Jersey City, New Jersey
Jersey City is the second most populous city in the U. S. state of New Jersey, after Newark. It is the seat of Hudson County as well as the county's largest city; as of 2017, the Census Bureau's Population Estimates Program calculated that Jersey City's population was 270,753, with the largest population increase of any municipality in New Jersey since 2010, an increase of about 9.4% from the 2010 United States Census, when the city's population was at 247,597. Ranking the city the 75th-most-populous in the nation. Part of the New York metropolitan area, Jersey City is bounded on the east by the Hudson River and Upper New York Bay and on the west by the Hackensack River and Newark Bay. A port of entry, with 30.7 miles of waterfront and extensive rail infrastructure and connectivity, the city is an important transportation terminus and distribution and manufacturing center for the Port of New York and New Jersey. Jersey City shares significant mass transit connections with Manhattan. Redevelopment of the Jersey City waterfront has made the city one of the largest centers of banking and finance in the United States and has led to the district being nicknamed Wall Street West.
After a peak population of 316,715 measured in the 1930 Census, the city's population saw a half-century-long decline to a nadir of 223,532 in the 1980 Census. Since the city's population has rebounded, with the 2010 population reflecting an increase of 7,542 from the 240,055 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 11,518 from the 228,537 counted in the 1990 Census; the land comprising what is now Jersey City was inhabited by a collection of tribes. In 1609, Henry Hudson, seeking an alternate route to East Asia, anchored his small vessel Halve Maen at Sandy Hook, Harsimus Cove and Weehawken Cove, elsewhere along what was named the North River. After spending nine days surveying the area and meeting its inhabitants, he sailed as far north as Albany. By 1621, the Dutch West India Company was organized to manage this new territory and in June 1623, New Netherland became a Dutch province, with headquarters in New Amsterdam. Michael Reyniersz Pauw received a land grant as patroon on the condition that he would establish a settlement of not fewer than fifty persons within four years.
He purchased the land from the Lenape. This grant is dated November 22, 1630 and is the earliest known conveyance for what are now Hoboken and Jersey City. Pauw, was an absentee landlord who neglected to populate the area and was obliged to sell his holdings back to the Company in 1633; that year, a house was built at Communipaw for Jan Evertsen Bout, superintendent of the colony, named Pavonia. Shortly after, another house was built at Harsimus Cove and became the home of Cornelius Van Vorst, who had succeeded Bout as superintendent, whose family would become influential in the development of the city. Relations with the Lenape deteriorated, in part because of the colonialist's mismanagement and misunderstanding of the indigenous people, led to series of raids and reprisals and the virtual destruction of the settlement on the west bank. During Kieft's War eighty Lenapes were killed by the Dutch in a massacre at Pavonia on the night of February 25, 1643. Scattered communities of farmsteads characterized the Dutch settlements at Pavonia: Communipaw, Paulus Hook, Hoebuck and other lands "behind Kill van Kull".
The first village established on what is now Bergen Square in 1660, is considered to be the oldest town in what would become the state of New Jersey. The flag of the city is a variation on the Prince's Flag from the Netherlands. Among the oldest surviving houses in Jersey City are the Newkirk House, the Van Vorst Farmhouse, the Van Wagenen House. During the American Revolutionary War, the area was in the hands of the British who controlled New York. In the Battle of Paulus Hook Major Light Horse Harry Lee attacked a British fortification on August 19, 1779. After this war, Alexander Hamilton and other prominent New Yorkers and New Jerseyeans attempted to develop the area that would become historic downtown Jersey City and laid out the city squares and streets that still characterize the neighborhood, giving them names seen in Lower Manhattan or after war heroes. During the 19th century, former slaves reached Jersey City on one of the four routes of the Underground Railroad that led to the city.
