Paul-Marie Verlaine was a French poet associated with the Symbolist movement and the Decadent movement. He is considered one of the greatest representatives of the fin de siècle in international and French poetry. Born in Metz, Verlaine was educated at the Lycée Impérial Bonaparte in Paris and took up a post in the civil service, he began writing poetry at an early age, was influenced by the Parnassien movement and its leader, Leconte de Lisle. Verlaine's first published poem was published in 1863 in La Revue du progrès, a publication founded by poet Louis-Xavier de Ricard. Verlaine was a frequenter of the salon of the Marquise de Ricard at 10 Boulevard des Batignolles and other social venues, where he rubbed shoulders with prominent artistic figures of the day: Anatole France, Emmanuel Chabrier, inventor-poet and humorist Charles Cros, the cynical anti-bourgeois idealist Villiers de l'Isle-Adam, Théodore de Banville, François Coppée, Jose-Maria de Heredia, Leconte de Lisle, Catulle Mendes and others.
Verlaine's first published collection, Poèmes saturniens, though adversely commented upon by Sainte-Beuve, established him as a poet of promise and originality. Mathilde Mauté became Verlaine's wife in 1870. At the proclamation of the Third Republic in the same year, Verlaine joined the 160th battalion of the Garde nationale, turning Communard on 18 March 1871, he became head of the press bureau of the Central Committee of the Paris Commune. Verlaine escaped the deadly street fighting known as the Bloody Week, or Semaine Sanglante, went into hiding in the Pas-de-Calais. Verlaine returned to Paris in August 1871, and, in September, he received the first letter from Arthur Rimbaud, who admired his poetry, he urged Rimbaud to come to Paris, by 1872, he had lost interest in Mathilde, abandoned her and their son, preferring the company of his new lover. Rimbaud and Verlaine's stormy affair took them to London in 1872. In Brussels in July 1873 in a drunken, jealous rage, he fired two shots with a pistol at Rimbaud, wounding his left wrist, though not injuring the poet.
As an indirect result of this incident, Verlaine was arrested and imprisoned at Mons, where he underwent a re-conversion to Roman Catholicism, which again influenced his work and provoked Rimbaud's sharp criticism. The poems collected in Romances sans paroles were written between 1872 and 1873, inspired by Verlaine's nostalgically colored recollections of his life with Mathilde on the one hand and impressionistic sketches of his on-again off-again year-long escapade with Rimbaud on the other. Romances sans. Following his release from prison, Verlaine again traveled to England, where he worked for some years as a teacher, teaching French and Greek, drawing at a grammar school in Stickney in Lincolnshire. From there he went to teach in nearby Boston, before moving to Bournemouth. While in England he produced another successful collection, Sagesse, he returned to France in 1877 and, while teaching English at a school in Rethel, fell in love with one of his pupils, Lucien Létinois, who inspired Verlaine to write further poems.
Verlaine was devastated when Létinois died of typhus in 1883. Verlaine's last years saw his descent into drug addiction and poverty, he lived in slums and public hospitals, spent his days drinking absinthe in Paris cafés. However, the people's love for his art was able to resurrect support and bring in an income for Verlaine: his early poetry was rediscovered, his lifestyle and strange behaviour in front of crowds attracted admiration, in 1894 he was elected France's "Prince of Poets" by his peers, his poetry was admired and recognized as ground-breaking, served as a source of inspiration to composers. Gabriel Fauré composed many mélodies, such as the song cycles Cinq mélodies "de Venise" and La bonne chanson, which were settings of Verlaine's poems. Claude Debussy set to music Clair de lune and six of the Fêtes galantes poems, forming part of the mélodie collection known as the Recueil Vasnier. Reynaldo Hahn set several of Verlaine's poems, his drug dependence and alcoholism took a toll on his life.
Paul Verlaine died in Paris at the age of 51 on 8 January 1896. Much of the French poetry produced during the fin de siècle was characterized as "decadent" for its lurid content or moral vision. In a similar vein, Verlaine used the expression poète maudit in 1884 to refer to a number of poets like Stéphane Mallarmé, Arthur Rimbaud, Aloysius Bertrand, Comte de Lautréamont or Alice de Chambrier, who had fought against poetic conventions and suffered social rebuke or were ignored by the critics, but with the publication of Jean Moréas' Symbolist Manifesto in 1886, it was the term symbolism, most applied to the new literary environment. Along with Verlaine, Mallarmé, Paul Valéry, Albert Samain and many others began to be referred to as "Symbolists." These poets would share themes that parallel Schopenhauer's aesthetics and notions of will and unconscious forces, used themes of sex, the city, irrational phenomena, sometimes a vaguely medieval setting. In poetry, the symbolist procedure—as typified by Verlaine—was to use subt
Scholar indices are used to measure the contributions of scholars to their fields of research. Since the 2005 paper of Jorge E. Hirsch, the use of scholar indices has increased. Sometimes called bibliometrics, scholar indices are mathematical and statistical tools that measure the significance of the contributions made by an academic to their field of research. Scholar indices may incorporate other assessments such as journal ranking. Any aggregator of citations and references, given time and inclination, generate their own set of scholar indices. Publishers who are prominent in this field include Thomson Reuters. Commercial software which use parsers and web search engines to generate sets of scholar indices or individual results are now available. Examples are: Perish; each software vendor uses its own data as well as journals, authority files and subject categories to produce sets of scholar indices. While some companies provide the data and the evaluated metrics as free downloads, others require subscriptions to cover costs of manufacture and upkeep of an efficient parser, search engine and document database.
