A biographical film, or biopic, is a film that dramatizes the life of a non-fictional or historically-based person or people. Such films show the life of a historical person and the central character's real name is used, they differ from films "based on a true story" or "historical drama films" in that they attempt to comprehensively tell a single person's life story or at least the most important years of their lives. Because the figures portrayed are actual people, whose actions and characteristics are known to the public, biopic roles are considered some of the most demanding of actors and actresses. Ben Kingsley, Johnny Depp, Jim Carrey, Jamie Foxx all gained new-found respect as dramatic actors after starring in biopics: Ben Kingsley as Mahatma Gandhi in Gandhi, Depp as Ed Wood in Ed Wood, Carrey as Andy Kaufman in Man on the Moon, Foxx as Ray Charles in Ray, Eddie Redmayne as Stephen Hawking in The Theory of Everything. In rare cases, sometimes called auto biopics, the subject of the film plays himself or herself: Jackie Robinson in The Jackie Robinson Story.
Biopic scholars include George F. Custen of the College of Staten Island and Dennis P. Bingham of Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis. Custen, in Bio/Pics: How Hollywood Constructed Public History, regards the genre as having died with the Hollywood studio era, in particular, Darryl F. Zanuck. On the other hand, Bingham's 2010 study Whose Lives Are They Anyway? The Biopic as Contemporary Film Genre shows how it perpetuates as a codified genre using many of the same tropes used in the studio era that has followed a similar trajectory as that shown by Rick Altman in his study, Film/Genre. Bingham addresses the male biopic and the female biopic as distinct genres from each other, the former dealing with great accomplishments, the latter dealing with female victimization. Ellen Cheshire's Bio-Pics: a life in pictures examines UK/US films from the 1990s and 2000s; each chapter concludes with further viewing list. Christopher Robé has written on the gender norms that underlie the biopic in his article, "Taking Hollywood Back" in the 2009 issue of Cinema Journal.
Roger Ebert defended The Hurricane and distortions in biographical films in general, stating "those who seek the truth about a man from the film of his life might as well seek it from his loving grandmother.... The Hurricane is not a documentary but a parable." Some biopics purposely stretch the truth. Confessions of a Dangerous Mind was based on game show host Chuck Barris' debunked yet popular memoir of the same name, in which he claimed to be a CIA agent. Kafka incorporated both the surreal aspects of his fiction; the Errol Flynn film They Died with Their Boots On tells the story of Custer but is romanticized. The Oliver Stone film The Doors about Jim Morrison, was praised for the similarities between Jim Morrison and actor Val Kilmer, look-wise and singing-wise, but fans and band members did not like the way Val Kilmer portrayed Jim Morrison, a few of the scenes were completely made up. Casting can be controversial for biographical films. Casting is a balance between similarity in looks and ability to portray the characteristics of the person.
Anthony Hopkins felt that he should not have played Richard Nixon in Nixon because of a lack of resemblance between the two. The casting of John Wayne as Genghis Khan in The Conqueror was objected to because of the American Wayne being cast as the Mongol warlord. Egyptian critics criticized the casting of Louis Gossett, Jr. an African American actor, as Egyptian president Anwar Sadat in the 1982 TV miniseries Sadat. Some objected to the casting of Jennifer Lopez in Selena because she is a New York City native of Puerto Rican descent while Selena was Mexican-American; the musical biopic Bohemian Rhapsody, based on the life of Queen singer Freddie Mercury, became the highest-grossing biopic of all time in 2018. Biographical novel Biography in literature List of biographical films
J. Edgar Hoover
John Edgar Hoover was the first Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation of the United States and an American law enforcement administrator. He was appointed as the director of the Bureau of Investigation – the FBI's predecessor – in 1924 and was instrumental in founding the FBI in 1935, where he remained director for another 37 years until his death in 1972 at the age of 77. Hoover has been credited with building the FBI into a larger crime-fighting agency than it was at its inception and with instituting a number of modernizations to police technology, such as a centralized fingerprint file and forensic laboratories. In life and after his death, Hoover became a controversial figure as evidence of his secretive abuses of power began to surface, he was found to have exceeded the jurisdiction of the FBI, to have used the FBI to harass political dissenters and activists, to amass secret files on political leaders, to collect evidence using illegal methods. Hoover amassed a great deal of power and was in a position to intimidate and threaten others sitting presidents of the United States.
