John C. Klensin is a political scientist and computer science professional, active in Internet-related issues, his career includes 30 years as a principal research scientist at MIT, including a period as INFOODS Project Coordinator for the United Nations University, distinguished engineering fellow at MCI WorldCom, Internet architecture vice president at AT&T. Klensin was involved in The Cambridge Project, a social science data management cooperation project taking place at MIT, Harvard and other universities from 1969 to 1977; as a part of this program, John Klensin led the development of the Consistent System targeted for use by Social Scientists. The Consistent System ran on top of the Multics operating system, his involvement with Internet protocols began in 1969. In 1992, Randy Bush and John Klensin created the Network Startup Resource Center, helping dozens of countries to establish connections with FidoNet, UseNet, when possible Internet. Klensin is the author or co-editor of over 40 RFCs, has served as IETF Applications Area director 1993-1995, Internet Architecture Board member 1996-2002, its chair 2000-2002.
He again served on the Board from 2009-2011. The RFCs written or edited by Klensin include SMTP, IDNA, other fields including CRAM-MD5 and IETF policies. In March 2011 8BITMIME was published as Internet standard STD 71, in November 2011 Mail submission was published as STD 72, his i18n work included an April Fools' Day RFC in collaboration with Harald Alvestrand and MIME in collaboration with Ned Freed. As of 2011, he is a member of the RFC Independent Submissions Editorial Board, he is working on several Internet drafts. 2003 - INCITS Merit Award. 2007 - inducted as a Fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery. 2012 - inducted into the Internet Hall of Fame by the Internet Society
Jonathan Bruce Postel was an American computer scientist who made many significant contributions to the development of the Internet with respect to standards. He is known principally for being the Editor of the Request for Comment document series, for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, for administering the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority until his death. In his lifetime he was known as the "god of the Internet" for his comprehensive influence on the medium; the Internet Society's Postel Award is named in his honor, as is the Postel Center at Information Sciences Institute, University of Southern California. His obituary was written by Vint Cerf and published as RFC 2468 in remembrance of Postel and his work. In 2012, Postel was inducted into the Internet Hall of Fame by the Internet Society; the Channel Islands' Domain Registry building was named after him in early 2016. Postel attended Van Nuys High School, UCLA where he earned his B. S. as well as his M. A. in Engineering. He went on to complete his Ph.
D. there in Computer Science in 1974, with Dave Farber as his thesis advisor. Postel started work at UCLA on 23 December 1969 as a Postgraduate Research Engineer where he was involved in early work on the ARPANET, he worked there until 24 August 1973. He assisted with Network Information Center, being set up at SRI by Elizabeth Feinler. In March 1977, he joined the Information Sciences Institute at the University of Southern California as a research scientist. Postel was the RFC Editor from 1969 until his death, wrote and edited many important RFCs, including RFC 791, RFC 792 and RFC 793, which define the basic protocols of the Internet protocol suite, RFC 2223, Instructions to RFC Authors. Between 1982 and 1984 Postel co-authored the RFCs which became the foundation of today's DNS which were joined in 1995 by RFC 1591 which he co-wrote. In total, he co-authored more than 200 RFCs. Postel served on its predecessors for many years, he was the Director of the names and number assignment clearinghouse, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, from its inception.
He was the first member of the Internet Society, was on its Board of Trustees. He was the original and long-time.us Top-Level Domain administrator. He managed the Los Nettos Network. All of the above were part-time activities he assumed in conjunction with his primary position as Director of the Computer Networks Division, Division 7, of the Information Sciences Institute at the University of Southern California. On January 28, 1998, Postel, as a test, emailed eight of the twelve operators of Internet's regional root nameservers on his own authority and instructed them to change the root zone server from SAIC subsidiary Network Solutions's A. ROOT-SERVERS. NET to IANA's DNSROOT. IANA. ORG; the operators complied with Postel's instructions, thus dividing control of Internet naming between the non-government operators with IANA and the 4 remaining U. S. Government roots at NASA, DoD, BRL with NSI. Though usage of the Internet was not interrupted, he soon received orders from senior government officials to undo this change, which he did.
