Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
Nutley, New Jersey
Nutley is a township in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 28,370, reflecting an increase of 1,008 from the 27,362 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 263 from the 27,099 counted in the 1990 Census. What is now Nutley was incorporated as Franklin Township by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 18, 1874, from portions of Belleville Township. Nutley was incorporated as a Town on March 1902, replacing Franklin Township. In 1981, the town was one of seven Essex County municipalities to pass a referendum to become a township, joining four municipalities that had made the change, of what would be more than a dozen Essex County municipalities to reclassify themselves as townships in order take advantage of federal revenue sharing policies that allocated townships a greater share of government aid to municipalities on a per capita basis. Nutley derived its name from the estate of the Satterthwaite family, established in 1844, which stretched along the Passaic River and from an artist's colony in the area.
New Jersey Monthly magazine ranked Nutley as its 38th best place to live in its 2008 rankings of the "Best Places To Live" in New Jersey. Nutley grew as Newark developed; the first European settler in the area, recorded in the minutes of a Newark town meeting in 1693, was a Dutch painter named Bastian Van Giesen. His house, known as Vreeland Homestead, still stands today on Chestnut Street and is the location of the Nutley Women's Club. John Treat and Thomas Stagg purchased lots adjacent to Van Geisen's in 1698 respectively; the Van Riper House is another building from the era. The first brownstone quarry in Nutley is believed to have been in operation by the early 18th century and was the town's first major industry. Jobs at the brownstone quarry in the Avondale section of Nutley provided work for many Italian and Irish immigrants. Mills situated along the Third River in the area now known as Memorial Park I became Nutley's second major industry. John and Thomas Speer, Joseph Kingsland, Henry Duncan all operated mills in the town during the 1800s.
Current streets in Nutley are named after these mill owners. Henry Duncan built several mills throughout the town and established the village of Franklinville consisting of 30 homes and a few small businesses which became the center of Nutley. One of Duncan's buildings now serves as the town hall. Kingsland Manor is a national historic place. During the late 1880s, painter Frank Fowler founded an artists' colony on The Enclosure, a dead-end street, near the Third River, a stream that runs through the town's parks. Artist residents of the street included Frederick Dana Marsh, Reginald Marsh and muralist Michael Lenson. Nutley's current town historian, John Demmer, is the author of the book in the "Images of America" series titled Nutley; the Nutley Historical Society manages the operation of The Nutley Historical Museum, housed in a former town schoolhouse at 65 Church Street. Several other historical works on Nutley have been written by local historians, notably the late Ann Troy's Nutley: Yesterday - Today.
Local resident Chris Economaki wrote extensively about the Nutley Velodrome in his autobiographical racing history Let Them All Go! as the Velodrome was the first racetrack he had visited as a child. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township had a total area of 3.428 square miles, including 3.384 square miles of land and 0.044 square miles of water. Unincorporated communities and place names located or within the township include Avondale, Franklin and Younticaw; the township borders Bloomfield in Essex County. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 28,370 people, 11,314 households, 7,659.578 families residing in the township. The population density was 8,384.1 per square mile. There were 11,789 housing units at an average density of 3,484.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 82.50% White, 2.21% Black or African American, 0.13% Native American, 9.95% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 2.97% from other races, 2.22% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 11.82% of the population.
There were 11,314 households out of which 29.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.8% were married couples living together, 11.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.3% were non-families. 27.5% of all households were made up of individuals, 10.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.10. In the township, the population was spread out with 20.7% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 28.5% from 25 to 44, 28.9% from 45 to 64, 14.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40.7 years. For every 100 females there were 88.9 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 86.0 males. The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $76,167 and the median family income was $98,042. Males had a median income of $64,736 versus $52,410 for females; the per capita income
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
Wallington, New Jersey
Wallington is a borough in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 11,335, reflecting a decline of 248 from the 11,583 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 755 from the 10,828 counted in the 1990 Census. Wallington was created as a borough on January 2, 1895, based on a referendum held on December 31, 1894, from area taken from Bergen Township and Saddle River Township; the borough was formed during the "Boroughitis" phenomenon sweeping through New Jersey, in which 26 boroughs were formed in Bergen County alone in 1894, with Wallington the last of the 26 to be formed by an 1894 referendum. Sections of Wallington were ceded to Garfield in 1898; the borough is said to have been named for Walling Van Winkle, who built a home in the future borough. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough had a total area of 1.034 square miles, including 0.983 square miles of land and 0.051 square miles of water.