The City of Jersey was incorporated by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on January 28, 1820, from portions of Bergen Township, while the area was still a part of Bergen County. The city was reincorporated on January 23, 1829, again on February 22, 1838, at which time it became independent of North Bergen and was given its present name. On February 22, 1840, it became part of the newly created Hudson County. Soon after the Civil War, the idea arose of uniting all of the towns of Hudson County east of the Hackensack River into one municipality. A bill was approved by the state legislature on April 2, 1869, with a special election to be held October 5, 1869. An element of the bill provide. While a majority of the voters across the county approved the merger, the only municipalities that had approved the consolidation plan and that adjoined Jersey City were Hudson City and Bergen City; the consolidation began on March 17, 1870, taking effect on May 3, 1870. Three years the present outline of Jersey City was completed when Greenville agreed to m
Colgate University is a private liberal arts college in Hamilton, New York. Founded in 1819, Colgate enrolls nearly 3,000 students in 56 undergraduate majors that culminate in a Bachelor of Arts degree. In 1817, the Baptist Education Society of the State of New York was founded by thirteen men. Two years in 1819, the state granted the school's charter, the school opened a year in 1820; the first classes were held in a building in the town of Hamilton. Three years in 1823, the Baptist Theological Seminary at New York City incorporated with the Baptist Education Society and subsequently changed its name to the Hamilton Literary & Theological Institution. Among the trustees was William Colgate, founder of the Colgate Company. In 1826, the school's trustees bought farmland that became the focal point of the campus, known as'The Hill'. One year the current students and faculty of the school built West Hall, by using stone taken from a quarry found on the land. Called West Edifice before being renamed to West Hall, it is the oldest structure on campus.
On March 26, 1846, the State of New York granted a college charter to Hamilton's Collegiate Department. C. a fellow Baptist institution. In 1846, the school changed its name to Madison University. In 1850, the Baptist Education Society planned to move the university to Rochester, but was halted by legal action. Dissenting trustees and students founded the University of Rochester. In 1890, Madison University changed its name to Colgate University in recognition of the family and its gifts to the school. James B. Colgate, one of William Colgate's sons, established a $1,000,000 endowment called the Dodge Memorial Fund. In 1912 Colgate Academy, a preparatory school and high school that had operated in Hamilton since the early 1800s, was closed and its facility became Colgate University's administration building; the theological side of Colgate merged with the Rochester Theological Seminary in 1928 to become the Colgate Rochester Divinity School, leaving Colgate to become non-denominational. During World War II, Colgate University was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission.
Colgate became coeducational in 1970. The National Monument at Ellis Island displays a statement by Colgate's eighth President, George Barton Cutten, criticized for its jingoistic anti-immigration sentiment, he warns, "The danger the'melting pot' brings to the nation is the breeding out of the higher divisions of the white race."While Cutten's legacy has been substantively marred by the espousal of what many consider to be racist vitriol, the contributions he made to developing the prestige and facilities of Colgate were significant. Because of this ambiguity, the controversy around Cutten became emblematic of the division surrounding how modern American universities should broker their own history with racism, foreshadowing future controversies in the mid-2010s at universities such as Yale University and Harvard University. Colgate removed the Cutten name from a residential complex located between Whitnall Field and Huntington Gym in 2017; each of the four houses that compose the building — Brigham, Shepardson and Whitnall — is now known by its existing name and street address, 113 Broad Street.
Colgate University is located in the rural village of Hamilton Village, New York. The campus itself is situated on 575 acres of land; the university owns an additional 1,100 acres of undeveloped forested lands. Colgate's first building, West Hall, was built by students and faculty from stones from Colgate's own rock quarry. Nearly all the buildings on campus are built of stone, newer buildings are built with materials that fit the style; the most distinctive building on campus is the Chapel, built in 1918 and is used for lectures, performances and religious services. Old Biology Hall was built in 1884 and added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1973. Most of the campus's heat is generated from a wood boiler which burns wood chips, a renewable resource. Since the heating facility is fueled by biomass, it produces zero net carbon emissions. All of Colgate's electricity comes from a hydroelectric dam at Niagara Falls; the campus has a Green Bikes program with over two dozen bikes that are loaned out in an effort to encourage students to rely less on cars.