Scholar indices allow choice of journal collections, application of research funds, ranking of journals and the determination of significant contributors in a subject area. Advocates of scholar indices recommend their use in areas such as liaison services, references and collection management. Critics of the use of scholar indices cite their limitations due to issues of accuracy and applicability and debate their application to hiring, funding, award giving and membership decisions. Although scholar indices may not describe the impact of an individual researcher's work, some academics will determine their own scholar indices to include in promotional material and curriculum vita for example. Others may study their scholar indices for their own sake; those interested in the field of scholar indices may find the results, for example data visualisation projects, exciting. To date, a number of scholar indices have been developed. One is the'h-index' introduced by Jorge E. Hirsch in August 2005. Hirsch described the h-index as unbiased as it involved the relationship of an academic's volume of published papers and the number of citations for those papers creating less bias than either measure alone.
Another scholar index is the'g-index' which measures citation counts of all well cited works over a period of time. The'm-quotient' was developed to introduce a time limit to the h-index, otherwise, an ever-increasing quantity. Other variants of the h-index such as hI-index, e-index and others are being reviewed; the Erdős number was developed to measure the publication chain started by Paul Erdős. All such scholar indices quantify the contribution of a researcher based on citations of their work only. Ideally, an assessment of a researcher's contribution to their field would include both scholar indices and an analysis of the quality of the work itself; the h-index index was suggested by Jorge E. Hirsch, a physicist at UCSD, in 2005. Henry Schaefer, of the University of Georgia, US, together with colleague Amy Peterson, created rankings according to the h-index, from the ISI Web of Science. Though web-based applications can calculate h-indices, Peterson had to check for misspelt or duplicated names.
The h-index is defined as follows: A scientist has index h if h of his or her N papers have at least h citations each, the other papers have no more than h citations each. To calculate the h-index, the papers written by an academic are arranged in decreasing order of number of citations; the h-index is. Although used, the h-index does not take into account the quality of the papers. All fields are given equal value. Another limitation is. For example, Évariste Galois has an h-index of 2 while Claude Shannon has an h-index of 7. While the h-index is independent of the date of an academic's career, the m-quotient aims at weighing the period of academic endeavour so that junior scientists attain the importance that they deserve. Thus, if n=number of years since the first published paper of the scientist, the m-quotient=h-index/n. However, the m-quotient may not stabilise until in the scientist's career. For researchers in the early part of their career, who have low h indices, small changes in the h-index can lead to large changes in the m-quotient.
Hirsch suggests the researcher's first published paper may not always be the appropriate starting point if it was a minor contribution, published well before the academic's period of sustained productivity. Although the m-quotient adds time as a weighting factor, it does not cater to the major disadvantages of the h-index including quality of publication and quality of citation. G-index is a variant of the h-index, which takes into account the citation evolution of the most cited papers over time. A set of papers has a g-index g if g is the highest rank such that the top g papers have, together, at least g^2 citations. In other words, the g-index g is the largest rank such that the first g papers have at least g^2 citations, it can be proved that for any set of papers g-index always is unique. G = ( α − 1
The 1965 Grand Prix motorcycle racing season was the 17th F. I. M. Road Racing World Championship Grand Prix season; the season consisted of thirteen Grand Prix races in six classes: 500cc, 350cc, 250cc, 125cc, 50cc and Sidecars 500cc. It began on 21 March, with United States Grand Prix and ended with Japanese Grand Prix on October, 24. Mike Hailwood claimed his fourth successive 500 class crown for MV Agusta, although he was beginning to show his disenchantment with the autocratic Count Agusta by accepting a 250 class ride from Honda. Newcomer Giacomo Agostini riding for MV Agusta would battle Honda's reigning champion Jim Redman for the 350 title; the outcome wouldn't be decided until the final race of the year in Japan, when Agostini's MV Agusta suffered a mechanical failure, handing the championship to Redman. The Yamaha duo of Phil Read and Michelle Duff finished first and second in the 250 class, as Honda's Redman battled early season injuries. Hugh Anderson won six races to claim his second 125 championship for Suzuki while Honda's Ralph Bryans took the 50cc crown ahead of his Honda teammate Luigi Taveri.
Points were awarded to the top six finishers in each race. Only the best of six races were counted in 50cc, 350cc and 500cc championships, best of seven in 125cc and 250cc championships, while in the Sidecars, only the best of four races were counted. Büla, Maurice & Schertenleib, Jean-Claude. Continental Circus 1949-2000. Chronosports S. A. ISBN 2-940125-32-5 "The Official MotoGP website". Retrieved 2010-07-06