The borough borders Carlstadt, East Rutherford, South Hackensack and Wood-Ridge in Bergen County, the city of Passaic in Passaic County across the Passaic River. The borough is located 15 miles northwest of Midtown Manhattan; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 11,335 people, 4,637 households, 2,990.865 families residing in the borough. The population density was 11,528.6 per square mile. There were 4,946 housing units at an average density of 5,030.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 85.48% White, 3.23% Black or African American, 0.16% Native American, 5.57% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 3.86% from other races, 1.70% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.81% of the population. There were 4,637 households out of which 25.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.0% were married couples living together, 11.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.5% were non-families. 29.1% of all households were made up of individuals, 9.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.03. In the borough, the population was spread out with 18.0% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 31.5% from 25 to 44, 28.9% from 45 to 64, 13.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.6 years. For every 100 females there were 94.4 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 91.6 males. The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $58,724 and the median family income was $66,414. Males had a median income of $46,632 versus $40,968 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $27,350. About 7.0% of families and 8.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.8% of those under age 18 and 10.1% of those age 65 or over. Same-sex couples headed 25 households in 2010, a decrease from the 30 counted in 2000; as of the 2000 United States Census there were 11,583 people, 4,752 households, 3,041 families residing in the borough.
The population density was 11,632.5 people per square mile. There were 4,906 housing units at an average density of 4,927.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 87.60% White, 2.67% African American, 0.09% Native American, 4.98% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 2.32% from other races, 2.31% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.70% of the population. There were 4,752 households out of which 25.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.3% were married couples living together, 11.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.0% were non-families. 29.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.05. In the borough the population was spread out with 18.4% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 33.9% from 25 to 44, 23.7% from 45 to 64, 15.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years.
For every 100 females, there were 93.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.2 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $45,656, the median income for a family was $55,291. Males had a median income of $40,077 versus $30,503 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $24,431. About 4.8% of families and 6.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.8% of those under age 18 and 4.4% of those age 65 or over. The most common ancestries were Polish, Italian and German. At 51.5%, Wallington has one of the highest per capita levels of Polish ancestry in the area. Wallington was ranked seventh nationwide and first in New Jersey among municipalities in the United States by percentage of population with Polish ancestry as of the 2000 Census; each December, Wallington holds a holiday parade. Fire departments and ambulances from the surrounding area put Christmas lights on their trucks. There is a contest to determine; the winning department gets a trophy.
Samuel Nelkin County Park is located on Parkview Drive. It has a playground, tennis courts, athletic fields, a dog park, picnic areas, a shallow, artificial pond for fishing. Bowlero Wallington is a bowling alley that has 48 lanes, an arcade and bar. Wallington is governed under the Boroug
Paramus, New Jersey
Paramus is a borough in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 26,342.. A suburb of New York City, Paramus is located 15 to 20 miles northwest of Midtown Manhattan and 8 miles west of Upper Manhattan; the Wall Street Journal characterized Paramus as "quintessentially suburban". Paramus was incorporated as a borough by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 2, 1922, ratified by a referendum held on April 4, 1922, that passed by a vote of 238 to 10. Paramus was created from portions of Midland Township; the name is said to be of Native American origin, derived from words meaning "land of the turkey" or meaning "pleasant stream."The borough is one of the largest shopping destinations in the country, generating over US$6 billion in annual retail sales, more than any other ZIP Code in the United States. Despite this, Paramus has some of the most restrictive blue laws in the nation, banning nearly all white-collar and retail businesses from opening on Sundays except for gas stations and grocery stores, a limited number of other businesses.
