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Paul Kelly (Australian musician)

Paul Maurice Kelly is an Australian rock music singer-songwriter and guitarist. He has performed solo, has led numerous groups, including the Dots, the Coloured Girls, the Messengers, he has worked with other artists and groups, including associated projects Professor Ratbaggy and Stardust Five. Kelly's music style has ranged from bluegrass to studio-oriented dub reggae, but his core output straddles folk and country, his lyrics capture the vastness of the culture and landscape of Australia by chronicling life about him for over 30 years. David Fricke from Rolling Stone calls Kelly "one of the finest songwriters I have heard, Australian or otherwise." Kelly has said, "Song writing is mysterious to me. I still feel like a total beginner. I don't feel like I have got it nailed yet". After growing up in Adelaide, Kelly travelled around Australia before settling in Melbourne in 1976, he became involved in the pub rock scene and drug culture, recorded two albums with Paul Kelly and the Dots. Kelly moved to Sydney by 1985, where he formed the Coloured Girls.

The band was renamed Paul Kelly and the Messengers only for international releases, to avoid possible racist interpretations. At the end of the 1980s, Kelly returned to Melbourne, in 1991 he disbanded the Messengers. Kelly was divorced twice. Dan Kelly, his nephew, is a guitarist in his own right. Dan performed with Kelly on Stolen Apples. Both were members of Stardust Five, which released a self-titled album in 2006. On 22 September 2010 Kelly released his memoir, How to Make Gravy, which he described as "it's not traditional, his biographical film, Paul Kelly: Stories of Me, directed by Ian Darling, was released to cinemas in October 2012. Kelly's Top 40 singles include "Billy Baxter", "Before Too Long", "Darling It Hurts", "To Her Door", "Dumb Things", "Roll on Summer". Top-20 albums include Gossip, Under the Sun, Songs from the South... Nothing but a Dream, Stolen Apples and Fall, The Merri Soul Sessions, Seven Sonnets and a Song, Death's Dateless Night, Life Is Fine – his first number-one album – and Nature.

Kelly has won 14 Australian Recording Industry Association Music Awards, including his induction into their Hall of Fame in 1997. In 2001 the Australasian Performing Right Association listed the Top 30 Australian songs of all time, which included Kelly's "To Her Door", "Treaty", written by Kelly and members of Yothu Yindi. Aside from "Treaty", Kelly wrote or co-wrote several songs on Indigenous Australian social issues and historical events, he provided songs for many other artists. The album Women at the Well from 2002 had 14 female artists record his songs in tribute. Kelly was appointed as an Officer of the Order of Australia in 2017 for distinguished service to the performing arts and to the promotion of the national identity through contributions as a singer and musician. Paul Maurice Kelly was born on 13 January 1955 in Adelaide, to John Erwin Kelly, a lawyer, Josephine, the sixth of eight surviving children. According to Rip It Up magazine, "legend has it" that Kelly's mother gave birth to him "in a taxi outside North Adelaide's Calvary Hospital".

Although Kelly was raised as a Roman Catholic, he described himself as a non-believer in any religion. He is the great great grandson of Jeremiah Kelly, who emigrated from Ireland in 1852 and settled in Clare, South Australia, his paternal grandfather, Francis Kelly, established a law firm in 1917, which his father, joined in 1937. John Kelly died in 1968 at the age of 52, after being diagnosed with Parkinson's disease three years earlier. Paul Kelly was thirteen years old. Kelly described his father: "I have good memories, he was the kind of father that, well, I missed him when he died much; the older children were growing into him at the time. He was not well enough to play sport with me."Kelly's maternal grandfather was an Argentine-born, Italian-speaking opera singer, Count Ercole Filippini, a leading baritone for the La Scala Opera Company in Milan. Filippini was touring Australia in 1914 with a Spanish opera company; as Countessa Anne Filippini, she was Australia's first female symphony orchestra conductor.

She sang the role of Marguerite in Australian Broadcasting Corporation Radio Perth's performance of Faust in 1928. Kelly's grandparents started the Italo-Australian Opera Company, which toured the country in the 1920s. Josephine raised the younger children alone after John's death, but found time to assist others in need. Paul's oldest sister, became a nun and went on to write hymns, while a younger sister, Mary-Jo, plays piano in Latin bands and teaches music. An older brother, works for Edmund Rice International, with another brother, Tony, a drug and alcohol counsellor, who ran as an Australian Greens candidate in the 2001 and 2004 federal elections. Josephine Kelly moved to Brisbane, where she died in 2000, at the age of 76. Kelly attended Rostrevor College, a Christian Brothers school, where he played trumpet and studied piano, became the first XI cricket captain, played in the first XVIII football, was named dux of his senior year, he studied arts at Flinders University in 1973, but left after a term, disillusioned with academic life.

