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Paul Kruger

Stephanus Johannes Paulus "Paul" Kruger was a South African politician. He was one of the dominant political and military figures in 19th-century South Africa, President of the South African Republic from 1883 to 1900. Nicknamed Oom Paul, he came to international prominence as the face of the Boer cause—that of the Transvaal and its neighbour the Orange Free State—against Britain during the Second Boer War of 1899–1902, he has been called a personification of Afrikanerdom, remains a controversial and divisive figure. Born near the eastern edge of the Cape Colony, Kruger took part in the Great Trek as a child during the late 1830s, he had no education apart from the Bible, through his interpretation believed the Earth was flat. A protégé of the Voortrekker leader Andries Pretorius, he witnessed the signing of the Sand River Convention with Britain in 1852 and over the next decade played a prominent role in the forging of the South African Republic, leading its commandos and resolving disputes between the rival Boer leaders and factions.

In 1863 he was elected Commandant-General, a post he held for a decade before he resigned soon after the election of President Thomas François Burgers. Kruger was appointed Vice-President in March 1877, shortly before the South African Republic was annexed by Britain as the Transvaal. Over the next three years he headed two deputations to London to try to have this overturned, he became the leading figure in the movement to restore the South African Republic's independence, culminating in the Boers' victory in the First Boer War of 1880–81. Kruger served until 1883 as a member of an executive triumvirate was elected President. In 1884 he headed a third deputation that brokered the London Convention, under which Britain recognised the South African Republic as a independent state. Following the influx of thousands of predominantly British settlers with the Witwatersrand Gold Rush of 1886, "uitlanders" provided all of the South African Republic's tax revenues but lacked civic representation; the uitlander problem and the associated tensions with Britain dominated Kruger's attention for the rest of his presidency, to which he was re-elected in 1888, 1893 and 1898, led to the Jameson Raid of 1895–96 and the Second Boer War.

Kruger left for Europe as the war turned against the Boers in 1900 and spent the rest of his life in exile, refusing to return home following the British victory. After he died in Switzerland at the age of 78 in 1904, his body was returned to South Africa for a state funeral, buried in the Heroes' Acre in Pretoria. Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger was born on 10 October 1825 at Bulhoek, a farm in the Steynsburg area of the Cape Colony, the third child and second son of Casper Jan Hendrik Kruger, a farmer, his wife Elsje; the family was of Dutch-speaking Afrikaner or Boer background, of German, French Huguenot and Dutch stock. His paternal ancestors had been in South Africa since 1713, when Jacob Krüger, from Berlin, arrived in Cape Town as a 17-year-old soldier in the Dutch East India Company's service. Jacob's children dropped the umlaut from the family name, a common practice among South Africans of German origin. Over the following generations, Kruger's paternal forebears moved into the interior.

His mother's family, the Steyns, had lived in South Africa since 1668 and were affluent and cultured by Cape standards. Kruger's great-grand-uncle Hermanus Steyn had been president of the self-declared Republic of Swellendam that revolted against Company rule in 1795. Bulhoek, Kruger's birthplace, was the Steyn family farm and had been Elsie's home since early childhood; the Kruger and Steyn families were acquainted and Casper visited Bulhoek as a young man. He and Elsie married in Cradock in 1820, when he was 19 and she was 14. A girl, a boy, Douw Gerbrand, were born before Paul was born in 1825, his first two names, Stephanus Johannes, were chosen after his paternal grandfather, but used. The provenance of the third given name, Paulus, "was to remain rather a mystery", Johannes Meintjes wrote in his 1974 biography of Kruger, "and yet the boy was always called Paul."Paul Kruger was baptised at Cradock on 19 March 1826. Soon thereafter his parents acquired a farm of their own to the north-west at Vaalbank, near Colesberg, in the remote north-east of the Cape Colony.

His mother died. Beyond reading and writing, which he learned from relatives, the only education Kruger received was three months of study under a travelling tutor, Tielman Roos, Calvinist religious instruction from his father. In adulthood Kruger would claim to have never read any book apart from the Bible. In 1835 Casper Kruger, his father, his brothers Gert and Theuns moved their families east and set up farms near the Caledon River, on the Cape Colony's far north-eastern frontier; the Cape had been under British sovereignty since 1814, when the Netherlands ceded it to Britain with the Convention of London. Boer discontent with aspects of British rule, such as the institution of English as the sole official language and the abolition of slavery in 1834, led to the Great Trek—a mass migration by Dutch-speaking "Voortrekkers" north-east from the Cape to the land on the far side of the Orange and Vaal rivers. Many Boers had been expressing displeasure with the British Cape adm

The Caretaker (Doctor Who)