John Edgar Hoover was born on New Year's Day 1895 in Washington, D. C. to Anna Marie, of Swiss-German descent, Dickerson Naylor Hoover Sr. chief of the printing division of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey a plate maker for the same organization. Dickerson Hoover was of German ancestry. Hoover's maternal great-uncle, John Hitz, was a Swiss honorary consul general to the United States. Among his family, he was the closest to his mother, their moral guide and disciplinarian. Hoover was born in a house on the present site of Capitol Hill United Methodist Church, located on Seward Square near Eastern Market in Washington's Capitol Hill neighborhood. A stained glass window in the church is dedicated to him. Hoover did not have a birth certificate filed upon his birth, although it was required in 1895 in Washington. Two of his siblings did have certificates, but Hoover's was not filed until 1938 when he was 43. Hoover lived in Washington, D. C. his entire life. He attended Central High School, where he sang in the school choir, participated in the Reserve Officers' Training Corps program, competed on the debate team.
During debates, he argued against women getting the right to vote and against the abolition of the death penalty. The school newspaper applauded his "cool, relentless logic." Hoover stuttered as a boy, which he overcame by teaching himself to talk quickly—a style that he carried through his adult career. He spoke with such ferocious speed that stenographers had a hard time following him. Hoover was 18 years old when he accepted his first job, an entry-level position as messenger in the orders department, at the Library of Congress; the library was a half mile from his house. The experience shaped the creation of the FBI profiles, it gave me an excellent foundation for my work in the FBI where it has been necessary to collate information and evidence."Hoover obtained a Bachelor of Laws from The George Washington University Law School in 1916, where he was a member of the Alpha Nu Chapter of the Kappa Alpha Order, an LL. M. in 1917 from the same university. While a law student, Hoover became interested in the career of Anthony Comstock, the New York City U.
S. Postal Inspector, who waged prolonged campaigns against fraud, vice and birth control. After getting his LL. M. degree, Hoover was hired by the Justice Department to work in the War Emergency Division. He accepted the clerkship on July 1917, when he was just 22 years old; the job was exempt from the draft. In 1920, Edgar Hoover was initiated at D. C.'s Federal Lodge No. 1 in Washington D. C. becoming a Master Mason by age 25 and a 33rd Degree Inspector General Honorary in 1955. He soon became the head of the Division's Alien Enemy Bureau, authorized by President Woodrow Wilson at the beginning of World War I to arrest and jail disloyal foreigners without trial, he received additional authority from the 1917 Espionage Act. Out of a list of 1,400 suspicious Germans living in the U. S. the Bureau designated 1,172 as arrestable. In August 1919, the 24-year-old Hoover became head of the Bureau of Investigation's new General Intelligence Division known as the Radical Division because its goal was to monitor and disrupt the work of domestic radicals.
America's First Red Scare was beginning, one of Hoover's first assignments was to carry out the Palmer Raids. Hoover and his chosen assistant, George Ruch, monitored a variety of U. S. radicals with the intent to punish, arrest, or deport those whose politics they decided were dangerous. Targets during this period included Marcus Garvey. In 1921, Hoover rose in the Bureau of Investigation to deputy head and, in 1924, the Attorney General made him the acting director. On May 10, 1924, President Calvin Coolidge appointed Hoover as the fifth Director of the Bureau of Investigation in response to allegations that the prior director, William J. Burns, was involved in the Teapot Dome scandal; when Hoover took over the Bureau of Investigation, it had 650 employees, including 441 Special Agents. Hoover banned the future hiring of them. Hoover was sometimes unpredictable in his leadership, he fired Bureau agents, singling out those he thought "looked stupid like truck drivers," o
Los Angeles Times
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper, published in Los Angeles, since 1881. It has the fourth-largest circulation among United States newspapers, is the largest U. S. newspaper not headquartered on the East Coast. The paper is known for its coverage of issues salient to the U. S. West Coast, such as immigration trends and natural disasters, it has won more than 40 Pulitzer Prizes for its coverage of other issues. As of June 18, 2018, ownership of the paper is controlled by Patrick Soon-Shiong, the executive editor is Norman Pearlstine. In the nineteenth century, the paper was known for its civic boosterism and opposition to unions, the latter of which led to the bombing of its headquarters in 1910; the paper's profile grew in the 1960s under publisher Otis Chandler, who adopted a more national focus. In recent decades, the paper's readership has declined and it has been beset by a series of ownership changes, staff reductions, other controversies. In January 2018, the paper's staff voted to unionize, in July 2018 the paper moved out of its historic downtown headquarters to a facility near Los Angeles International Airport.