Within a week, the US NTIA issued A proposal to improve technical management of Internet names and addresses, including changes to authority over the Internet DNS root zone and controversially, increased U. S. control. On October 16, 1998, Postel died of complications from heart surgery in Los Angeles, nine months after the DNS Root Authority incident, he was recovering from a surgery to replace a leaking heart valve. The significance of Jon Postel's contributions to building the Internet, both technical and personal, were such that a memorial recollection of his life forms part of the core technical literature sequence of the Internet in the form of RFC 2468 "I Remember IANA", written by Vinton Cerf, his most famous legacy is from RFC 760, which includes a robustness principle called Postel's law: "an implementation should be conservative in its sending behavior, liberal in its receiving behavior". ARPANET Computer Networks: The Heralds of Resource Sharing History of the Internet Jonathan B. Postel Service Award STD 8 Jon Postel at Curlie postel.org Research center at USC/ISI created in his honor
Palo Alto, California
Palo Alto is a charter city located in the northwest corner of Santa Clara County, United States, in the San Francisco Bay Area. Palo Alto means tall stick in Spanish; the city was established by Leland Stanford Sr. when he founded Stanford University, following the death of his son, Leland Stanford Jr. Palo Alto includes portions of Stanford University and shares its borders with East Palo Alto, Mountain View, Los Altos, Los Altos Hills, Portola Valley, Menlo Park; as of the 2010 census, the city's total resident population is 64,403. Palo Alto is one of the five most expensive cities in the United States to live in and its residents are among the highest educated in the country. Palo Alto is headquarters to a number of high-technology companies, including Hewlett-Packard, Space Systems/Loral, VMware, Ford Research and Innovation Center, PARC, IDEO, Palantir Technologies and Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center. Palo Alto has served as an incubator and as headquarters to several other prominent high-technology companies such as Apple, Facebook, Intuit and PayPal.
Prior to the arrival of Europeans, the Ohlone lived on the San Francisco peninsula. The area of modern Palo Alto was first recorded by the 1769 party of Gaspar de Portolà, a 63-man, 200-horse expedition from San Diego to Monterey; the group overshot Monterey in the fog and when they reached modern-day Pacifica, ascended Sweeney Ridge and saw the San Francisco Bay. Portolà descended from Sweeney Ridge southeast down San Andreas Creek to Laguna Creek and the Filoli estate, thence to the San Francisquito Creek watershed camping from November 6–11, 1769 by a tall redwood to be known as El Palo Alto. Thinking the bay was too wide to cross, the group retraced their journey to Monterey, never became aware of the Golden Gate entrance to the Bay. In 1777, Father Junipero Serra established the Mission Santa Clara de Asis, whose northern boundary was San Francisquito Creek and whose lands included modern Palo Alto; the area was under the control of the viceroy of Mexico and under the control of Spain. On November 29, 1777, Pueblo de San Jose de Guadalupe was established by order of the viceroy despite the displeasure of the local mission.
The Mexican War of Independence ending in 1821 led to Mexico becoming an independent country, though San Jose did not recognize rule by the new Mexico until May 10, 1825. Mexico proceeded to grant much of the mission land. During the Mexican–American War, the United States seized Alta California in 1846. Mexican citizens in the area could choose to become United States citizens, their land grants were to be recognized if they chose to do so; the land grant, Rancho Rinconada del Arroyo de San Francisquito, of about 2,230-acre on the lower reaches of San Francisquito Creek was given to Maria Antonia Mesa in 1841. She and her husband Rafael Soto had settled in 1835 near present day Newell and Middlefield roads and sold supplies. In 1839, their daughter María Luisa Soto married John Coppinger, to be, in 1841, the grantee of Rancho Cañada de Raymundo. Upon Coppinger's death in 1847, Maria inherited it and married a visiting boat captain, John Greer. Greer owned a home on the site, now Town & Country Village on Embarcadero and El Camino Real.
Greer Avenue and Court are named for him. To the south of the Sotos, the brothers Secundino and Teodoro Robles in 1849 bought Rancho Rincon de San Francisquito from José Peña, the 1841 grantee; the grant covered the area south of Rancho Rinconada del Arroyo de San Francisquito to more or less present day Mountain View. The grant was bounded on the south by Mariano Castro's Rancho Pastoria de las Borregas grant across San Antonio Road; this became the Robles Rancho, which constitutes about 80% of Palo Alto and Stanford University today. In 1863, it was whittled down in the courts to 6,981 acres. Stories say the grand hacienda was built on the former meager adobe of José Peña near Ferne off San Antonio Road, midway between Middlefield and Alma Street, their hacienda hosted fiestas and bull fights. It was ruined in the 1906 earthquake and its lumber was used to build a large barn nearby, said to have lingered until the early 1950s. On April 10, 1853, 250 acres, comprising the present day Barron Park, Matadero Creek and Stanford Business Park, was sold for $2,000 to Elisha Oscar Crosby, who called his new property Mayfield Farm.
