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Paul Simon

Paul Frederic Simon is an American musician, singer and actor. Simon's musical career has spanned seven decades, he reached fame and commercial success as half of the duo Simon & Garfunkel, formed in 1956 with Art Garfunkel. Simon was responsible for writing nearly all of their songs, including US number-one singles "The Sound of Silence", "Mrs. Robinson", "Bridge over Troubled Water". After Simon & Garfunkel split up in 1970 at the height of their popularity, Simon began a successful solo career, he recorded three acclaimed albums over the next five years. In 1986, following a career slump, he released Graceland, an album inspired by South African township music, which sold 14 million copies worldwide and remains his most popular solo work. Simon wrote and starred in the film One-Trick Pony and co-wrote the Broadway musical The Capeman with the poet Derek Walcott. On June 3, 2016, Simon released his 13th solo album, Stranger to Stranger, which debuted at number one on the Billboard Album Chart and the UK Albums Chart.

Simon has earned sixteen Grammy awards for his solo and collaborative work, including three for Album of the Year, a Lifetime Achievement Award. In 2001, he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and in 2006 was selected as one of the "100 People Who Shaped the World" by Time. In 2011, Rolling Stone named Simon one of the 100 greatest guitarists, in 2015 named him one of the 100 Greatest Songwriters of All Time. Simon was the first recipient of the Library of Congress's Gershwin Prize for Popular Song in 2007. Simon was born on October 1941, in Newark, New Jersey, to Hungarian-Jewish parents, his father, was a college professor, double-bass player, dance bandleader who performed under the name "Lee Sims". His mother, was an elementary school teacher. In 1945, his family moved to the Kew Gardens Hills section of Queens, in New York City; the musician Donald Fagen has described Simon's childhood as that of "a certain kind of New York Jew a stereotype to whom music and baseball are important.

I think. The parents are either immigrants or first-generation Americans who felt like outsiders, assimilation was the key thought—they gravitated to black music and baseball looking for an alternative culture." Simon, upon hearing Fagen's description, said it "isn't far from the truth." Simon says about his childhood, "I was a ballplayer. I'd go on my bike, I'd hustle kids in stickball." He adds that his father was a New York Yankees fan: I used to listen to games with my father. He was a nice guy. Fun. Funny. Smart, he didn't play with me as much. He was at work until late at night.... Sometimes two in the morning. Simon's musical career began after meeting Art Garfunkel when they were both 11, they performed in a production of Alice in Wonderland for their sixth-grade graduation, began singing together when they were 13 performing at school dances. Their idols were the Everly Brothers. Simon developed an interest in jazz and blues in the music of Woody Guthrie and Lead Belly. Simon's first song written for himself and Garfunkel, when Simon was 12 or 13, was called "The Girl for Me," and according to Simon became the "neighborhood hit."

His father wrote the chords on paper for the boys to use. That paper became the first copyrighted Paul Simon and Art Garfunkel song, is now in the Library of Congress. In 1957, in their mid-teens, they recorded the song "Hey, Schoolgirl" under the name "Tom & Jerry", a name, given to them by their label Big Records; the single reached No. 49 on the pop charts. After graduating from Forest Hills High School, Simon majored in English at Queens College and graduated in 1963, while Garfunkel studied mathematics education at Columbia University in Manhattan. Simon was a brother in the Alpha Epsilon Pi fraternity, earned a degree in English literature, attended Brooklyn Law School for one semester after graduation in 1963, but his real passion was rock and roll. Between 1957 and 1964, Simon wrote and released more than 30 songs reuniting with Garfunkel as Tom & Jerry for some singles, including "Our Song" and "That's My Story". Most of the songs Simon recorded during that time were performed alone or with musicians other than Garfunkel.

They were released on several minor record labels, such as Amy, Hunt, King and Madison. He used several pseudonyms for these recordings, most "Jerry Landis", but "Paul Kane" and "True Taylor". By 1962, working as Jerry Landis, he was a frequent writer/producer for several Amy Records artists, overseeing material released by Dotty Daniels, The Vels and Ritchie Cordell. Simon enjoyed some moderate success in recording a few singles as part of a group called Tico and the Triumphs, including a song called "Motorcycle" that reached No. 97 on the Billboard charts in 1962. Tico and the Triumphs released four 45s. Marty Cooper, known as Tico, sang lead on several of these releases, but not on "Motorcycle", which featured Simon's vocal; that same year, Simon reached No. 99 on the pop charts as Jerry Landis with the novelty song "The Lone Teen Ranger". Both chart singles were released on Amy Records. In early 1964, Simon and Garfunkel got an audition with Columbia Records, whose executive Clive Davis was impressed enough to sign the duo to a contract to produce an album.