The Times was first published on December 4, 1881, as the Los Angeles Daily Times under the direction of Nathan Cole Jr. and Thomas Gardiner. It was first printed at the Mirror printing plant, owned by Jesse Yarnell and T. J. Caystile. Unable to pay the printing bill and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. In the meantime, S. J. Mathes had joined the firm, it was at his insistence that the Times continued publication. In July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara to become the paper's editor. Otis made the Times a financial success. Historian Kevin Starr wrote that Otis was a businessman "capable of manipulating the entire apparatus of politics and public opinion for his own enrichment". Otis's editorial policy was based on civic boosterism, extolling the virtues of Los Angeles and promoting its growth. Toward those ends, the paper supported efforts to expand the city's water supply by acquiring the rights to the water supply of the distant Owens Valley; the efforts of the Times to fight local unions led to the October 1, 1910 bombing of its headquarters, killing twenty-one people.
Two union leaders and Joseph McNamara, were charged. The American Federation of Labor hired noted trial attorney Clarence Darrow to represent the brothers, who pleaded guilty. Otis fastened a bronze eagle on top of a high frieze of the new Times headquarters building designed by Gordon Kaufmann, proclaiming anew the credo written by his wife, Eliza: "Stand Fast, Stand Firm, Stand Sure, Stand True." Upon Otis's death in 1917, his son-in-law, Harry Chandler, took control as publisher of the Times. Harry Chandler was succeeded in 1944 by his son, Norman Chandler, who ran the paper during the rapid growth of post-war Los Angeles. Norman's wife, Dorothy Buffum Chandler, became active in civic affairs and led the effort to build the Los Angeles Music Center, whose main concert hall was named the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in her honor. Family members are buried at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery near Paramount Studios; the site includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims. The fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler, held that position from 1960 to 1980.
Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his family's paper forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance. He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nation's most respected newspapers, notably The New York Times and The Washington Post. Believing that the newsroom was "the heartbeat of the business", Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In 1962, the paper joined with The Washington Post to form the Los Angeles Times–Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for other news organizations, he toned down the unyielding conservatism that had characterized the paper over the years, adopting a much more centrist editorial stance. During the 1960s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes, more than its previous nine decades combined. Writing in 2013 about the pattern of newspaper ownership by founding families, Times reporter Michael Hiltzik said that: The first generations bought or founded their local paper for profits and social and political influence.
Their children enjoyed both profits and influence, but as the families grew larger, the generations found that only one or two branches got the power, everyone else got a share of the money. The coupon-clipping branches realized that they could make more money investing in something other than newspapers. Under their pressure the companies split apart, or disappeared. That's the pattern followed over more than a century by the Los Angeles Times under the Chandler family; the paper's early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history Thinking Big, was one of four organizations profiled by David Halberstam in The Powers That Be. It has been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades; the Los Angeles Times began a decline with Los Angeles itself with the decline in military production at the end of the Cold War. It faced hiring freezes in 1991-1992. Another major decision at the same time was to cut the range of circulation.
They cut circulation in California's Central Valley, Nevada and the San Diego ed
Lucille Désirée Ball was an American actress, model, entertainment studio executive and producer. She was the star of the self-produced sitcoms I Love Lucy, The Lucy Show, Here's Lucy, Life with Lucy, as well as comedy television specials aired under the title The Lucy-Desi Comedy Hour. Ball's career began in 1929. Shortly thereafter, she began her performing career on Broadway using the stage names Diane Belmont and Dianne Belmont, she appeared in several minor film roles in the 1930s and 1940s as a contract player for RKO Radio Pictures, being cast as a chorus girl or in similar roles. During this time, she met Cuban bandleader Desi Arnaz, the two eloped in November 1940. In the 1950s, Ball ventured into television. In 1951, she and Arnaz created the sitcom I Love Lucy, a series that became one of the most beloved programs in television history; the same year, Ball gave birth to their first child, Lucie Arnaz, followed by Desi Arnaz Jr. in 1953. Ball and Arnaz divorced in May 1960, she married comedian Gary Morton in 1961.
