Paul Terrell is an American businessman. In December 1975 he founded one of the first personal computer retailers, he helped popularize personal computing to the hobbyist and home computing markets, was the first retailer to sell an Apple Computer—the Apple I. He was portrayed by Brad William Henke in the biopic Jobs. Paul Terrell started the Byte Shop in Mountain View, California in December 1975. By January, he was approached by individuals, he signed dealership agreements with them, whereby he would take a percentage of their profits, soon there were Byte Shops in Santa Clara, San Jose, Palo Alto and Portland, Oregon. In March 1976, Terrell incorporated as Byte, Inc. and was one of the four big computer retailers, along with Dick Heisers, Peachtree in Atlanta, Dick Brown. The Byte Shop was the first retailer of the original Apple I computer. At the time Steve Jobs was planning to sell bare circuit boards for $40, but Terrell told him that he would be interested in the machine only if it came assembled, promised to order 50 of the machines and pay $500.00 each on delivery.
Jobs contacted Cramer Electronics to order the components he needed to assemble the Apple I Computer. When asked how he was going to pay for the parts and he replied, "I have this purchase order from the Byte Shop chain of computer stores for 50 of my computers and the payment terms are COD. If you give me the parts on a net 30 day terms I can build and deliver the computers in that time frame, collect my money from Terrell at the Byte Shop and pay you." The credit manager verified the validity of the purchase order. Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak and their small crew spent day and night building and testing the computers and delivered to Terrell on time to pay his suppliers and have a profit left over for their celebration and next order. Terrell grew the enterprise from the first company-owned store in Mt. View, California into a chain of dealerships and into a franchise operation that reached from the United States to Japan. Byte, Inc. was not only involved in the expansion of its retail chain of stores but began a manufacturing operation to build its own proprietary BYT-8 Computer, provided only to the Byte Shop stores.
This gave both Byte Inc. and its Byte Shops a better profit margin than could be achieved by just distributing the computers of the other computer manufacturers at the time. In 1977, Terrell sold his chain of 58 Byte Shops to John Peers of Logical Machine Corporation. Many of the original Byte Shop dealers became independent as the personal computer marketplace grew and became segmented by the various uses and applications the PC was developing. Hobby computer stores were becoming business centers and IBM was entering the market with a computer of its own which over time would become the standard in the industry. Byte Shops of Arizona became MicroAge Computers and developed into a major national distributor as well as having its own chain of stores. Byte Shop Northwest dominated its geographical area and was acquired by Pacific Bell in 1985 when they elected to get into computer stores. After selling the Byte Store chain, Terrell convinced his friends Ivy and Kauffman of coin-operated video game company Exidy, Inc to design and build the Exidy Sorcerer to compete with the Apple II, Commodore Pet and Tandy TRS-80 computers in the marketplace.
The Sorcerer was a modified S-100 bus based machine, but lacked the internal expansion system common to other S-100 systems. It made; the Sorcerer featured an advanced text display, capable of 64 characters per line, when most systems supported only 40 characters. The Sorcerer did not support sound, color, or in some respects, which seems at odds with the company's video game background; the Sorcerer made its debut at the Long Beach Computer Show in April 1978 at $895 and generated a 4,000 unit back-log on introduction. The system was never popular in North America, but found a following in Australia and Europe, notably Belgium. Exidy licensed the Sorcerer computer and its software to a Texas-based startup called Dynasty Computer Corporation in 1979, it was sold by Dynasty as the Dynasty Smart-Alec. Paul Terrell started ComputerMania Inc., a chain of computer stores created with the purpose of renting computers and software. Computer Retailer Magazine did a feature article on the viability of renting computers and software to the public prior to the passing of legislation in Congress which outlawed the rental of software because of software piracy issues.