Colgate Dining Services provides organic rice and other dry foods, is working to offer more local foods options. Dining Services take-out containers are made from natural materials, are compostable. "On August 13, Colgate received a perfect sustainability score from the Princeton Review. As a result, it was recognized as one of only 24 schools to make their Green Honor Roll. Colgate founded the Upstate Institute in 2003; the Institute was created to connect the Colgate community to its surrounding region, as well as to give back and help economically and sustain the area. They do research on counties in the area, as well as support outreach and volunteer organizations. Colgate was an initial sponsor of Partnership for Community Development, a local nonprofit organization which seeks to support the community through revitalization of buildings and small business development; the Lo
The Carolina Panthers are a professional American football team based in Charlotte, North Carolina. The Panthers compete in the National Football League, as a member club of the league's National Football Conference South division; the team is headquartered in Bank of America Stadium in uptown Charlotte. They are one of the few NFL teams to own the stadium they play in, registered as Panthers Stadium, LLC; the Panthers are supported throughout the Carolinas. The team hosts its annual training camp at Wofford College in South Carolina; the head coach is Ron Rivera. The Panthers were announced as the league's 29th franchise in 1993, began play in 1995 under original owner and founder Jerry Richardson; the Panthers played well in their first two years, finishing 7–9 in 1995 and 12–4 the following year, winning the NFC West before losing to the eventual Super Bowl champion Green Bay Packers in the NFC Championship Game. They did not have another winning season until 2003, when they won the NFC Championship Game and reached Super Bowl XXXVIII, losing 32–29 to the New England Patriots.
After recording playoff appearances in 2005 and 2008, the team failed to record another playoff appearance until 2013, the first of three consecutive NFC South titles. After losing in the divisional round to the San Francisco 49ers in 2013 and the Seattle Seahawks in 2014, the Panthers returned to the Super Bowl in 2015, but lost to the Denver Broncos; the Panthers have reached the playoffs seven times, advancing to four NFC Championship Games and two Super Bowls. They have won one in the NFC West and five in the NFC South; the Carolina Panthers are registered as Panther Football, LLC. and are controlled by David Tepper, whose purchase of the team from founder Jerry Richardson was unanimously approved by league owners on May 22, 2018. The club is worth US$2.3 billion, according to Forbes. On December 15, 1987, entrepreneur Jerry Richardson announced his bid for an NFL expansion franchise in the Carolinas. A North Carolina native, Richardson was a former wide receiver on the Baltimore Colts who had used his 1959 league championship bonus to co-found the Hardee's restaurant chain becoming president and CEO of TW Services.
Richardson drew his inspiration to pursue an NFL franchise from George Shinn, who had made a successful bid for an expansion National Basketball Association team in Charlotte, the Charlotte Hornets. Richardson founded Richardson Sports, a partnership consisting of himself, his family, a number of businessmen from North and South Carolina were recruited to be limited partners. Richardson looked at four potential locations for a stadium choosing uptown Charlotte. To highlight the demand for professional football in the Carolinas, Richardson Sports held preseason games around the area from 1989 to 1991; the first two games were held at Carter–Finley Stadium in Raleigh, North Carolina, Kenan Memorial Stadium in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, while the third and final game was held at Williams-Brice Stadium in Columbia, South Carolina. The matchups were between existing NFL teams. In 1991, the group formally filed an application for the open expansion spot, on October 26, 1993, the 28 NFL owners unanimously named the Carolina Panthers as the 29th member of the NFL.