Following the end of I Love Lucy, Ball would go on to appear in a Broadway musical, for a year from 1960 to 1961, although the show received lukewarm reviews and had to be shut down permanently when Ball became ill for a brief time. After Wildcat, Ball reunited with I Love Lucy co-star Vivian Vance for the aforementioned Lucy Show, which Vance departed in 1965 but, to continue for three years with longtime friend of Ball's Gale Gordon who had a recurring role on the program. In 1962, Ball became the first woman to run a major television studio, Desilu Productions, which produced many popular television series, including Mission: Impossible and Star Trek. Ball did not back away from acting completely. In 1985, Ball took on a dramatic role in Stone Pillow; the next year she starred in Life with Lucy. She appeared in film and television roles for the rest of her career until her death in April 1989 from an abdominal aortic dissection at the age of 77. Ball was nominated for 13 Primetime Emmy Awards, winning four times.
In 1960, she received two stars for her work in television on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. In 1977, Ball was among the first recipients of the Women in Film Crystal Award, she was the recipient of the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award in 1979, was inducted into the Television Hall of Fame in 1984, received the Lifetime Achievement Award from the Kennedy Center Honors in 1986, the Governors Award from the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences in 1989. Born at 69 Stewart Avenue, New York, Lucille Désirée Ball was the daughter of Henry Durrell Ball and Désirée "DeDe" Evelyn Ball, her family lived in Wyandotte, for a time. She sometimes claimed that she had been born in Butte, where her grandparents had lived. A number of magazines reported inaccurately that she had decided that Montana was a more romantic place to be born than New York and repeated a fantasy of a "western childhood"; however her father had moved the family to Anaconda for his work, where they lived among other places. Her family belonged to the Baptist church.
Her ancestors were English, but a few were Scottish and Irish. Some were among the earliest settlers in the Thirteen Colonies, including Elder John Crandall of Westerly, Rhode Island, Edmund Rice, an early emigrant from England to the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In February 1915, when Lucille was three years old, her 27-year-old father died of typhoid fever. Henry Ball was a lineman for Bell Telephone Company and was transferred; the family had moved from Jamestown to Anaconda, to Trenton, New Jersey. At the time of Henry's death, DeDe Ball was pregnant with Frederick. Ball recalled little from the day her father died, but remembered a bird getting trapped in the house. From that day forward, she suffered from ornithophobia. After Ball's father died, her mother returned to New York. Ball and her brother, Fred Henry Ball, were raised by their mother and maternal grandparents in Celoron, New York, a summer resort village on Lake Chautauqua, 2.5 miles west of downtown Jamestown. Lucy loved one of the best amusement areas in the United States at that time.
Its boardwalk had a ramp to the lake that served as a children's slide, the Pier Ballroom, a roller-coaster, a bandstand, a stage where vaudeville concerts and regular theatrical shows were presented which made Celoron Park a popular resort. Four years after Henry Ball's death, DeDe Ball married Edward Peterson. While her mother and stepfather looked for work in another city, Peterson's parents cared for her and her brother. Ball's stepgrandparents were a puritanical Swedish couple who banished all mirrors from the house except one over the bathroom sink; when the young Ball was caught admiring herself in it, she was chastised for being vain. This period of time affected Ball so that, in life, she said that it lasted seven or eight years. Peterson was a Shriner; when his organization needed female entertainers for the chorus line of their next show, he encouraged his 12-year-old stepdaughter to audition. While Ball was onstage, she realized performing was a great way to gain recognition, her appetite for recognition was awakened at an early age.