Hardware rental, was unaffected by this decision and continued to flourish into a multibillion-dollar industry. General"The Man Who Jump-Started Apple", posted by Harry McCracken, August 23, 2007 PC World magazine; the Freeman PC Museum The Apple 1 computer blog by John Calande
Nazi board games were an element of Adolf Hitler’s propaganda campaign within Nazi Germany. Hitler’s Propaganda Minister, Joseph Goebbels, understood that "To be perceived, propaganda must evoke the interest of an audience and must be transmitted through an attention-getting communications medium". Board games and toys for children served as a way to spread racial and political propaganda to German youth. Juden Raus! is a Cross and Circle-style game published in Germany by Günther & Co. in 1936. The game was advertised as "entertaining and solidly constructed"; the game's equipment includes a pair of dice, a game board, several game piece figurines with large pointed hats meant to represent Jews. Players take turns rolling the dice and moving their "Jews" across the map toward "collection points" outside the city walls for deportation to Mandatory Palestine. Written on the game board, it says "If you manage to see off 6 Jews, you’ve won a clear victory!"Juden Raus is a commercial boardgame rather than a Nazi propaganda effort, contains no Nazi symbolism.
The game was criticised by the SS journal Das Schwarze Korps, which believed the game trivialised anti-Semitic policies. Ben Barkow of the Holocaust museum at the Wiener Library recounts it being documented as a "considerable commercial success", with a million copies of it being sold. However, an article in the International Society for Board Game Studies Journal suggests that the game's commercial performance may never be known because it may have been exaggerated in advertising material; the article considers it unlikely that the game could have been successful in Germany after having been condemned by the SS. The article published by the International Society for Board Game Studies calls it "istory's most infamous board game"; the review says, "Juden Raus! shows that after decades of propaganda, anti-Semitism was so rooted in German society in the 1930s, that someone thought it would be a good subject for a children’s game. Racism is present in many board games, but Juden Raus! is unique in its portrayal of how racism manifests itself in society and is a terrifying example of the banality of evil....
There are many areas of the world where such a game might still find a receptive audience.... Juden Raus! is a warning to us all". Bomber über England is a bagatelle style game featuring a map of England and part of Northern Europe; the map contains holes in the location of key cities such as London, Liverpool and Plymouth as well as various points representing targets in the North Sea. Players shoot spring-driven balls representing "bombs" at these targets and are awarded various points for hitting the enemy targets. "Players were awarded a maximum 100 points for landing on London, while Liverpool was worth 40". If players bomb locations under the control of Nazi Germany such as Brussels and Amsterdam, they lose points. Jagd auf Kohlenklau is a roll-and-move board game, produced by Lepthian-Schiffers in Nazi Germany during the latter years of World War II; the game was part a Nazi propaganda campaign, launched on June 23, 1942, under the slogan "Kampf dem Kohlenklau" or "fight the coal thief".
This campaign sought to promote energy conservation as a means to save the country's dwindling resources for the war effort. The visual representation of the Kohlenklau, or "coal thief," became an iconic image of Nazi Germany and was featured in newspapers, magazines and films. Four million copies of Jagd auf Kohlenklau were produced and distributed among the households with the most children; the game board consists of 50 spaces, red and white. The players advance their game piece that many spaces; when the player lands on a space, they read aloud a corresponding text passage from the board. Red spaces represent energy wasting actions that penalise players, e.g. "..leaves the radio on when nobody is listening. The coal thief likes that!". Black spaces feature actions that reward the players. White spaces have no effect. Players take turns until one reaches the end and is declared the winner; the winner discovers who the "coal thief" was and evicts them from the house. Yad Vashem International Holocaust Memorial has photos of the "Juden Raus" game