The Panthers first competed in the 1995 NFL season. The Panthers were put in the NFC West to increase the size of that division to five teams. Former Pittsburgh Steelers defensive coordinator Dom Capers was named the first head coach; the team finished its inaugural season 7–9, the best performance from a first-year expansion team. They performed better in their second season, finishing with a 12–4 record and winning the NFC West division, as well as securing a first-round bye; the Panthers beat the defending Super Bowl champions Dallas Cowboys in the divisional round before losing the NFC Championship Game to the eventual Super Bowl champions, the Green Bay Packers. The team managed only a 7–9 finish in 1997 and slipped to 4–12 in 1998, leading to Capers' dismissal as head coach; the Panthers hired former San Francisco 49ers head coach George Seifert to replace Capers, he led the team to an 8–8 record in 1999. The team finished 7–9 in 2000 and fell to 1–15 in 2001, winning their first game but losing their last 15.
This performance tied the NFL record for most losses in a single season and it broke the record held by the winless 1976 Buccaneers for most consecutive losses in a single season, leading the Panthers to fire Seifert. After the NFL's expansion to 32 teams in 2002, the Panthers were relocated from the NFC West to the newly created NFC South division; the Panthers' rivalries with the Falcons and Saints were maintained, they would be joined by the Tampa Bay Buccaneers. New York Giants defensive coordinator John Fox was hired to replace Seifert and led the team to a 7–9 finish in 2002. Although the team's defense gave up few yards, ranking the second-best in the NFL in yards conceded, they were hindered by an offense that ranked as the second-worst in the league in yards gained; the Panthers improved to 11–5 in the 2003 regular season, winning the NFC South and making it to Super Bowl XXXVIII before losing to the New England Patriots, 32–29, in what was immedia
2024 Summer Olympics
The 2024 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XXXIII Olympiad, known as Paris 2024, is a forthcoming international multi-sport event, scheduled to take place from 26 July to 11 August 2024 in Paris, France. Having hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics, Paris will become the second city to host the Olympic Games three times, along with London; the 2024 Games mark the centennial of the 1924 Games. This will be the sixth overall Olympic Games held in France. Bidding to host these Games began in 2015 with five candidate cities in contention, but Hamburg and Budapest withdrew, leaving Paris and Los Angeles as the two candidates remaining. A proposal to elect the 2024 and 2028 Olympic host cities at the same time was approved by an Extraordinary IOC Session on 11 July 2017 in Lausanne. On 31 July 2017, the IOC made a deal with Los Angeles to host the 2028 Summer Olympics, making Paris the host of the 2024 Summer Olympics; the formal announcement of the hosts for both Olympiads took place at the 131st IOC Session in Lima, Peru, on 13 September 2017.
Paris, Budapest and Los Angeles were the five candidate cities. However, the process was hit by withdrawals, with political uncertainty and cost cited as deterring bidding cities. Hamburg withdrew its bid on 29 November 2015 after holding a referendum. Rome withdrew its bid on 21 September 2016 citing fiscal difficulties. On 22 February 2017, Budapest withdrew its bid after a petition against the bid collected more signatures than necessary for a referendum. Following these withdrawals, the IOC Executive Board met in Lausanne, Switzerland to discuss the 2024 and 2028 bid processes on 9 June 2017; the International Olympic Committee formally proposed electing the 2024 and 2028 Olympic host cities at the same time in 2017, a proposal, approved by an Extraordinary IOC Session on 11 July 2017 in Lausanne. The IOC set up a process whereby the LA 2024 and Paris 2024 bid committees would meet with the IOC to discuss who would host the 2024 Games, who would host the 2028 Games, whether it were possible to select the host city for both at the same time.
Following the decision to award the 2024 and 2028 Games Paris was understood to be the preferred host for the 2024 Games. On 31 July 2017, the IOC announced Los Angeles as the sole candidate for the 2028 Games, opening Paris up to be confirmed as hosts for the 2024 Games. Both decisions were ratified at the 131st IOC Session on 13 September 2017. Paris was elected as the host city on September 2017 at the 131st IOC Session in Lima, Peru; the two French IOC members, Guy Drut and Tony Estanguet were ineligible to vote in this host city election under the rules of the Olympic Charter. In 2007, the IOC established the concept of Olympics including 28 sports: 25 permanent'core' sports with 3 additional sports selected for each individual Games. On 8 September 2013, IOC added wrestling to the Olympic programme for the 2020 and 2024 Games, representing one of these additional sports. FILA changed freestyle and Greco-Roman wrestling weight classes for men and decreased to 6 categories in order to add more weights for women.