In 1927, her family suffered misfortune. Their house and furnishings were lost to settle a financial legal judgment after a neighborhood boy was accidentally shot and paralyzed by someone target shooting in their yard under the supervision of Ball's grandfather; the family subsequently moved i
Ghost Whisperer is an American supernatural television series, which ran on CBS from September 23, 2005, to May 21, 2010. The series follows the life of Melinda Gordon, who has the ability to see and communicate with ghosts. While trying to live a normal life as possible—she is married and owns an antique store—Melinda helps earthbound spirits resolve their problems and cross over into the light, or the spirit world, her tasks are difficult and at times she struggles with people who push her away and do not believe in her gift. In addition, the ghosts are mysterious and sometimes menacing at first, Melinda must use the clues available to her to understand the spirits' needs and help them; the show was created by John Gray and was produced by Sander/Moses Productions, executive producer, Jennifer Love Hewitt in association with ABC Studios and CBS Television Studios. On May 18, 2010, CBS canceled the show after five seasons. Melinda Gordon is a young woman from the town of Grandview, New York, who has the ability to see and communicate with the dead.
Melinda lives with her husband, Jim Clancy, their son Aiden. She owns a shop called "Same as It Never Was"; each ghost seeks Melinda's help in relaying a message or completing a task that will put their spirit to rest, allow them to cross over into the light. Those who died with unfinished business become earthbound and cannot cross over, Melinda, as their earthly representative, helps them to find peace; the show does not present the ghosts as having sinned. The series starred Aisha Tyler as Andrea Marino, Melinda's best friend, who runs the antique shop with her. Andrea is killed in the first-season finale. During the second season, Melinda meets Delia Banks, a struggling real estate agent who forms a friendship with Melinda and who agrees to run the antique shop with her. Delia is shocked to find out about Melinda's abilities. Delia accepts Melinda's gift, though she remains skeptical at times. Delia has a son named Ned Banks. Melinda forms a friendship with Rick Payne, a professor at Rockland University.
He helps Melinda solve the conflicts of ghosts throughout the third seasons. He departs in the fourth-season premiere for an expedition in the Himalayas; the same episode introduced Eli James, another professor at the university, who goes through a near-death experience which unlocks an ability to hear ghosts. Unlike Melinda, he cannot see them, he helps her investigate the hauntings. Jennifer Love Hewitt as Melinda Gordon Aisha Tyler as Andrea Marino David Conrad as Jim Clancy / Sam Lucas Camryn Manheim as Delia Banks Jay Mohr as Professor Rick Payne Christoph Sanders as Ned Banks Jamie Kennedy as Professor Eli James Ghost Whisperer is based in part on the work of Mary Ann Winkowski. Development of the show dates back to at least two years before its premiere. James Van Praagh was a co-executive consultant on the show; the show was produced by Sander/Moses Productions in association with CBS Television Studios (originally Paramount Network Television in season one and ABC Studios and CBS Paramount Network Television in seasons two and three.
The show was filmed on the Universal Studios back lot in Los Angeles. One area on the lot is Courthouse Square from the Back to the Future trilogy, though it has been drastically modified to depict Grandview. For example, the clock tower in Back to the Future has been covered up; the front of Melinda and Jim's house is the same set used by the Finch family in the film adaptation of To Kill a Mockingbird. Cast and crew members said. After the show's cancellation and shortly before the sets were torn down, Jennifer Love Hewitt filmed a tour demonstrating the ways in which the areas were different from those shown in the TV broadcast. Sound effects were completed at Smart Post Sound. Visual effects for the pilot and some season one episodes were completed at Flash Film Works. Visual effects for nearly the entire series were created at Eden FX. Roy Forge Smith, who collaborated with John Gary, was the production designer on 44 episodes of the show, spanning two season, from 2005 to 2007. Creator John Gray grew up in Brooklyn, New York, not far from Grand View-On-Hudson, west of the Hudson River.