The area that became northern New Jersey was occupied for thousands of years by prehistoric indigenous peoples. At the time of European encounter, it was settled by the Lenape people; the Lenape language word for the area, which meant that it had an abundant population of wild turkey, was anglicized to become the word "Paramus". A large metal statue of a wild turkey in the Paramus Park mall commemorates this history. Another variation is that the word means "pleasant stream". Albert Saboroweski, whose descendants became known by the family name "Zabriskie", immigrated from Poland via the Dutch ship The Fox in 1662, he settled in the Dutch West Indies Company town of today's Hackensack. A son, was captured by the Lenape and held for 15 years; when he was returned to his family, the Lenape explained to Saboroweski that they had taken the child in order to teach him their language so that he could serve as a translator. They granted Saboroweski 2,000 acres of land which became known as the "Paramus Patent".
During the American Revolutionary War, the county included both Tories and Patriots, with Patriots "greatly outnumbering" Tories. Although no major battles were fought in Bergen County, Paramus was part of the military activity, as colonial troops were stationed in Ramapo under the command of Aaron Burr. In 1777, the British raided the Hackensack area and Burr marched troops to Paramus, where he attacked the British, forcing them to withdraw. General George Washington was in Paramus several times during the War: December 1778. Following the Battle of Monmouth, Washington established his headquarters in Paramus in July 1778. Over the advice of his staff, Washington moved his headquarters to New York. A section of Paramus known as Dunkerhook was a free African-American community dating to the early 18th century. Although historical markers on the current site and local oral tradition maintain that this was a slave community, contemporary records document that it was a community of free blacks, not slaves.
A group of houses built on Dunkerhook Road by the Zabriskies in the late 18th to early 19th centuries was the center of a community of black farmers, slaves held by the Zabriskie family. Farview Avenue, located at the highest peak in Paramus, has a clear view of the New York City skyline. Paramus became one of the "truck farming" areas that helped New Jersey earn its nickname as the "Garden State". By 1940, Paramus' population was just 4,000, with 94 retail establishments. Although the opening of the George Washington Bridge in 1931 and the widening of New Jersey Route 17 and New Jersey Route 4, made the area accessible to millions, "it was not until the 1950s that massive development hit this section of northern New Jersey". During the 1950s and 1960s, lacking any master plan until 1969, was redeveloped into two shopping corridors when its farmers and outside developers saw that shopping malls were more lucrative than produce farming. "It was a developer's dream: flat cleared land adjacent to major arterials and accessible to a growing suburban population and the country's largest city – with no planning restrictions".
New York had a state sales tax, but New Jersey had none, so with the opening of Manhattan department stores in the Bergen Mall, the Garden State Plaza and Alexander's, Paramus became the "first stop outside New York City for shopping". From 1948–58, the population of Paramus increased from 6,000 to 23,000, the number of retail establishments tripled from 111 to 319, annual retail sales increased twenty-fold, from $5.5 million to $112 million. By the 1980s, when the population had increased over 1960s levels, retail sales had climbed to $1 billion. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough had a total area of 10.520 square miles, including 10.470 square miles of land and 0.050 square miles of water. The borough borders the Bergen County municipalities of Emerson, Fair Lawn, Glen Rock, Maywood, Ridgewood, River Edge, Rochelle Park, Saddle Brook and Washington Township. Unincorporated communities and place names located or within the borough include Arcola, Bergen Place, Spring Valley, Dunkerhook.