The Ghislieri College, founded in 1567 by Pope Pius V, is the second most ancient college in Pavia and co-founder of the IUSS, located in Pavia as well. Collegio Ghislieri is a 450-year-old Italian institution committed to promote University studies on the basis of merit, hosting around 200 pupils who attend all faculties in the University of Pavia, offering them logistic and cultural opportunities such as scholarships, conferences, a 130,000-volume library, foreign languages courses; each year about 40 new students coming from all over the country are selected by public competition. Founded by Pope Pius V in 1567, secularly managed since the 18th century, the College is now under the High Patronage of the Presidency of the Italian Republic, it is classified among high qualifying institutions by the Italian Ministry for Education and University. Student expenses are subsidized by the College as the required fees are proportional to parental income. Among its distinguished alumni are Carlo Goldoni and several Italian statesmen and scholars of the last two centuries
American Horror Story: Asylum is the second season of the FX horror anthology series American Horror Story. The season's theme is sanity and the relationship between science and religion, follows the antics that occur at Briarcliff, a Catholic-based asylum for the criminally insane in 1964 northern Massachusetts. Wrongfully imprisoned inmates, including alleged Kit Walker, alleged nymphomaniac Shelley, lesbian journalist Lana Winters, all scheme to escape while trying to make sense of mysterious extraterrestrial life, and a sadistic staff schemes to dethrone Sister Jude Martin. But things are not how they seem when psychologist's dark secrets are uncovered; the main cast includes veteran actors of the series Sarah Paulson, Jessica Lange, Evan Peters, Zachary Quinto, Lily Rabe, with Lizzie Brocheré, James Cromwell, Joseph Fiennes making their debut. Special guest stars include Chloë Sevigny. Other returning cast members who made brief appearances include Dylan McDermott. Zachary Quinto as Dr. Oliver Thredson Joseph Fiennes as Monsignor Timothy Howard Sarah Paulson as Lana Winters Evan Peters as Kit Walker Lily Rabe as Sister Mary Eunice McKee Lizzie Brocheré as Grace Bertrand James Cromwell as Dr. Arthur Arden Jessica Lange as Sister Jude Martin Dr. Oliver Thredson is a psychiatrist at Briarcliff whose approach to treatment creates conflict with that of Sister Jude's.
He is first brought in to examine Kit to see if he is mentally fit to stand trial, convinces him to plead guilty in order to avoid the death penalty. Thredson becomes appalled at the dated treatments practiced at the asylum. Sister Jude, having taken a disliking to him, demands him to leave within two weeks after he accidentally implies that he had planted an old newspaper article on the young girl Jude believes she killed, despite the fact that it had been planted by the possessed Mary Eunice. Lana begins to trust Thredson, asks him to deliver a letter to her girlfriend Wendy. Thredson tells her, he decides to help treat Lana's homosexuality through the use of aversion therapy, but abandons the treatment when he concludes that she is sane. Thredson records Kit confessing to the murders though he doesn't believe nor remember that he committed them. After resigning, Thredson sneaks Lana out of the asylum, leading her to believe that he intends to help her reveal the horrors committed there. After the two arrive at his house, Thredson reveals himself to be "Bloody Face", informs Lana that he has killed her girlfriend Wendy.
Thredson tells her that he was abandoned by his mother as a child and yearns for a "replacement", believing that she is "the one". He keeps. After a failed escape lands Lana back at Briarcliff, Thredson reappears to thwart her plans of exposing his true identity, he explains that no one would believe her due to her mental history, that he has destroyed all the evidence that could link him to the murders. Lana wants to kill him, but Kit says they have to wait until they can prove that he is the killer, so that Kit can be cleared, they put him in an abandoned storage space where Lana visits him in "The Coat Hanger". She informs Thredson of her pregnancy, but threatens to abort it if he doesn't admit to killing the three women. After finishing his confession, Thredson discovers. Lana escapes with the tape. Mary Eunice frees Thredson, she offers him a permanent position at the asylum. Thredson reveals that he intends to murder Lana after she has given birth, only keeping her alive until after she has breastfed the baby.