He began writing prose and st


Sagadi is a village in Haljala Parish, Lääne-Viru County, in northern Estonia, located within the territory of Lahemaa National Park. Sagadi Manor was first mentioned in written records in 1469. During its history, it has belonged to several different Baltic German families. A rococo-style manor house was built in 1749-1753, the plans for which have unusually been preserved; the von Fock family who owned the estate hired master builder Johan Nicolaus Vogel to construct the house. The building was rebuilt from 1793-1795 and acquired its present elegant, early classicist look at that time. Minor changes were made in 1894 under the guidance of architect Rudolf von Engelhardt. During most of the 20th century, the manor housed a school, it was renovated from 1977-1987. The manor house ensemble, complete with 20 outbuildings and a park, remains one of the most well-kept manor house complexes in Estonia. In the main house, numerous details, such as painted ceilings and carved wooden stairs, have been restored, the main house is furnished.

Lahemaa National Park List of palaces and manor houses in Estonia Sagadi at Estonian Manors Portal


Pais is a red wine grape that has played a prominent role in the Chilean wine industry. Up until the turn of the 21st century, it was Chile's most planted variety until it was overtaken by Cabernet Sauvignon. Today it is most used in the production of jug wine in the Bío-Bío, Maule and Itata River regions in the south; the grape is sometimes known as Negra Peruana. In Argentina the grape is known as Criolla Chica; the Pais has one of the longest viticultural history in Chile, believed to have been brought to the region by Spanish conquistadors from Peru during their colonization of the continent in the 16th century. Ampelographers believe that along with the Criolla Grande grape of Argentina and Mission grape of California, that the Pais grape is descended by the Spanish "common black grape" brought to Mexico in 1520 by the Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés; that early grape was cultivated by Spanish missionaries and spread throughout the Americas. The Pais grape remained Chile's primary wine grape until the emergence of the Bordeaux wine varietals in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.

Pais produces a thin bodied, rustic red wine that has a light brown coloring. The grape's thin skin does not provide much extract and vineyard owners harvest at much higher yields than what would be needed to produce higher quality wines; the grape is valued for vigor and ease of cultivation, producing 8–13 tons per acre with limited amounts of irrigation. It is consumed domestically but some sweet dessert wines have been exported in the past

Indonesian League (badminton)

The Indonesian League in badminton is a team competition established in 2007 and held in Indonesia. The total prize will be around US$98,000; this league has been conceptualized since 2003, but until four years it had not become real due to the numerous obstacles. The first competition was held for 10 days in Jakarta beginning June 21, 2007; the competition involves eight Indonesian clubs in the final rounds, with a format similar to the Thomas and Uber Cup. The five best clubs will qualify for the final, qualifying rounds will be competitions for the other three places. Ten men's teams from ten clubs had a qualification round; the teams selected were: Indocafe, Medan Ratih, Banten Aufa, Jakarta Musica Champion, Kudus BPKD, Kukar Wima, Surabaya Mutiara, Bandung Kotab Dishub, Bandung South Suco, South Sulawesi Randik, South SumatraSeven women's teams from seven clubs had a qualification round. The teams selected were: Indocafe, Medan Ratih, Banten Bina Bangsa, Jakarta Semen Gresik, Surabaya Mutiara, Bandung Kotab Dishub, Bandung South Suco, South SulawesiAnother five teams had a bye to the grand final round.

The teams were: Djarum, Kudus Jayaraya, Jakarta Suryanaga Gudang Garam, Surabaya Tangkas, Jakarta SGS Elektrik, Bandung After qualification, three teams from the men's and women's division took their place in a grand final round. From the men's division, the Musica Champion and Ratih teams won a ticket to the grand final round, and from the women's division, the Mutiara, Bina Bangsa and Ratih teams won a ticket for a match in the grand final round. And at the last round, the Suryanaga Gudang Garam team won the men's team competition after beating the Tangkas team. From women's team competition, Tangkas was a surprise champion after defeating the first seed team, Jayaraya. Suryanaga Gudang Garam Tangkas the winner of the match in bold Tangkas Jayaraya the winner of the match in bold Official website

Cosmetic surgery in Australia

Cosmetic surgery referred to as aesthetic surgery, is a surgical procedure which endeavours to improve the physical aspects of one's appearance to become more aesthetically pleasing. The continuously growing field of cosmetic surgery is linked with plastic surgery, the difference being, cosmetic surgery is an elective surgery with the sole purpose to enhance the physical features of one's appearance. Plastic surgery is performed in order to rectify defects to reinstate normality to function and appearance. Cosmetic surgical procedures are performed on healthy functioning body parts, with the procedure being optional not medically necessary; the inevitable aim of cosmetic surgery is to enhance one's image, encompassing reducing the signs of aging and/or correction of a believed deviation on one's body in turn it is surrounded by controversy. Although the implementation of cosmetic surgery within Australian society is growing, the trade has struggled to find its place within the Australian culture.