However, in August 2016, the IOC added five sports to the 2020 Olympics, with plans to separately evaluate the existing 28 sports. No indication was given how this would affect the number of sports in 2024. In August 2017, it was reported that the Paris organizers held discussions with the IOC and various professional eSport organizations to study the possibility of introducing eSports as a medal-winning sport during the Olympics. On February 21, 2019, the Paris Organizing Committee announced they would propose breakdancing for inclusion in the program to the IOC, along with three of the sports that will debut at the 2020 Games: surfing and skateboarding. During the Lima Session, the IOC approved the Rio 2016 sports program for Paris 2024. New sports will be chosen during the 134th IOC Session in 2019 in Lausanne, subject to final approval by the IOC Executive Board in December 2020; the 2024 Summer Olympic programme is scheduled to feature 28 sports encompassing 319 events, though this is to change depending on success of the five additional sports added to the Tokyo Olympics.
This means there could be up to 33 sports, any new sports which are added to the Olympic programme. The number of events in each discipline is noted in parentheses. Most of the Olympic events will be held in and around Paris, including the suburbs of Saint-Denis, Le Bourget, Nanterre and Vaires-sur-Marne, just outside the city environs; the sailing and surfing events will be held in the remote coastal resorts of Marseille and Biarritz respectively. Football will be hosted in various cities around France. Notes Parc des Princes, 61,338, Paris Stade Vélodrome, 67,394, Parc Olympique Lyonnais, 59,186, Stade Pierre-Mauroy, 50,157, Stade Matmut Atlantique, 42,115, Stade Geoffroy-Guichard, 41,965, Saint-Étienne, YellowPark, 40,000, Allianz Riviera, 35,624, Stadium Municipal, 33,150, France A call for tenders was launched in October 2018 to create the new Visual identity of Paris 2024, including the logo, the derivative brands, the Olympic torch relay, the g
Northeastern University is a private research university in Boston, established in 1898. It is categorized as an R1 institution by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education; the university offers undergraduate and graduate programs on its main campus in the Fenway-Kenmore, South End, Back Bay neighborhoods of Boston. The university has satellite campuses in Charlotte, North Carolina. Northeastern purchased the New College of the Humanities in London and plans to open an additional campus in Vancouver, Canada; the university's enrollment is 18,000 undergraduate students and 8,000 graduate students. Northeastern features a cooperative education program, more known as "co-op", that integrates classroom study with professional experience and contains over 3,100 partners across all seven continents; the program has been a key part of Northeastern's curriculum of experiential learning for more than a hundred years and is one of the largest co-op/internship programs in the world.
While it is not required for students of all academic disciplines to participate in the co-op program, participation is nearly universal among undergraduate students as it helps distinguish their university experience from that of other universities. Northeastern is ranked 1st on the "Best Schools for Internships" list by the Princeton Review and has ranked in the top five for over a decade. Northeastern has a comprehensive study abroad program that spans more than 170 universities and colleges. Northeastern is a large residential university. Most students choose to live on campus but upperclassmen have the option to live off campus. More than 75% of Northeastern students receive some form of financial aid. In the 2017–18 school year, the university offered $266.58 million in grant and scholarship assistance. The university's sports teams, the Northeastern Huskies, compete in NCAA Division I as members of the Colonial Athletic Association in 18 varsity sports; the men's and women's hockey teams compete in Hockey East, while the men's and women's rowing teams compete in the Eastern Association of Rowing Colleges and Eastern Association of Women's Rowing Colleges, respectively.