Thredson makes a deal with Kit to help get him out in exchange for the tape. After arriving home, he finds Lana in his house with a gun and she tells him that the police have in fact been given the tape, he seems relieved that his "secret" is out, scoffing Lana by explaining that he'll end up with a life sentence instead of the death penalty as he is certifiably insane. But Lana shoots him in the head. For his performance, Quinto won the Critics' Choice Television Award for Best Supporting Actor in a Movie/Miniseries and was nominated for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie in 2013. Monsignor Timothy Howard is Sister Jude's superior and the object of her affections; the Monsignor and Jude set up the asylum together, he intends to keep her by his side when he achieves his aspirations of becoming a bishop of the diocese. He is aware of Dr. Arden's human experiments. However, he doesn't realize the extent of the experiments until, in the episode "The Origins of Monstrosity", he visits the mutated Shelley in a hospital.
In order to put her out of her misery and preserve the asylum's secrets, he performs a mercy killing, strangling Shelley with his rosary while performing last rites. When Monsignor Timothy confronts Arden, Arden silences him by reminding him that he has allowed the mutations to happen and if he goes to the police, he will be held accountable as an accomplice; when Mary Eunice frames Jude for Frank's murder, the Monsignor admits her as a patient in the asylum. He baptizes Leigh Emerson. In the baptismal pool, Leigh grabs the Monsignor's head and forces it underwater until he loses consciousness, before nailing him to a crucifix; as he is close to death, Shachath appears to the Monsignor and informs him that the Devil is residing at the asylum and that it is his duty to cast it out. Sister Mary Eunice nurses him back to health, only to ra
The Dodge Charger is a full-size four-door sedan, introduced first at the 2005 North American Auto Show and built by FCA US LLC, a subsidiary of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles. It is available in rear-wheel drive or all-wheel drive drivetrains; the Charger was developed to continue the Dodge Charger line with its muscle car heritage, replaced the Dodge Intrepid as Dodge's full-size sedan. The second-generation Charger debuted for the 2011 model year; the first Charger was a 1964 show car based on the Dodge Polara and fitted with a 426 Wedge V8 engine. The first production Charger, based on the Dodge Coronet, was introduced as a 1966 model. There were several different vehicles bearing the Charger nameplate built on three different platforms and sizes, all bearing the Charger nameplate. Although the name is associated with the late-1960s performance model in the Dodge range, it was used on personal luxury coupes during the late-1970s and on front-wheel drive subcompact hatchbacks during the 1980s. In 1999, Dodge introduced a new Charger R/T concept car.
It took many styling cues from the 1960s Chargers, sharing their long nose and rearward cab, but was shorter at 187 in, compared to 203 in for the 1966 Charger. It was 650 lb lighter, it featured a four-door sedan body design, whereas all the previous production Chargers had two doors. It was a return to a rear wheel drive sedan platform Dodge had not offered since the mid-size Dodge Diplomat had been discontinued in 1989. Both the SXT and R/T models were available in rear and all-wheel drive drive trains starting in 2007; the AWD system is derived from the Mercedes-Benz 4Matic technology. The AWD system is engaged all the time, routing 60% of the power to the rear wheels and 40% of the power to the front wheels; the 2009 Charger AWD utilized the Torque-on-Demand system manufactured by BorgWarner which disconnects the front axles until extra traction is needed. This results in a slight boost in fuel economy while retaining the same maximum power split to the front wheels. After three years of production, an update for 2009 models was made.
This included moving the rear decklid's "CHARGER" badge from the left to the right, making way for "DODGE" at the left. Tail lamps were revised. 2008 models had seen minor revisions to the interior. The Charger SE and SXT are equipped with Chrysler's 3.5 L V6, rated at 250 hp and 250 lb⋅ft of torque. In Canada, the base model Charger has a 2.7 L V6, rated at 178 hp and 190 lb⋅ft of torque. In 2006, the 2.7 L V6 was available in the U. S. for fleet sales only. For 2007, the SE package could be had with the 2.7 L engine for all buyers. The Canadian SXT model included the 3.5 L V6. The R/T version uses the 5.7 L Hemi V8 engine. From 2006 to 2008, this engine was rated at 390 lb ⋅ ft of torque. For 2009, Variable Camshaft Timing was added, raising power output levels to 368 hp and 395 lb⋅ft of torque respectively; the SRT8 model comes with the 6.1 L Hemi V8, rated at 425 hp and 420 lb⋅ft of torque. The 2006 Charger Daytona R/T debuted at the Chicago Auto Show, it featured a high output 350 hp version of the 5.7 L Hemi as well as an updated suspension and tires.
