Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon
The Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon is a municipal museum of fine arts in the French city of Lyon. It is housed near place des Terreaux in a former Benedictine convent of the 18th centuries, it was restored between 1988 and 1998, despite these important restoration works it remained open to visitors. Its collections range from ancient Egypt antiquities to the Modern art period and make the museum one of the most important in Europe, it hosts important exhibitions of art: there have been exhibitions of works by Georges Braque and Henri Laurens one on the work of Théodore Géricault. It is one of the largest art museums in France; until 1792, the buildings belonged to the royal abbaye des Dames de Saint-Pierre, built in the 17th century. The abbess always came from the high French nobility and here received the personalities of the kingdom; the institution had a aristocratic slant, as is shown by its renovation by Louis XIV of France in the 17th and 18th centuries. The present state of the palais Saint-Pierre is down to these renovations, which included the construction of the baroque refectory and monumental honour-staircase, said to be by Thomas Blanchet.
The refectory has been renovated since and now serves as the reception for group visits, as well as housing two monumental paintings on the subject of dining, The Multiplication of the Loaves and The Last Supper, both by Pierre-Louis Cretey. The rest of its current scheme was designed by Nicolas Bidaut and Simon Guillaume and is made up of sculptures; the expulsion of the nuns and the destruction of the église Saint-Saturnin date to the French Revolution, though the abbey's other church still exists and now houses 19th and 20th century sculptures. After the Revolution the remaining buildings housed the Palais du Commerce et des Arts, at first made up of works confiscated from the clergy and nobility but becoming more multi-disciplinary. For example, it gained archaeology and natural history collections and those of the Académie des Sciences et des Lettres; the imperial drawing school was created in 1805 in the Palais du Commerce et des Arts to provide Lyon's silk factories with designers. It gave birth to the famous Lyon School.
In 1860, the Chambre de Commerce left the Palais Saint-Pierre and the establishment became the Palais des Arts. From 1875, the museum's collections underwent a major expansion and had to be expanded - the staircase by Pierre Puvis de Chavannes dates to this era; the start of the 20th century was marked by a considerable opening-up of the collections, leading to the Palais des Arts becoming the Musée des Beaux-Arts. After several restoration projects, it was in the mid-1990s that the building acquired its present scheme; the paintings department has European paintings of 14th- to mid-20th-century paintings. They are arranged chronologically and by major schools in 35 rooms; the collection features: Ancient French painting. 19th-century French painting. At the heart of the abbey, the former cloister is now a municipal garden, right in the centre of the town, on the peninsula, it is decorated with several 19th century's statues: two sculptures by Rodin: The shadow, or Adam and The temptation of Saint Anthony.
From 1895, the musée du Louvre provided nearly 400 objects to form the foundation of the department. The highlights of the collection are its display of sarcophaguses and the gates of Ptolemy III and Ptolemy IV from the temple of Medamud dug by the Lyons archaeologist Alexandre Varille in 1939; the rest of the objects throw light on everyday life in ancient Egypt. The collection has
Pierre Mignard or Pierre Mignard I, called "Mignard le Romain" to distinguish him from his brother Nicolas Mignard, was a French painter known for his religious and mythological scenes and portraits. He was a near-contemporary of the Premier Peintre du Roi Charles Le Brun with whom he engaged in a bitter, life-long rivalry. Pierre Mignard was born at Troyes in 1612 as the son of Marie Gallois, he came from a family of artisans. He was the younger brother of Nicolas, who became a painter and etcher, active in Avignon and was known as Mignard d'Avignon. Nicolas had two sons, Paul who became a painter and etcher and Pierre who became a painter and architect. To distinguish his nephew Pierre from his uncle, the nephew was called "Pierre II" or "Le Chevalier". Pierre Mignard trained in Bourges with the Mannerist painter Jean Boucher, he spent time making copies of the Mannerist works in the château of Fontainebleau. He studied for a period in the studio of Simon Vouet. Mignard left for Rome in 1635, it is because of his long residence in Rome that he got the nickname'Mignard le Romaine'.
In Rome he painted religious commissions. He was known for his many images of the Madonna and Child, they were so popular that they were referred to as "Mignardises." He painted altarpieces. His compatriot Nicolas Poussin hired Mignard to make copies of is works, he was active as a reproductive engraver making copies after Annibale Carracci. Mignard's life-long interest in portrait painting was developed at this time and he painted portraits of subsequent popes and prominent members of the Italian nobility, he travelled to Northern Italy where he visited Bologna, Mantua and Venice. His reputation was such that he was summoned to Paris in 1657 by Cardinal Mazarin, he travelled back via Avignon. Here he met the dramatist Molière, who became a close friend and of whom he painted several portraits. In Paris he became a popular portrait painter, he found favor with king Louis XIV. Mignard became a rival of the leading French painter of that time and first painter to the King, Charles Le Brun, he declined to enter the Academy.