The word "cosmetic", originates from the Greek term Kosmetike, meaning the "art of beautifying". The history of cosmetic surgery can be linked back to that of plastic surgery, as the debate persists, around the blurred lines of the two. Plastic surgery originated in 600 BC when Hindu surgeons performed rhinoplasty with the use of segments of cheek tissue. At the end of the fifteenth century when syphilis was prevalent, came the introduction of debatable reconstructive surgery to rectify the ill shaped nose, a prominent feature of Syphilis sufferers; the sixteenth century saw an Italian by the name of Gaspare Tagliacozzi adopt the method of using upper arm tissue to reconstruct the nose during rhinoplasty, granting him the nickname'the father of plastic surgery'. Although Tagliacozzi's approach left patients required to have their arm raised to their nose for several months, requiring numerous surgeries, with excessive Scaring. England was exposed to the Hindu techniques of rhinoplasty by a practitioner in 1815, who defined the use for the surgery, limited to those who were physically affected by the horrors of Napoleonic Wars.

Towards the end of the century in the 1880s John Orlando Roe, a New York surgeon, developed a technique which prevented scarring by operating from inside the nostrils. World War I was the most costly war to Australia in regards to fatality; the brutality sparked the generation of plastic surgery within Australia introduced by a man by the name of Harold Gillies. Gillies oversaw the development of the first unit to treat the returned battle scared veterans of the war; this led to the relocation of the Red Cross to the Queen Mary Hospital in England. The Queen Mary Hospital opened in 1917 was a six hundred bed hospital which focused on plastic surgery, it was here that Gillies trained not only Australian plastic surgeons but surgeons from all over the globe. The return of these surgeons to their home countries such as Australia, saw the spread of the plastic surgery trade across the globe; the war gave the dishonoured trade a respected name through the treatment and resurrection of returned war veterans, with shattered physical traits.

The century gave rise to anaesthetics and Antiseptics prompting an increase in the number of surgeries being performed. But with this heroic status and development of techniques came the taboo ideology cast upon cosmetic surgery as the trade filtered into the population, with civilians un-pleased with their aesthetic appearance undergoing surgery. In turn the need for secrecy arose as people felt the need to hide the truth about their surgical endeavours. From here a surgeon by the name of Henry Junius Schireson, acquired his license to practice throughout multiple states of America, who became known in 1923 when he performed rhinoplasty on a Jewish actress Fanny Brice in her New York apartment, giving birth to the booming trade of cosmetic surgery for everyday civilians. Benjamin Rank was an Australian trained by Gillies himself who in the 1940s governed the Royal Melbourne Hospital, the first plastic surgery unit within Australia, it was in 1956 that plastic surgery was acknowledged by the Royal Australia College of Surgeons as a separate specialty trade of plastic surgery.

Today, the Australian Society of Plastic Surgeons Inc. founded in 1917 known as ASPS, was founded in 1970 with the aim to uphold the integrity of the plastic surgery field within Australia. Today, the deliverance of the highest quality surgeries is at the forefront of their work, they govern the AMC accredited Training Program within Australia. Harold Gillies The development of different techniques within the field of cosmetic surgery has led to the innovation of non-invasive methods. Nine percent of the Australian population have undergone a non-invasive form of cosmetic surgery. Numerous surgeries are now performed using these techniques as opposed to open surgery methods which have been used in the past; this adaptation has led to a reduction in cost, time and pain involved with these procedures. Through the development of aiding surgical instruments such as a viewing scope or Lasers, this shift has been made possible, reducing the incision site resulting in a faster recovery time for patients.