Piermont is referenced in episodes as the neighboring town, accurate to real life as Grand View is located just north of Piermont. Professors Rick Payne and Eli James worked at the fictional "Rockland University", not coincidentally, the actual village of Grand View is a village located in Rockland County, New York. Season one premiered on September 23, 2005, ended on May 5, 2006, it received an average of 10.20 million viewers. Season two of Ghost Whisperer premiered on September 22, 2006, ended on May 11, 2007, again airing Friday nights on CBS during the same timeslot. CBS renewed the show for a third season placing it in its regular Friday 8 p.m. ET time slot; the third season premiered September 28, 2007. Twelve episodes were completed before the Writers Guild of Ameri
The Hollywood Hills is a hillside neighborhood of the same name in the central region of the city of Los Angeles, California. The Hollywood Hills straddle the Cahuenga Pass within the Santa Monica Mountains; the neighborhood touches Studio City, Universal City and Burbank on the north, Griffith Park on the north and east, Los Feliz on the southeast, Hollywood on the south and Hollywood Hills West on the west. It includes Forest Lawn Memorial Park, the Hollywood Reservoir, the Hollywood Sign, the Hollywood Bowl and the John Anson Ford Theater. Hollywood Hills is bisected southeast-northwest by US 101; the neighborhood is bounded on the northwest and north by the Los Angeles city line, on the east by a fireroad through Griffith Park, continuing on Western Avenue, on the south by Franklin Avenue and on the west by an irregular line that includes Outpost Drive. The neighborhood of Hollywood Hills includes the Hollywood Bowl and Forest Lawn Memorial Park as well as two private and three public schools.
Hollywood Hills contains several neighborhoods: A total of 21,588 people lived in the neighborhood's 7.05 square miles, according to the 2000 U. S. census—averaging 3,063 people per square mile, among the lowest population densities in the city or the county. The population was estimated at 22,988 in 2008; the median age for residents was 37, considered old for the county. The percentages of residents aged 19 through 64 were among the county's highest; the neighborhood is "not diverse" for the city, the diversity index being 0.433, the percentage of Non-Hispanic Whites is considered high, at 74.1%. Latinos make up 9.4%, Asians are at 6.7%, African American at 4.6% and others at 5.3%. In 2000, Mexico and the United Kingdom were the most common places of birth for the 22.8% of the residents who were born abroad, considered a low percentage of foreign-born when compared with the city or county as a whole. The median household income in 2008 dollars was $69,277, considered high for the city but about average for the county.
The percentage of households earning $125,000 or more was high, compared to the county at large. The average household size of 1.8 people was low. Renters occupied 56.5% of the housing units, homeowners the rest. In 2000, there were 270 families headed by single parents, or 6.9%, a rate, low in both the county and the city. In 2000, 54.8% of residents aged 25 and older held a four-year degree, considered high when compared with the city and the county as a whole. There are five secondary or elementary schools within the neighborhood's boundaries: Immaculate Heart High and Middle School, private, 5515 Franklin Avenue Valley View Elementary School, LAUSD, 6921 Woodrow Wilson Drive The Neilson Academy, private, 2528 Canyon Drive Cheremoya Avenue Elementary School, LAUSD, 6017 Franklin Avenue The Oaks, private elementary, 6817 Franklin AvenueThe American Film Institute is at 2021 North Western Avenue The neighborhood includes: The Hollywood Bowl The John Anson Ford Amphitheatre A portion of Griffith Park, including Hollywoodland Camp Forest Lawn Memorial Park Elisha Cuthbert, actress Ben Affleck, actor Christina Aguilera, singer Earle D. Baker, Los Angeles City Council member Halle Berry, actress Jolene Blalock, actress Gisele Bundchen, Victoria's Secret supermodel, bought her three-bedroom house in the Hollywood Hills for close to $2 million Sam Cooke, singer Kevin Costner, actor Robert Culp, actor William De Los Santos, poet, producer, film director Richard Dreyfuss, actor Anna Faris, actress Errol Flynn, actor David Giuntoli, actor Stuart Hamblen, country singer Salma Hayek, actress Niall Horan, Irish pop singer Helen Hunt, actress Billy Idol, English rock musician Tom Leykis and internet talk show personality Demi Lovato, actress and songwriter Tobey Maguire paid more than $2 million for a modern home in the Hollywood Hills Johnny Mathis, singer Joel McHale, American actor and comedian Simon Monjack, producer, writer Brittany Murphy, actress Kristin Nelson and painter Ricky Nelson, actor and songwriter Tracy Nelson, actress Matthew Perry, actor Joaquin Phoenix, actor Chris Pratt, Keanu Reeves actor, bought a house in May 2003 for $4.5 million Kevin Smith, actor and comedian Sage Stallone and son of Sylvester Stallone Robert and Peggy Stevenson, Los Angeles City Council members Quentin Tarantino, film director Justin Timberlake, American singer, songwriter and record producer Bitsie Tulloch, actress Anna Kendrick, singer Rebel Wilson, actress and singer Lloyd G. Davies, Los Angeles City Council member, 1943–51, active against gravel extraction in the hills
Password (game show)
Password is an American television game show, created by Bob Stewart for Goodson-Todman Productions. The host was Allen Ludden, well known as the host of the G. E. College Bowl. In the game, two teams, each composed of a celebrity player and a contestant, attempt to convey mystery words to each other using only single-word clues, in order to win cash prizes. Password aired for 1,555 daytime telecasts each weekday from October 2, 1961, to September 15, 1967, on CBS, along with weekly prime time airings from January 2, 1962, to September 9, 1965, December 25, 1966, to May 22, 1967. An additional 1,099 daytime shows aired from April 5, 1971 to June 27, 1975 on ABC; the show's announcers were Jack Clark and Lee Vines on CBS and John Harlan on ABC. Two revivals aired on NBC: Password Plus from 1979 to 1982, Super Password from 1984 to 1989, followed by a primetime version, Million Dollar Password, on CBS from 2008 to 2009. All of these versions introduced new variations in gameplay. In 2013, TV Guide ranked it #8 in its list of the 60 greatest game shows ever.