"The Caretaker" is the sixth episode of the eighth series of the British science fiction television programme Doctor Who. It was first broadcast on BBC One on 27 September 2014; the episode was written by Gareth Roberts and Steven Moffat, directed by Paul Murphy. In the episode, the alien time traveller the Doctor goes under deep cover as the caretaker of Coal Hill School—the work place of his travelling companion Clara —to stop a world-threatening robot nearby called the Skovox Blitzer; the Doctor comes into conflict with Clara's boyfriend, former soldier Danny Pink. The episode was watched by 6.82 million viewers in the UK, received positive reviews from television critics. Clara struggles to balance between the excitement of being the Twelfth Doctor's companion, the normality of teaching at Coal Hill School and keeping her relationship with Danny, a former soldier; the Doctor alerts Clara he will need to go alone on his next outing under "deep cover", but Clara is surprised the next day that he has been hired as a temporary caretaker.

The Doctor explains that a murderous robot, the Skovox Blitzer, is near the school, has killed a community support officer. If he does not intervene, it could destroy the Earth, he has been planting devices around the school to create a time displacement vortex as to send the robot far into the future where it cannot harm anyone, has an invisibility watch to help approach it. Danny becomes suspicious of him, he inadvertently interferes with its settings. When the Doctor attempts to carry out his plan, Danny's change causes the Blitzer to only be displaced forward by 74 hours. After seeing the Doctor again approach Clara discussing this change in plan, Danny accosts Clara, believing she is an alien, during which Clara admits her love for Danny; the Doctor argues. Clara lets. However, the Doctor is aware of Danny's presence, Danny compares the Doctor to an officer before leaving. Meanwhile, student Courtney Woods has come across the Doctor's TARDIS and starts following him around. At Parents' Evening, the Blitzer rematerialises earlier than expected.

The Doctor and Clara inadvertently trigger the Blitzer's self-destruct mechanism, but Danny's timely intervention allows them to force it to stand down. The Doctor offers Courtney a trip in the TARDIS as he leaves the inactive Blitzer in deep space, but Courtney ends up getting sick and throwing up within the TARDIS. On Earth, Danny tells Clara he is impressed with her resolve under the Doctor but not to let him push her too far, or otherwise their relationship will be over. Meanwhile, the community support officer awakens in the Promised Land known as the Nethersphere; the interviewer, informs him of his death and their whereabouts, states that Missy is too busy to deal with him. The pseudonym "John Smith" has been used by the Doctor multiple times throughout the show, starting in The Wheel in Space; the Doctor mentions River Song, who last appeared in "The Name of the Doctor". The read through for "The Caretaker" took place on 20 March 2014. Filming began soon afterwards, on 24 March 2014 at Lloyd George Avenue in Cardiff.

Filming continued at The Maltings in Cardiff Bay and the former St Illtyd's Boys' College, Splott on 4 April 2014. Scenes were filmed at Holton Primary School in Barry on 5 April 2014, it was filmed at Tonyrefail Comprehensive school, located in the South Wales valleys on 8 April 2014. Principal photography was concluded on 11 April 2014. Overnight viewing figures showed an audience of 4.89 million. The episode was watched by a total of 6.82 million viewers. In the United States, the episode earned 0.96 million viewers. The episode received an Appreciation Index score of 83; the episode received positive reviews. Richard Beech of Daily Mirror gave the episode 4 stars out of 5, calling it "funny and entertaining," and praised Capaldi's comic timing. Ceri Radford of The Daily Telegraph gave it 4 stars out of 5 and praised Capaldi's performance. Simon Brew of Den of Geek called it "arguably one of the best." He too praised the comedic elements of the episode, praised Roberts' storytelling skills. He praised Coleman and Anderson, calling them "excellent," and saying it was their "best performance of the series."

Morgan Jeffery of Digital Spy gave the episode a positive review, calling it "Funny and moving." However they were critical of the threat of the Blitzer. They praised Capaldi and his interpretation of the Doctor, saying he's "most complex and variable take on the Time Lord we've seen since Eccleston's." He gave it 4 stars out of 5. Matt Risley of IGN gave the episode a positive review, praising the characterisation of Clara in the current series, he called The Caretaker "satisfying despite the occasional slip into soap opera silliness." He praised the acting of the three leads, but he too criticised the Blitzer, calling it "a design evoking the lovechild of a pew-pewing Jetsons maid knock-off and a Roomba gone haywire." Overall, he gave the episode 7.9 out of 10, saying "'The Caretaker' was engaging with dynamic dialogue," and called it a "Who win." Neela Debnath of The Independent gave the episode a negative review, calling it "A bland Earth-based adventure that failed to excite." However she did praise Ellis George, calling her "a star in the making," and her inclusion in the episode as "great."