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 26,342 people, 8,630 households, 6,938.520 families residing in the borough. The population density was 2,516.0 per square mile (971.4/
New Jersey Route 4
Route 4 is a state highway in Bergen County and Passaic County, New Jersey, United States. The highway stretches 10.83 mi from Route 20 in Paterson east to an interchange with Interstate 95, U. S. Route 1/9, US 46, US 9W at the George Washington Bridge approach in Fort Lee; the route is a four- to six-lane 40 to 50 mph divided highway its entire length, with the portion east of the Route 208 interchange in Fair Lawn a limited-access road consisting of interchanges and right-in/right-out intersections with many businesses along the road in Paramus, where the route passes through a major shopping area consisting of numerous malls, Hackensack and Fort Lee. West of Route 208, the route is a surface arterial. Route 4 intersects many important roads, including Route 208 in Fair Lawn and the Garden State Parkway and Route 17 in Paramus; the highway is named the Mackay Highway, but is referred to as such. Legislated to traverse the state from Cape May to the George Washington Bridge, Route 4 was reduced to its current alignment in 1953.
Today's stretch of the route was completed by 1934. Despite this, the route has seen improvements, such as to the interchanges with Route 17 in 1999 and with Route 208 in 2002. Route 4 is a used commuter and long-distance artery; as well as providing a critical commuter route from the Hudson Valley and Bergen’s County into New York City via the George Washington Bridge, it gives New Yorkers access to popular shopping areas such as Garden State Plaza and Bergen Town Center, forms part of the straightest route from New York City and Long Island to Upstate and Western New York destinations. Locally west of the Hackensack River, it is seen as a socioeconomic dividing line between wealthier, more affluent suburbs like Ridgewood and Oradell to the north, more urbanized, working-class areas like Hackensack to the south. Trucks are permitted on Route 4, but due to its narrow lanes and short on/off ramps, tractor trailers tend to prefer nearby I-80 when traveling through the area. Route 4 starts in Paterson, Passaic County at the intersection of Broadway and East 43rd Street at an interchange with Route 20, heading east on Broadway, a four-lane, divided highway with a Jersey barrier and a speed limit of 40 mph.
The route passes over Route 20 and continues east, crossing the Passaic River into Elmwood Park, Bergen County and passing over County Route 507. Route 4 features a right-in/right-out in the eastbound direction that provides access to CR 507; the route continues east on Broadway as a divided highway with a concrete a grassy median, with businesses lining both sides of the roadway. At the intersection with Cyril Avenue, Route 4 runs along the border of Elmwood Park to the south and Fair Lawn to the north before entering Fair Lawn, where the route passes under New Jersey Transit’s Bergen County Line near Broadway station, it intersects CR 67 and continues east as a divided highway with a Jersey barrier through commercial areas of Fair Lawn. Route 4 comes to an interchange Route 208, where the route continues east on the Route 208 alignment, becoming a divided highway with four lanes in the eastbound direction and three lanes in the westbound direction; the interchange between Route 4 and Route 208 features access to CR 79.
The route continues east as a limited access road, lined with businesses. Route 4 crosses the Saddle River and enters Paramus. Upon entering Paramus, Route 4 has a cloverleaf interchange with CR 62; the route features a partial interchange with the Garden State Parkway, with access from westbound Route 4 to the southbound Garden State Parkway and from the northbound Garden State Parkway to eastbound Route 4. Route 4 has an interchange which provides access to Westfield Garden State Plaza, located on the south side of the road, a large IKEA store, located on the north side of the road. Past this, Route 4 features a cloverleaf interchange with Route 17 and continues east as a six-lane divided highway with a 50 mph speed limit, it interchanges with Spring Valley Road and passes by The Outlets at Bergen Town Center located on the south side of the road. Route 4 interchanges with CR 59; as the road leaves Paramus, it becomes businesses no longer line the route. Route 4 enters River Edge, where the route crosses Van Saun Mill Creek, it heads to the southeast and features ramps that provide access to CR 51, which the route passes over along with New Jersey Transit's Pascack Valley Line just south of the New Bridge Landing station.