Men's Track and Field has won the CAA back to back years in 2015 and 2016. In 2013, men's basketball won its first CAA regular season championship, men's soccer won the CAA title for the first time, women's ice hockey won a record 16th Beanpot championship; the Northeastern men's hockey team won the 2018 and 2019 Beanpot beating out Boston University, Boston College, Harvard. The Evening Institute for Younger Men, located at the Huntington Avenue YMCA, held its first class on October 3, 1898, starting what would transform into Northeastern University over the course of four decades; the School of Law was formally established that year with the assistance of an Advisory Committee, consisting of Dean James Barr Ames of the Harvard University School of Law, Dean Samuel Bennett of the Boston University School of Law, Judge James R. Dunbar. In 1903, the first Automobile Engineering School in the country was established followed by the School of Commerce and Finance in 1907. Day classes began in 1909.
In 1916, a bill was introduced into the Massachusetts Legislature to incorporate the institute as Northeastern College. After considerable debate and investigation, it was passed in March 1916. On March 30, 1917, Frank Palmer Speare was inaugurated as the new College's first President. Five years the school changed its name to Northeastern University to better reflect the increasing depth of its instruction. In March 1923, the University secured general degree-granting power from the Legislature, with the exception of the A. B. the S. B. and the medical degrees. The College of Liberal Arts was added in 1935. Two years the Northeastern University Corporation was established, with a board of trustees composed of 31 University members and 8 from the YMCA. In 1948 Northeastern separated itself from the YMCA. Following World War II Northeastern began admitting women. During the postwar educational boom, the University created the College of Education, University College, the Colleges of Pharmacy and Nursing.
The College of Criminal Justice followed the College of Computer Science. By the early 1980s the one-time night commuter school had grown to nearly 50,000 enrollees including all full- and part-time programs at both the undergraduate and graduate level. By 1989–1990 University enrollment had reduced to about 40,000 full, part-time, evening students, in 1990 the first class with more live-on-campus than commuter students was graduated. Following the retirement of President Kenneth Ryder 1989, the University adopted a slow and more thoughtful approach to change, it had been accepting between 7,500 and 10,000 students per year based on applications of about 15,000 to 20,000 with acceptance rates between 50% and 75% depending on the program. Attrition rates were huge, with a 25% freshmen dropout rate and graduation rate below 50%, with only 40% of 5,672 undergraduate full-time day students enrolled in the Fall of 1984 graduating by 1989; when President John Curry left office in 1996 the university population had been systematically reduced to about 25,000.
Incoming President Richard Freeland decided to focus on recruiting the type of students who were graduating as the school's prime demographic. I
The Baltimore Ravens are a professional American football team based in Baltimore, Maryland. The Ravens compete in the National Football League as a member club of the American Football Conference North division; the team is headquartered in Owings Mills. The Ravens were established in 1996, after Art Modell, the owner of the Cleveland Browns, announced plans to relocate the franchise from Cleveland to Baltimore in 1995; as part of a settlement between the league and the city of Cleveland, Modell was required to leave the Browns' history and records in Cleveland for a replacement team and replacement personnel that would take control in 1999. In return, he was allowed to take his own personnel and team to Baltimore, where such personnel would form an expansion team; the Ravens have qualified for the NFL playoffs eleven times since 2000, with two Super Bowl victories, two AFC Championship titles, 15 playoff victories, four AFC Championship game appearances, five AFC North division titles, are the only team in the NFL to hold a perfect record in multiple Super Bowl appearances.
The Ravens organization was led by general manager Ozzie Newsome from 1996 until his retirement following the 2018 season, has had three head coaches: Ted Marchibroda, Brian Billick, John Harbaugh. With a record-breaking defensive unit in their 2000 season, the team established a reputation for relying on strong defensive play, led by players like middle linebacker Ray Lewis, until his retirement, was considered the "face of the franchise." The team is owned by Steve Bisciotti and valued at $2.5 billion, making the Ravens the 27th-most valuable sports franchise in the world. The name "Ravens" was inspired by Edgar Allan Poe's poem The Raven. Chosen in a fan contest that drew 33,288 voters, the allusion honors Poe, who spent the early part of his career in Baltimore and is buried there; as the Baltimore Sun reported at the time, fans "liked the tie-in with the other birds in town, the Orioles, found it easy to visualize a tough, menacing black bird." After the controversial relocation of the Colts to Indianapolis, several attempts were made to bring an NFL team back to Baltimore.