Visual additions included a special front fascia with a black rear spoiler. In a retro touch, the Daytona R/T featured black "Hemi" decals on the hood and rear fender and retro high impact colors; the 2006 Dodge Charger R/T Daytona Limited colors were “GO MAN. GO!”, "TOP BANANA”, "TOR. RED”; each color was production badged under the far right vent. The U. S. production release was limited to 4,000 cars each for orange and yellow, 2,000 for the red, badged with a production number under the far right dash vent. In 2007, larger 20-inch chrome-clad wheels were introduced along with two new colors, Sub Lime Green and Plum Crazy Purple. In 2008, a revised stripe package was adopted. In 2009, horsepower was increased to 372 hp by the addition of Variable Camshaft Timing. An SRT8 version of the Charger debuted at the 2005 New York International Auto Show. Powered by a 425 hp version of the 6.1 L Hemi, it featured upgraded Brembo brakes, interior and exterior updates. The engine produces 420 lb⋅ft of torque at 4,800 rpm.
The 425 SAE net horsepower of the modern 6.1 L Hemi makes it more powerful than the Chrysler Hemi engines of the muscle car era, the biggest of, rated at 425 SAE gross horsepower. This made the 6.1 L Hemi engine the most powerful V8 engine that Chrysler had put in a production vehicle up to that point. The SRT8 can accelerate from 0–60 mph in 4.8 seconds. A new Super Bee version of the Charger debuted at the 2006 New York International Auto Show for the 2007 model year, it shared the SRT-8's 425 hp 6.1 L Hemi engine, but was available in a special "Detonator Yellow" paint with black decals. It is a limited edition with only 1,000 being produced. A B5 Blue version of the Super Bee was shown at the 2007 North American International Auto Show and went on sale in early 2008 with a limited run of 1,000. A total of 425 Hemi Orange Super Bees were built in 2009. In 2011, it was announced that the Super Bee will be returning as a 2012 model on the redesigned Dodge Charger with the 392 HEMI engine in "Stinger Yellow" and "Pitch Black" Developed in collaboration with DUB Magazine, this version is based on the Charge
Betws is an electoral ward, representing part of the community of Betws, near Ammanford, Wales. In 2014, the Betws electoral ward had an electorate of xxx; the total population was xxx. Xxxx% of the population were able to speak Welsh; the Betws Ward is a single-member ward for the purposes of Carmarthenshire County Council elections. Since 2012 it has been represented by Plaid Cymru councillor Betsan Wyn Jones; the first election to the new unitary Carmarthenshire County Council took place in 1995. Dorian Evans won the seat by a comfortable majority. In 1999, Evans was re-elected. Evans faced opposition from Plaid Cymru in 2004 but the majority fell to 30 votes. In 2008, Evans was beaten into third place. In 2012, Labour having held the seat from 1995 until 2008, came from third place to recapture Betws with a new candidate Betws first became an electoral ward for county elections in the early twentieth century, having been part of the Llandybie ward at the formation of Carmarthenshire County Council.
In due course, it became part of one of the two Ammanford wards for county council elections and these continued to exist until Carmarthenshire was abolished in 1974. With the formation of Dyfed County Council, Betws was part of one of the Ammanford wards; the two wards were merged in 1989. When the current Carmarthenshire County Council was formed in 1995, a Betws ward, based on the boundaries of the existing ward for the purposes of elections to Dinefwr Borough Council was established. From 1894 until 1973, Betws formed an electoral ward for the purposes of elections to Llandeilo Rural District Council. Following re-organization in 1973, until the creation of unitary authorities in 1996, Betws formed an electoral ward for the purposes of elections to Dinefwr Borough Council. "Betws Ward: Electoral Division Profile". Archived from the original on 2012-08-30. Retrieved 2014-09-18