"The Caretaker" at the BBC Doctor Who homepage "

The Daytona Beach News-Journal

The Daytona Beach News-Journal is a Florida daily newspaper serving Volusia and Flagler Counties. It grew from the Halifax Journal, started in 1883; the Davidson family purchased the newspaper in 1928 and retained control until bankruptcy in 2009. In 1986, The Morning Journal and Evening News merged into one morning newspaper; the newspaper began its online services in 1994. Daytona's early settlers decided that a newspaper would be important for the development of the town. A group of citizens raised money to persuade Florian A. Mann to move his printing press from Ohio to Daytona and start a new publication. Prior to publication of the first issue, 86 subscribers were signed up, all paid in advance. Advertisers paid in advance for the first three months; the first issue was scheduled for release on February 1, 1883. This delayed publication of the first issue until Mann decided to buy a bolt of cotton cloth from Laurence Thompson's dry goods store to use as a substitute; the first issue of the Halifax Journal was printed and published on the cotton cloth, dated February 15, 1883.

The premier issue contained local news, as well as Mann's editorial of praise and hope for the Halifax area. The Halifax Journal continued as a weekly publication until Mann sold the newspaper in 1889 to J. M. Jolley. In 1908, Jolley died and the newspaper was bought by Galen Seaman. After Seaman's death, the paper was bought by W. C. Carter of the Halifax Printing Company, which operated a printing shop connected with the Halifax Journal. After selling the Halifax Journal, Mann started the Ormond Gazette, he sold this paper to L. Moreton Murray and returned to Daytona, to start the Daytona News. Thomas E. Fitzgerald bought the Daytona News in 1900 and the Ormond Gazette in 1903. Fitzgerald consolidated the two papers and on December 1, 1903, published the first issue of The Daytona Daily News. Hugh Sparkman started a stock company which bought the Halifax Journal and turned it into a daily publication. In 1926, the stock company bought The Daytona Daily News from Fitzgerald; the stock company ceased publication of The Morning Journal, but continued The Evening News and The Sunday News-Journal.

In 1928, Julius Davidson and his son, Herbert M. Davidson, purchased a majority interest in the company, beginning an 80-year period of single family control of the publication. Soon after, the minority owner sold his interest to R. H. Gore, a competitor; the minority shares were sold to Perry Publications, the owner of The Palm Beach Post. In 1969, The Palm Beach Post was purchased by Cox Enterprises, a media company that owns The Atlanta Journal-Constitution and other publications. Cox acquired Perry's 47.5% interest in the News-Journal, assigned a value of $5 million, as part of the transaction. The Davidson family continued to hold a 52.5% majority of the stock. Cox had no say in corporate decisions. In January 2003, the News-Journal offered to pay $13 million for naming rights to a new performing arts center in Daytona Beach being built as a new home for the Seaside Music Theater, founded by News-Journal CEO Tippen Davidson. Cox Enterprises filed suit against the News-Journal Corp. in U. S. Federal Court, alleging they "acted irresponsibly in spending corporate funds".

Cox alleged. Court documents reveal that in the five-year period prior to the filing of Cox's complaint, at least 58 employees of Davidson's arts and entertainment ventures were on the News-Journal Corp. payroll, unbeknownst to NJC's sole minority shareholder. Despite the fact that these employees did no work for NJC, the corporation provided them with full salaries and benefits, at a cost to the company of at least $5.7 million. The trial court found that tens of millions of dollars were diverted to Davidson family projects to "indulge personal interests in the arts". After failing to have the suit dismissed, the News-Journal Corp. decided to exercise its option to buy out the minority shares. In 2006, the federal court set a valuation of $129.2 million on Cox's interest in the paper. Newspaper management announced in April 2008 that the newspaper would be sold in order to satisfy the judgment. On April 17, 2009, the News-Journal announced its intention to declare bankruptcy, but the judge overseeing the case rejected that option.

The board of directors was subsequently removed and the company was placed under court control, with James Hopson serving as the court-appointed manager. Halifax Media Holdings purchased the News-Journal on March 1, 2010 for $20 million and assumed control on April 1, 2010. Michael Redding, Halifax Media's CEO and a former News-Journal department manager, welcomed Bill Offill as publisher of the paper on July 29, 2013. Halifax Media became the 12th largest media company in the U. S. publishing 33 newspapers and affiliated websites in five states in the Southeast. The company was owned by a group of investors, including Stephens Capital Partners, of Little Rock, Arkansas. On August 28, 2013, Halifax Media signed a letter of intent with HarborPoint Media for the acquisition of three additional Florida papers. In 2015, Halifax was acquired by New Media Investment Group. News-Journal prices are: daily, $1. Sales tax is included at newsracks. Prices may be higher outside adjacent counties. Official website Today's The Daytona Beach News-Journal front page at the Newseum website