In 1993, ahead of the 1995 league expansion, the city was considered a favorite, behind only St. Louis, to be granted one of two new franchises. League officials and team owners feared litigation due to conflicts between rival bidding groups if St. Louis was awarded a franchise, in October Charlotte, North Carolina was the first city chosen. Several weeks Baltimore's bid for a franchise—dubbed the Baltimore Bombers, in honor of the locally produced Martin B-26 Marauder bomber—had three ownership groups in place and a state financial package which included a proposed $200 million, rent-free stadium and permission to charge up to $80 million in personal seat license fees. Baltimore, was unexpectedly passed over in favor of Jacksonville, despite Jacksonville's minor TV market status and that the city had withdrawn from contention in the summer, only to return with then-Commissioner Paul Tagliabue's urging. Although league officials denied that any city had been favored, it was reported that Taglibue and his longtime friend Washington Redskins owner Jack Kent Cooke had lobbied against Baltimore due to its proximity to Washington, D.
C. and that Taglibue had used the initial committee voting system to prevent the entire league ownership from voting on Baltimore's bid. This led to public outrage and the Baltimore Sun describing Taglibue as having an "Anybody But Baltimore" policy. Maryland governor William Donald Schaefer said afterward that Taglibue had led him on, praising Baltimore and the proposed owners while working behind-the-scenes to oppose Baltimore's bid. By May 1994, Baltimore Orioles owner Peter Angelos had gathered a new group of investors, including author Tom Clancy, to bid on teams whose owners had expressed interest in relocating. Angelos found a potential partner in Georgia Frontiere, open to moving the Los Angeles Rams to Baltimore. Jack Kent Cooke opposed the move, intending to build the Redskins' new stadium in Laurel, close enough to Baltimore to cool outside interest in bringing in a new franchise; this led to heated arguments between Cooke and Angelos, who accused Cooke of being a "carpetbagger." The league persuaded Rams team president John Shaw to relocate to St. Louis instead, leading to a league-wide rumor that Tagliabue was again steering interest away from Baltimore, a claim which Tagliabue denied.
In response to anger in Baltimore, including Governor Schaefer's threat to announce over the loudspeakers Tagliabue's exact location in Camden Yards any time he attended a Baltimore Orioles game, Tagliabue remarked of Baltimore's financial package: "Maybe can open another museum with that money." Following this, Angelos made an unsuccessful $200 million bid to bring the Tampa Bay Buccaneers to Baltimore. Having failed to obtain a franchise via the expansion, the city, despite having "misgivings," turned to the possibility of obtaining the Cleveland Browns, whose owner Art Modell was financially struggling and at odds with the city of Cleveland over needed improvements to the team's stadium. Enticed by Baltimore's available funds for a first-class stadium and a promised yearly operating subsidy of $25 million, Modell announced on November 6, 1995 his intention to relocate the team from Cleveland to Baltimore the following year; the resulting controversy ended when representatives of Cleveland and the NFL reached a settlement on February 8, 1996.
Tagliabue promised the city of Cleveland that an NFL team would be located
September 11 attacks
The September 11 attacks were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. The attacks killed 2,996 people, injured over 6,000 others, caused at least $10 billion in infrastructure and property damage. Additional people died of 9/11-related cancer and respiratory diseases in the months and years following the attacks. Four passenger airliners operated by two major U. S. passenger air carriers —all of which departed from airports in the northeastern United States bound for California—were hijacked by 19 al-Qaeda terrorists. Two of the planes, American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175, were crashed into the North and South towers of the World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan. Within an hour and 42 minutes, both 110-story towers collapsed. Debris and the resulting fires caused a partial or complete collapse of all other buildings in the World Trade Center complex, including the 47-story 7 World Trade Center tower, as well as significant damage to ten other large surrounding structures.