The name of Mayfield was attached to the community that started nearby. On September 23, 1856, the Crosby land was transferred to Sarah Wallis to satisfy a debt he owed her. In 1880, Secundino Robles, father to twenty-nine children, still lived just south of Palo Alto, near the location of the present-day San Antonio Shopping Center in Mountain View. Many of the Spanish names in the Palo Alto area represent the local heritage, descriptive terms and former residents. Pena Court, Miranda Avenue, Foothill Expwy, was the married name of Juana Briones and the name occurs in Courts and Avenues and other street names in Palo Alto and Mountain View in the quadrant where she owned vast areas between Stanford University, Grant Road in Mountain View and west of El Camino Real. Yerba Buena was to her credit. Rinconada wa
Robert Elliot Kahn is an American electrical engineer, along with Vint Cerf, invented the Transmission Control Protocol and the Internet Protocol, the fundamental communication protocols at the heart of the Internet. Kahn was born in New York to parents Beatrice Lawrence Kahn in a Jewish family. Through his father, he is related to futurist Herman Kahn. After receiving a B. E. E. degree in electrical engineering from the City College of New York in 1960, Kahn went on to Princeton University where he earned a M. A. in 1962 and Ph. D. in 1964. In 1972, he began work at the Information Processing Techniques Office within DARPA. In the fall of 1972, he demonstrated the ARPANET by connecting 20 different computers at the International Computer Communication Conference, "the watershed event that made people realize that packet switching was a real technology." He helped develop the TCP/IP protocols for connecting diverse computer networks. After he became director of IPTO, he started the United States government's billion dollar Strategic Computing Initiative, the largest computer research and development program undertaken by the U.
S. federal government. After thirteen years with DARPA, he left to found the Corporation for National Research Initiatives in 1986, as of 2015 is the chairman, CEO and president. While working on a satellite packet network project, he came up with the initial ideas for what became the Transmission Control Protocol, intended as a replacement for an earlier network protocol, NCP, used in the ARPANET. While working on this, he played a major role in forming the basis of open-architecture networking, which would allow computers and networks all over the world to communicate with each other, regardless of what hardware or software the computers on each network used. To reach this goal, TCP was designed to have the following features: Small sub-sections of the whole network would be able to talk to each other through a specialized computer that only forwarded packets. No portion of the network would be the single point of failure, or would be able to control the whole network; each piece of information sent through the network would be given a sequence number, to ensure that they were dealt with in the right order at the destination computer, to detect the loss of any of them.
A computer which sent information to another computer would know that it was received when the destination computer sent back a special packet, called an acknowledgement, for that particular piece of information. If information sent from one computer to another was lost, the information would be retransmitted, after the loss was detected by a timeout, which would recognize that the expected acknowledgement had not been received; each piece of information sent through the network would be accompanied by a checksum, calculated by the original sender, checked by the ultimate receiver, to ensure that it was not damaged in any way en route. Vint Cerf joined him on the project in the spring of 1973, together they completed an early version of TCP, it was separated into two separate layers, with the more basic functions being moved to the Internet Protocol. The two together are referred to as TCP/IP, form part of the basis for the modern Internet. In 1992 he co-founded with Vint Cerf the Internet Society, to provide leadership in Internet related standards and policy.
He was awarded the SIGCOMM Award in 1993 for "visionary technical contributions and leadership in the development of information systems technology", shared the 2004 Turing Award with Vint Cerf, for "pioneering work on internetworking, including.. The Internet's basic communications protocols.. and for inspired leadership in networking." He is a recipient of the AFIPS Harry Goode Memorial Award, the Marconi Award, the ACM SIGCOMM Award, the President's Award from ACM, the IEEE Koji Kobayashi Computer and Communications Award, the IEEE Alexander Graham Bell Medal, the IEEE Third Millennium Medal, the ACM Software Systems Award, the Computerworld/Smithsonian Award, the ASIS Special Award and the Public Service Award from the Computing Research Board. He has twice received the Secretary of Defense Civilian Service Award, he was awarded an honorary degree by the University of Pavia in 1998. He is a recipient of the 1997 National Medal of Technology, the 2001 Charles Stark Draper Prize from the National Academy of Engineering, the 2002 Prince of Asturias Award, the 2004 A. M. Turing Award from the Association for Computing Machinery.