Upon crossing the Pascack Valley Line, Route 4 heads into Hackensack, where it interchanges with CR 503 near The Shops at Riverside. The route crosses the Hackensack River into Teaneck and heads through the campus of Fairleigh Dickinson University. Route 4 features ramps that provide access to CR 41, which it passes over; the road continues southeast through wooded residential areas, intersecting a few roads at right-in/right-out intersections, before interchanging with Queen Anne Road. It interchanges with CR 39 and Webster Avenue/Farragut Drive before crossing into Englewood where the route crosses Overpeck Creek and businesses resume along the road with access to businesses and a few local roads provided by right-in/right-out ramps. In Englewood, Route 4 features a cloverleaf interchange with Route 93 and CR 501. Past this interchange, bus
Governor of New Jersey
The Governor of the State of New Jersey is head of the executive branch of New Jersey's state government. The office of governor is an elected position. Governors cannot be elected to more than two consecutive terms, but there is no limit on the total number of terms they may serve; the official residence for the governor is a mansion located in Princeton, New Jersey. The first Governor of New Jersey was William Livingston, who served from August 31, 1776, to July 25, 1790; the current governor is Phil Murphy, who assumed office on January 16, 2018. The governor is directly elected by the voters to become the political and ceremonial head of the state; the governor performs the executive functions of the state, is not directly subordinate to the federal authorities. The governor assumes additional roles, such as being the Commander-in-Chief of the New Jersey National Guard forces. Unlike many other states that have elections for some cabinet-level positions, under the New Jersey Constitution the governor and lieutenant governor are the only officials elected on a statewide basis.
Much like the President of the United States, the governor appoints the entire cabinet, subject to confirmation by the New Jersey Senate. More under the New Jersey constitution, the governor appoints all superior court judges and county prosecutors, although this is done with strong consideration of the preferences of the individual state senators who represent the district where vacancies arise; the governor is responsible for appointing two constitutionally created officers, the New Jersey Attorney General and the Secretary of State of New Jersey, with the approval of the senate. As amended in January 2002, state law allows for a maximum salary of $175,000. Phil Murphy has stated. Jon Corzine accepted a token salary of $1 per year as governor. Previous governor Jim McGreevey received an annual salary of $157,000, a reduction of 10% of the maximum allowed, while Chris Christie, Murphy's immediate predecessor, accepted the full gubernatorial salary; the governor has a full-time protective security detail from the Executive Protection Unit of the New Jersey State Police while in office.
A former governor is entitled to a 1-person security detail from the New Jersey State Police, for up to 6 months after leaving office. On Tuesday, November 8, 2005, the voters passed an amendment to the New Jersey State Constitution that created the position of Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey, effective with the 2009 elections. Before this amendment was passed, the president of the New Jersey Senate would have become governor or acting governor in the event that office of governor became vacant; this dual position was more powerful than that of an elected governor, as the individual would have had a major role in legislative and executive processes. As a result of the constitutional amendment passed in 2005, Governor Richard Codey, serving from November 2004 to January 2006 as governor, was the final person to wield such power. Kim Guadagno, a former prosecutor, was sworn in as New Jersey's first lieutenant governor on January 19, 2010 under Governor Christie. Succeeding Guadagno, former assemblywoman Sheila Oliver was sworn in on January 16, 2018 under Governor Murphy.
The Center on the American Governor, at Rutgers' Eagleton Institute of Politics, was established in 2006 to study the governors of New Jersey and, to a lesser degree, the governors of other states. The program features extensive archives of documents and pictures from the Byrne and Kean administrations, video interviews with many members of the respective administrations, some information on other American governors, news updates on current governors; the project is in the process of creating new archives, similar to the Byrne and Kean archives, for administrations. "I, A. B. elected governor of the State of New Jersey, do solemnly promise and swear, that I will support the Constitution of the United States and the Constitution of the State of New Jersey, that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same, to the governments established in the United States and in this state under the authority of the people, that I will diligently, impartially, to the best of my knowledge and ability, execute the said office in conformity with the powers delegated to me, that I will to the utmost of my skill and ability, promote the peace and prosperity and maintain the lawful rights of the said state, so help me God."
Governorship of Phil Murphy List of colonial governors of New Jersey List of Governors of New Jersey Official website Executive Orders issued by the New Jersey Governor