Mignard opposed the authority of the Academy. His brother Nicolas and his nephew Paul, his pupil, chose the side of Le Brun against Pierre, which led to a break in the relationship. With the death of Le Brun in 1690, the situation changed. Mignard succeeded to all the posts held by his opponent, he died in 1695 at Paris. Mignard was active as a portrait painter, he produced mythological and religious scenes. Soon after his return to Paris, Mignard was able to attract the patronage of important personalities who commissioned portraits of him, his sitters included Turenne, Molière, Maintenon, La Vallière, Sévigné, Descartes. He was thus one of the most successful portrait painters of his time although according to some art historians the most boring one. Many of compositions were engraved by Gérard Audran, Pieter van Schuppen, Robert Nanteuil, Gérard Edelinck, Antoine Masson, François de Poilly and others. There is a good selection of works by Pierre and Pierre II in Avignon at the Musée Calvet; the Courtauld Institute of Art, Harvard University Art Museums, the Hermitage Museum, the Honolulu Museum of Art, Kunst Indeks Danmark, the Louvre, Musée d'Art et d'Histoire, Musée des Augustins, Musée Ingres, Museo Lombardi, the Museum of Fine Arts, the National Gallery, the National Portrait Gallery, the North Carolina Museum of Art, the Portland Art Museum and Versailles are among the public collections holding works by Pierre Mignard.
French Baroque and Classicism List of paintings by Pierre Mignard Media related to Pierre Mignard at Wikimedia Commons
Lyon is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located in the country's east-central part at the confluence of the rivers Rhône and Saône, about 470 km south from Paris, 320 km north from Marseille and 56 km northeast from Saint-Étienne. Inhabitants of the city are called Lyonnais. Lyon had a population of 513,275 in 2015, it is the capital of the region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes. The Lyon metropolitan area had a population of 2,265,375 in 2014, the second-largest urban area in France; the city is known for its cuisine and gastronomy, historical and architectural landmarks. Lyon was an important area for the production and weaving of silk. Lyon played a significant role in the history of cinema: it is where Auguste and Louis Lumière invented the cinematograph, it is known for its light festival, the Fête des Lumières, which begins every 8 December and lasts for four days, earning Lyon the title of Capital of Lights. Economically, Lyon is a major centre for banking, as well as for the chemical and biotech industries.
The city contains a significant software industry with a particular focus on video games, in recent years has fostered a growing local start-up sector. Lyon hosts the international headquarters of Interpol, the International Agency for Research on Cancer and Euronews, it was ranked 19th globally and second in France for innovation in 2014. It ranked second in 39th globally in Mercer's 2015 liveability rankings. According to the historian Dio Cassius, in 43 BC, the Roman Senate ordered the creation of a settlement for Roman refugees of war with the Allobroges; these refugees had been expelled from Vienne and were now encamped at the confluence of the Saône and Rhône rivers. The foundation was built on Fourvière hill and called Colonia Copia Felix Munatia, a name invoking prosperity and the blessing of the gods; the city became referred to as Lugdunum. The earliest translation of this Gaulish place-name as "Desired Mountain" is offered by the 9th-century Endlicher Glossary. In contrast, some modern scholars have proposed a Gaulish hill-fort named Lugdunon, after the Celtic god Lugus, dúnon.
The Romans recognised that Lugdunum's strategic location at the convergence of two navigable rivers made it a natural communications hub. The city became the starting point of the principal Roman roads in the area, it became the capital of the province, Gallia Lugdunensis. Two Emperors were born in this city: Claudius, whose speech is preserved in the Lyon Tablet in which he justifies the nomination of Gallic Senators, Caracalla. Early Christians in Lyon were martyred for their beliefs under the reigns of various Roman emperors, most notably Marcus Aurelius and Septimius Severus. Local saints from this period include Blandina and Epipodius, among others. In the second century AD, the great Christian bishop of Lyon was Irenaeus. To this day, the archbishop of Lyon is still referred to as "Primat des Gaules". Burgundians fleeing the destruction of Worms by the Huns in 437 were re-settled at Lugdunum. In 443 the Romans established the Kingdom of the Burgundians, Lugdunum became its capital in 461.
In 843, by the Treaty of Verdun, Lyon went to the Holy Roman Emperor Lothair I. It was made part of the Kingdom of Arles. Lyon did not come under French control until the 14th century. Fernand Braudel remarked, "Historians of Lyon are not sufficiently aware of the bi-polarity between Paris and Lyon, a constant structure in French development...from the late Middle Ages to the Industrial Revolution". In the late 15th century, the fairs introduced by Italian merchants made Lyon the economic counting house of France; the Bourse, built in 1749, resembled a public bazaar where accounts were settled in the open air. When international banking moved to Genoa Amsterdam, Lyon remained the banking centre of France. During the Renaissance, the city's development was driven by the silk trade, which strengthened its ties to Italy. Italian influence on Lyon's architecture is still visible among historic buildings. In the 1400s and 1500s Lyon was a key centre of literary activity and book publishing, both of French writers and of Italians in exile.
In 1572, Lyon was a scene of mass violence by Catholics against Protestant Huguenots in the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. Two centuries Lyon was again convulsed by violence when, during the French Revolution, the citizenry rose up against the National Convention and supported the Girondins; the city was besieged by Revolutionary armies for over two months before surrendering in October 1793. Many buildings were destroyed around the Place Bellecour, while Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois and Joseph Fouché administered the execution of more than 2,000 people; the Convention ordered that its name be changed to "Liberated City" and a plaque was erected that proclaimed "Lyons made war on Liberty. A decade Napoleon ordered the reconstruction of all the buildings demolished during this period; the Convention was not the only target within Lyon during the 1789-1799 French Revolution. After the National Convention faded into history, the French Directory appeared and days after the September 4, 1797, Coup of 18 Fructidor, a Directory's commissioner was assassinated in Ly
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website