Columbia decided that the two would be called "Simon & Garfunkel", abandoning the group's previous name "Tom & Jerry". Simon said in 2003 that this renaming a

Patrick Neill (naturalist)

Patrick Neill was a Scottish printer and horticulturalist, known as a naturalist. A founding member, the first secretary, of both the Wernerian Natural History Society and the Caledonian Horticultural Society, he is remembered today for having endowed the Neill Medal of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Neill' works include A Tour Through Some of the Islands of Orkney and Shetland, which caused much public debate at the time, due to its descriptions of the economic misery of the islanders, he authored the Gardening article in the seventh edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. This article was subsequently expanded and published as a separate book under the title of The Fruit and Kitchen Garden, popular and ran through several editions; when the Nor Loch was drained in 1820, Neill was commissioned to plan the scheme of planting of 5 acres of land, now West Princes Street Gardens. This included the planting of shrubs; the rosaceous genus. He was born in Edinburgh on 25 October 1776, spent his life there.

He became the head of the large printing firm of Neill & Co. of Edinburgh, but during the last 30 years of his life he took little active part in its management. Early in his career he devoted his spare time to natural history botany and horticulture; the Wernerian Natural History Society was established in 1808, in 1809 the Caledonian Horticultural Society was founded. Neill was the first secretary of both societies, holding the latter post for forty years. Neill's residence at Canonmills Cottage was open to visitors, he was Fellow of the Linnean Society and the Royal Society of Edinburgh, honorary LLD of the University of Edinburgh. He served as President of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh in 1842–43. A short time before his death he became enfeebled by a stroke of paralysis, after several months of suffering he died at Canonmills on 3 September 1851, was buried in Warriston Cemetery, on the western wall in the extreme south-west corner of the original cemetery, just west of the archway to the southern extension.

His tombstone states that he was "distinguished for literature, patriotism and piety". The memorial was restored by the Friends of Warriston Cemetery 2014/2015, he died unmarried, among his various charitable bequests was one of £500 to the Caledonian Horticultural Society to found a medal for distinguished Scottish botanists or cultivators, a similar sum to the Royal Society of Edinburgh for a medal to distinguished Scottish naturalists. He is botanically commemorated by the rosaceous genus Neillia. Edinburgh is indebted to Neill for the scheme of the West Princes Street Gardens. In 1820, that portion of the north loch was drained, five acres of ground were laid out and planted with seventy-seven thousand trees and shrubs under his direction, he intervened to preserve several antiquities that were on the point of being demolished. In 1806 appeared his Tour through Orkney and Shetland, a work which gave rise to discussion because of its reports of poverty. In 1814 he issued a translation, An Account of the Basalts of Saxony, from the French of Dubuisson, with Notes, Edinburgh.

He was the author of the article "Gardening" in the seventh edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica, it was subsequently published as The Flower and Kitchen Garden. In 1817 Neill, with two other deputies from the Caledonian Society, made a tour through the Netherlands and the north of France, he wrote an account of it, published in 1823, his great niece was the Scottish lady golfer and First World War heroine, Margaret Neill Fraser who died while serving in Serbia. Parks & Gardens UK pageAttribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Neill, Patrick". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900

Saladin Governorate

The Saladin or Salah ad Din Governorate is a governorate in Iraq, north of Baghdad. The governorate has an area of 24,363 square kilometres; the estimated population in 2003 was 1,042,200 people. The capital is Tikrit. Before 1976 the governorate was part of Baghdad Governorate; the province is named after leader Saladin, a Muslim leader who defeated the Crusaders at Hattin, who hailed from the province. Salah ad Din was the home province of Saddam Hussein. Saladin Governorate contains a number of important cultural sites. Samarra, the governorate's largest city, is home to both the Al-Askari Shrine, the Sardab where the 12th Imam al-Mahdi went into occultation, the Great Mosque of Samarra with its distinctive Malwiya minaret. Samarra was the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate in the 9th century CE, today Abbasid Samarra is a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the ancient Neo-Assyrian Empire Assyrian city of Assur is located in Al-Shirqat District on the banks of the Tigris River. Other sites in the governorate include the Al - ` Ashaq Palace.

In January 2014, there were plans to make Tuz Khurmatu, a district of Saladin Governorate, into a new governorate. However, these plans were announced by Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki and were not followed up by his successor, Haider al-Abadi, who replaced Maliki in August 2014. In October 2011, the government in Saladin governorate declared itself a semi-autonomous region within Iraq; the government explained that the declaration was in response to the central government's "domination over the provincial council authorities". Saladin, a Sunni governorate, is hoping that by declaring themselves an autonomous region within Iraq, it will entail them to a larger portion of government funding; the council cited "article 119 of Iraq's constitution" in its call for autonomy, which states that "one or more governorates shall have the right to organize into a region" if one third of the Provincial Council members or one tenth of the voters request to form a region". Governor: Raed al-Jabouri Deputy Governor: Ammar Hikmat Provincial Council Chairman: Ahmed Abdel-Jabbar al-Karim Al-Daur District Al-Shirqat District Baiji District Balad District Samarra District Tikrit District Tooz District Dujail District Tikrit Baiji Balad Samarra Dujail Al-Dour Yathrib Al-Shirqat Sulaiman Bek Yankjah Tuz Khurmatu Al Ishaqi Amirli Al Seniyah Al Dhuluiya Sa'ad Al-Faris Al-Hajaj The following table shows the populations of the districts of Saladin Governorate, according to the United Nations in 2003.

No data is available for Dujail District. Tigris River Article and video on civilians massacre on BBC News. "3 U. S. soldiers charged with killing of Iraqis" on CNN