Examples of non-invasive surgeries are as muscle relaxants, such as Dysport. Another form of laser treatment is intense pulsed light. IPL differs from laser treatment as unlike laser treatments, IPL will perform multiple treatments at once but only a few are capable of doing so with the same potency as a laser. IPL is predominantly used for mild skin issues in comparison to laser being used for the more extreme cases. Known as breast augmentation, Augmentation Mammaplasty involves the use of b


Greenschists are metamorphic rocks that formed under the lowest temperatures and pressures produced by regional metamorphism 300–450 °C and 2–10 kilobars. Greenschists have an abundance of green minerals such as chlorite and epidote, platy minerals such as muscovite and platy serpentine; the platiness have schistosity. Other common minerals include quartz, talc, carbonate minerals and amphibole. Greenschist is a general field petrologic term for altered mafic volcanic rock. In Europe, the term prasinite is sometimes used. A greenstone is sometimes a greenschist but can be rock types without any schistosity metabasalt; the green is due to abundant green chlorite and epidote minerals that dominate the rock. However, basalts may remain quite black if primary pyroxene does not revert to chlorite or actinolite. To qualify for the name a rock must exhibit schistosity or some foliation or layering; the rock is derived from basalt, gabbro or similar rocks containing sodium-rich plagioclase feldspar, chlorite and quartz.

Greenschist, as a rock type, is defined by the presence of the minerals chlorite and actinolite and may contain albite or epidote. Greenschist has a lepidoblastic, nematoblastic or schistose texture defined by chlorite and actinolite. Greenschists have some foliation resulting in mineral alignment of chlorite and actinolite. Grain size is coarse, due to the mineral assemblage. Chlorite and to a lesser extent actinolite exhibit small, flat or acicular crystal habits. Greenschist facies is determined by the particular temperature and pressure conditions required to metamorphose basalt to form the typical greenschist facies minerals chlorite and albite. Greenschist facies results from moderate pressure metamorphism. Metamorphic conditions which create typical greenschist facies assemblages are called the Barrovian Facies Sequence, the lower-pressure Abukuma Facies Series. Temperatures of 400 to 500 °C and depths of about 8 to 50 kilometres are the typical envelope of greenschist facies rocks; the equilibrium mineral assemblage of rocks subjected to greenschist facies conditions depends on primary rock composition.

Basalt: chlorite + actinolite + albite +/- epidote Ultramafic: chlorite + serpentine +/- talc +/- tremolite +/- diopside +/- brucite Pelites: quartz +/- albite +/- k-feldspar +/- chlorite, garnet, pyrophyllite +/- graphite Calc-silicates: calcite +/- dolomite +/- quartz +/- micas, wollastonite, etc. In greater detail the greenschist facies is subdivided into subgreenschist and upper greenschist. Lower temperatures are transitional with and overlap the prehnite-pumpellyite facies and higher temperatures overlap with and include sub-amphibolite facies. If burial continues along Barrovian Sequence metamorphic trajectories, greenschist facies gives rise to amphibolite facies assemblages, dominated by amphibole and to granulite facies. Lower pressure contact metamorphism produces albite-epidote hornfels while higher pressures at great depth produces eclogite. Oceanic basalts in the vicinity of mid-ocean ridges exhibit sub-greenschist alteration; the greenstone belts of the various archean cratons are altered to the greenschist facies.

These ancient rocks are noted as host rocks for a variety of ore deposits in Australia and Canada. Greenschist-like rocks can be formed under blueschist facies conditions if the original rock contains enough magnesium; this explains the scarcity of blueschist preserved from before the Neoproterozoic Era 1000 Ma ago when the Earth's oceanic crust contained more magnesium than today's oceanic crust. In Minoan Crete and blueschist were used to pave streets and courtyards between 1650 and 1600 BC; these rocks were quarried in Agia Pelagia on the north coast of central Crete. Across Europe, greenschist rocks have been used to make axes. Several sites, including Great Langdale in England, have been identified. A form of chlorite schist was popular in prehistoric Native American communities for the production of axes and celts, as well as ornamental items. In the Middle Woodland period, greenschist was one of the many trade items that were part of the Hopewell culture exchange network, sometimes transported over thousands of kilometers.

During the time of the Mississippian culture, the polity of Moundville had some control over the production and distribution of greenschist. The Moundville source has been shown to be from two localities in the Hillabee Formation of central and eastern Alabama. Metamorphism List of rock types List of minerals Pounamu, another type of rock called greenstone Blatt and Robert J. Tracy. Petrology. ISBN 0-7167-2438-3. Gall, Daniel G. and Vincas P. Steponaitis, "Composition and Provenance of Greenstone Artifacts from Moundville," Southeastern Archaeology 20:99–117 ). Steponaitis, Vincas P. Prehistoric Archaeology in the Southeastern United States, 1970–1985. Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 15. Pp. 363–404