A third plane, American Airlines Flight 77, was crashed into the Pentagon in Arlington County, which led to a partial collapse of the building's west side. The fourth plane, United Airlines Flight 93, was flown toward Washington, D. C. but crashed into a field in Stonycreek Township near Shanksville, after its passengers thwarted the hijackers. 9/11 is the single deadliest terrorist attack in human history and the single deadliest incident for firefighters and law enforcement officers in the history of the United States, with 343 and 72 killed, respectively. Suspicion fell on al-Qaeda; the United States responded by launching the War on Terror and invaded Afghanistan to depose the Taliban, which had failed to comply with U. S. demands to extradite Osama bin expel al-Qaeda from Afghanistan. Many countries strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation and expanded the powers of law enforcement and intelligence agencies to prevent terrorist attacks. Although Osama bin Laden, al-Qaeda's leader denied any involvement, in 2004 he claimed responsibility for the attacks.
Al-Qaeda and bin Laden cited U. S. support of Israel, the presence of U. S. troops in Saudi Arabia, sanctions against Iraq as motives. After evading capture for a decade, bin Laden was located in Pakistan and killed by SEAL Team Six of the U. S. Navy in May 2011; the destruction of the World Trade Center and nearby infrastructure harmed the economy of Lower Manhattan and had a significant effect on global markets, which resulted in the closing of Wall Street until September 17 and the civilian airspace in the U. S. and Canada until September 13. Many closings and cancellations followed, out of respect or fear of further attacks. Cleanup of the World Trade Center site was completed in May 2002, the Pentagon was repaired within a year. On November 18, 2006, construction of One World Trade Center began at the World Trade Center site; the building was opened on November 3, 2014. Numerous memorials have been constructed, including the National September 11 Memorial & Museum in New York City, the Pentagon Memorial in Arlington County and the Flight 93 National Memorial in a field in Stonycreek Township near Shanksville, Pennsylvania.
Although not confirmed, there is evidence of alleged Saudi Arabian involvement in the attacks. Given as main evidence in these charges are the contents of the 28 redacted pages of the December 2002 Joint Inquiry into Intelligence Community Activities before and after the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001 conducted by the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence; these 28 pages contain information regarding the material and financial assistance given to the hijackers and their affiliates leading up to the attacks by the Saudi Arabian government. The origins of al-Qaeda can be traced to 1979. Osama bin Laden helped organize Arab mujahideen to resist the Soviets. Under the guidance of Ayman al-Zawahiri, bin Laden became more radical. In 1996, bin Laden issued his first fatwā. In a second fatwā in 1998, bin Laden outlined his objections to American foreign policy with respect to Israel, as well as the continued presence of American troops in Saudi Arabia after the Gulf War.
Bin Laden used Islamic texts to exhort Muslims to attack Americans until the stated grievances are reversed. Muslim legal scholars "have throughout Islamic history unanimously agreed that the jihad is an individual duty if the enemy destroys the Muslim countries", according to bin Laden. Bin Laden orchestrated the attacks and denied involvement but recanted his false statements. Al Jazeera broadcast a statement by bin Laden on September 16, 2001, stating, "I stress that I have not carried out this act, which appears to have been carried out by individuals with their own motivation." In November 2001, U. S. forces recovered a videotape from a destroyed house in Afghanistan. In the video, bin Laden admits foreknowledge of the attacks. On December 27, 2001, a second bin Laden video was released. In the video, he said: It has become clear that the West in general and America in particular have an unspeakable hatred for Islam.... It is the hatred of crusaders. Terrorism against America deserves to be praised because it was a response to injustice, aimed at forcing America to stop its support for Israel, which kills our people....