initial two-issue story arc, having acquired his vampiric addiction while researching a cure for his own rare, fatal blood disease, Morbius collided again with Spider-Man and others in Marvel Team-Up #3–4 and the one-shot issue Giant-Size Super-Heroes #1. Morbius went on to star in Vampire Tales, a black-and-white horror comics magazine published by Marvel's sister company, Curtis Magazines, appearing in all but two of the mature-audience title's 11 issues. All but the first and last of these were written by Don McGregor, with penciling by Rich Buckler and by Tom Sutton, primarily. After his first two Vampire Tales stories, Morbius concurrently became the star of his own feature in Marvel's bimonthly Adventure into Fear anthology series, beginning with issue #20 and continuing through issue #31, the last issue of that title.
These were written, successively, by Mike Friedrich, Steve Gerber, Doug Moench and Bill Mantlo, working with a wide variety of pencilers. Following sporadic guest appearances throughout the next 16 years, Morbius was revived in the 1992 series Morbius the Living Vampire, launched as part of the "Rise of the Midnight Sons" crossover story arc in Marvel's supernatural/horror comics, it ran for 32 issues. These stories add to his repertoire of powers the ability to hypnotize others and describe his ability to fly as psionic in nature. A one-shot special, tentatively titled Spider-Man/Venom/Morbius by Morbius writer Len Kaminski, was scheduled for 1993, but never saw print due to the writer's departure from the series out of disgust with Morbius penciler Ron Wagner. Wagner felt that Kaminski's stories were too character-driven and Kaminski claimed that Wagner complained about the stories to the editorial staff and left "snide margin notes in which he made his personal opinion of my plots clear", but ignored Kaminski's attempts to get in touch with him so that they could discuss how the comic should be done.
Series colorist Gregory Wright stepped in as writer with issue #9 and delivered the bloodshed-heavy stories Wagner wanted. Despite this, Wagner lasted just six issues longer than Kaminski on the series. Wright stayed with Morbius through issue #23. Alongside the core series Morbius the Living Vampire, a reprint series, Morbius Revisited, was published from 1992 to 1993, featured material published in Adventure into Fear #27-31. Solo stories starring Morbius appeared in Marvel Comics Presents #144, several issues of the Midnight Sons Unlimited series, the one-shot Strange Tales: Dark Corners #1, Amazing Fantasy, vol. 2 #17, the one-shot Legion of Monsters: Morbius On October 17, 2012, Marvel announced that Morbius would appear in a new comic by writer Joe Keatinge and artist Richard Elson, beginning January 2013. Born and raised in Greece by a single mother, Michael Morbius experienced an isolated childhood due to his rare blood condition, which contributed to his ugly and unpleasant-looking appearance.
But despite his looks, he was an intellectually-gifted young man who spent his time reading books and, in time, became a highly-respec
A penciller is a collaboration artist who works in creation of comic books, graphic novels, similar visual art forms, with focus on primary pencil illustrations, hence the term "penciller". In the American comic book industry, the penciller is the first step in rendering the story in visual form, may require several steps of feedback with the writer; these artists are concerned with layout to showcase steps in the plot. A penciller works in pencil. Beyond this basic description, different artists choose to use a wide variety of different tools. While many artists use traditional wood pencils, others prefer mechanical drafting leads. Pencillers may use any lead hardness they wish, although many artists use a harder lead to make light lines for initial sketches turn to a softer lead for finishing phases of the drawing. Still other artists do their initial layouts using a light-blue colored pencil because that color tends to disappear during photocopying. Most US comic book pages are drawn oversized on large sheets of paper Bristol board.
The customary size of comic book pages in the mainstream American comics industry is 11 by 17 inches. The inker works directly over the penciller's pencil marks, though pages are inked on translucent paper, such as drafting vellum, preserving the original pencils; the artwork is photographically reduced in size during the printing process. With the advent of digital illustration programs such as Photoshop and more artwork is produced digitally, either in part or entirely. Jack KirbyFrom 1949 until his retirement, Jack Kirby worked out of a ten-foot-wide basement studio dubbed "The Dungeon" by his family; when starting with clean piece of Bristol board, he would first draw his panel lines with a T-square. Arthur AdamsArthur Adams begins drawing thumbnail layouts from the script he's given, either at home or in a public place; the thumbnails range in size from 2 inches x 3 inches to half the size of the printed comic book. He or an assistant will enlarge the thumbnails and trace them onto illustration board with a non-photo blue pencil, sometimes using a Prismacolor light-blue pencil, because it is not too waxy, erases easily.
When working on the final illustration board, he does so on a large drawing board when in his basement studio, a lapboard when sitting on his living room couch. After tracing the thumbnails, he will clarify details with another light-blue pencil, finalize the details with a Number 2 pencil, he drew the first three chapters of "Jonni Future" at twice the printed comic size, drew the fifth chapter, "The Garden of the Sklin", at a size larger than standard, in order to render more detail than usual in those stories. For a large poster image with a multitude of characters, he will go over the figure outlines with a marker in order to emphasize them, he will use photographic reference when appropriate, as when he draws things that he is not accustomed to. Because a significant portion of his income is derived from selling his original artwork, he is reluctant to learn how to produce his work digitally. Jim LeeArtist Jim Lee is known to use F lead for his pencil work. J. Scott CampbellArtist J. Scott Campbell does his pencil with a lead holder, Sanford Turquoise H lead, which he uses for its softness and darkness, for its ability to provide a "sketchy" feel, with a minimal amount of powdery lead smearing.
He uses this lead because it strikes a balance between too hard, therefore not dark enough on the page, too soft, therefore prone to smearing and crumbling. Campbell avoids its closest competitor. Campbell has used HB lead and F lead, he maintains sharpness of the lead with a Berol Turquoise sharpener, changing them every four to six months, which he finds is the duration of their grinding ability. Campbell uses a combination of Magic Rub erasers, eraser sticks, since he began to ink his work digitally, a Sakura electric eraser, he sharpens the eraser to a cornered edge in order to render fine detailed work. Travis CharestArtist Travis Charest uses 2H lead to avoid smearing, sometimes HB lead, he illustrated on regular illustration board provided by publishers, though he disliked the non-photo blue lines printed on them. By 2000, he switched to Crescent board for all his work, because it does not warp when wet, produces sharper illustrations, are more suitable for framing because they lack the non-photo blue lines.
Charest prefers not to employ preliminary sketching practices, such as layouts, thumbnails or lightboxing, in part due to impatience, in part because he enjoys the serendipitous nature in which artwork develops when produced with greater spontaneity. He prefers to use reference only when rendering objects that require a degree of real-life accuracy, such as guns, vehicles or characters of licensed properties that must resemble actors with whom they are identified, as when he illustrated the cover to Star Trek: The Next Generation: Embrace the Wolf in 2000. Adam HughesThe penciling process that artist Adam Hughes employs for his cover work is the same he uses when doing sketches for fans at conventions, with the main difference being that he does cover work in his sketchbook, before transferring the drawing to virgin art board with a lightbox, whereas he does convention drawings on 11 x 14 Strathmore bristol, as he prefers penciling on the rougher, vellum surface rather than smooth paper, preferring smoother paper only for brush inking.
He does preliminary undersketches with a lead holder, because he feels regular pencils get worn down to the nub too quickly. As he explained during a sketch demonstration at a comic book