Two teams, each consisting of one celebrity player and one "civilian" contestant, competed. The word to be conveyed was given to one player on each team, was shown onscreen to viewers as well as spoken on the audio track. Game play alternated between the two teams. On each team, the player, given the password gave a one-word clue from which their partner attempted to guess the password. If the partner failed to guess the password within the allotted five-second time limit, or if an illegal clue was given, play passed to the opposing team; the game continued until one of the players guessed the password or until ten clues had been given. Scoring was based on the number of clues given when the password was guessed, e.g. ten points were awarded for guessing the password on the first clue, nine points on the second clue, eight points on the third clue, etc. down to one point on the tenth and final clue. On the ABC version a limit of six clues was imposed to expedite game play, with the last clue worth five points.
In addition, teams were given the option of either playing or passing control of the first clue to the opposing team. The team, trailing in score, or that had lost the previous game, was offered the pass/play option. On the CBS daytime edition, the first team to reach 25 points won that contestant $100. On the nighttime edition, the winner won $250; the winning team earned a chance to win up to an additional $250 by playing the "Lightning Round", in which the civilian contestant on the prevailing team tried to guess five passwords within 60 seconds from clues given by his/her celebrity partner. $50 was awarded for each guessed password. The Lightning Round was among the first bonus rounds on a television game. On the ABC version from 1971 to 1974 after completing the Lightning Round the player was given a chance at "the Betting Word," in which they could wager any amount of their winnings on their celebrity partner's ability to guess it within 15 seconds; this increased the maximum bonus prize to $500.
On each episode from 1961 to 1975, Ludden would caution the players about unacceptable clues by stating, "When you hear this sound it means your clue has not been accepted by our authority." Word authorities on the CBS version included New York University professor David H. Greene and World Book Encyclopedia Dictionary editor Dr. Reason A. Goodwin. Robert Stockwell from UCLA and Carolyn Duncan served as word authorities during the ABC version. Clark and Harlan whispered the password to viewers on the first two versions of the show, but the practice was discontinued, beginning with Password All-Stars, when a computer was incorporated; the computer would display the password one letter at a time, followed by the quotation marks. A beeping sound would accompany each letter. A final beep would signal that the password was revealed to the home viewer, play would start. On Password Plus, a bell would ring. On Super Password from September 24, 1984 to October 31, 1986, a chirping sound was heard when the password was revealed.
However, Gene Wood began whispering the words on Super Password just like in the original, starting on November 3, 1986. The practice was again discontinued on Million Dollar Password. Before the cancellation of the Goodson-Todman game show Snap Judgment on NBC in 1969, that program's set was changed in order to make it resemble the look of the CBS Password. Goodson-Todman did this to correspond to rule changes that, in fact, made Snap Judgment identical to Password. On the CBS daytime version, contestants played two matches, win or lose, with each game awarding $100 to the winner. For most of the CBS nighttime version's first year, the same two players stayed for the entire show, playing as many matches as time allowed. However, after three contestants managed to break the $1,000 mark, this practice was changed in November 1962 to having two new contestants play each game, with winning contestants rec