Kahn received the 2003 Digital ID World award for the Digital Object Architecture as a significant contribution to the digital identity industry. In 2005 he was awarded the Townsend Harris Medal from the Alumni Association of the City College of New York, the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the C & C Prize in Tokyo, Japan, he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in May 2006. He was inducted as a Fellow of the Computer History Museum in 2006 "for pioneering technical contributions to internetworking and for leadership in the application of networks to scientific research."He was awarded the 2008 Japan Prize for his work in "Information Communication Theory and Technology". In 2001 he was inducted as a Fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery. Robert Kahn and Vinton Cerf were each inducted as an Honorary Fellow of the Society for Technical Communication in May 2006; the duo were awarded with the Harold Pender Award, the highest honor awarded by the University of Pennsylvania School Engineering and Applied Sciences, in February 2010.
He has served on the board of directors for
Cornelis Adrianus Maria "Kees" Neggers is a Dutch Internet pioneer. He is best known for starting and promoting a large number of initiatives for international collaboration in research and education networking. Neggers was born in Breda, the Netherlands on 20 July 1947, he studied electrical engineering at Eindhoven University of Technology, where he obtained his M. Eng. in 1972. He started his career as a staff member of the permanent committee advising the Dutch Ministry of Education and Sciences on computing infrastructure, he worked at the Computing Centre of the University of Groningen from 1975 until 1984. In 1984, Neggers joined the Computing Centre at the Catholic University of Nijmegen as Deputy Director; the same year he started his career in international networking by becoming the director of the European Academic and Research Network for the Netherlands. In 1984-1985, Boudewijn Nederkoorn, Director of the Computing Centre at the Catholic University of Nijmegen, Kees Neggers were among a few dozen members of the academic and ICT community in the Netherlands preparing a multi-annual plan for computer services by scientific education and research.
This led to the creation of the SURF Foundation in May 1987 and the incorporation of the company SURFnet BV in January 1989. A year earlier, on 1 January 1988, Nederkoorn and Neggers were appointed Co-Directors of SURFnet. On 13 June 1986, Neggers was present when Réseaux Associés pour la Recherche Européenne, the European association of national research and education networks, was incorporated in Amsterdam, he served as Treasurer of the association until 1990, as vice-president from 1990 until 1992, as president from 1992 until the European Academic and Research Network association was merged with RARE and RARE changed its name to TERENA on 20 October 1994. He joined the TERENA Executive Committee again as Vice-President for Services from 1997 until 1999, as Vice-President Technical Programme from 1999 until 2001. In November 1987 Neggers participated in the first meeting of the Co-ordinating Committee for Intercontinental Research Networking, held in Washington, D. C.. He was appointed by RARE as the European CCIRN co-chair in 1988 and continued in that position until the final full CCIRN meeting in Reykjavík in 2011.
In the 1980s the need to choose between the OSI protocols and the Internet Protocol became the subject of a long-lasting controversy, but by the early 1990s IP became the dominant protocol in data networking. In 1991, Neggers was one of the people leading the initiative to create a project called Ebone as an interim solution while the European research networking community made the transition from OSI to IP. Neggers represented RARE as a Founding Member of the Internet Society when that organisation was founded in 1992, he served as a trustee of the Society appointed by RARE from 1992 until 1996, as an elected member of the Board of Trustees from 1998 until 2004. The Réseaux IP Européens Network Coordination Centre was created by RARE in 1992; as TERENA's Vice-President for Services, Neggers played a major role in splitting off the service and setting up the RIPE NCC as an independent association, incorporated in November 1997. He served as a TERENA-appointed member of the Board of the RIPE NCC in 1998-1999, as Chair of the Executive Board from 2000 until 2008.
He took an active part in the creation of the Amsterdam Internet Exchange in 1994-1997, of the Dutch chapter of the Internet Society in 1997. Neggers was one of the organisers of first Annual Global LambdaGrid Workshop, held in Amsterdam on 11 September 2001; this series of annual events led by 2003 to the creation of the Global Lambda Integrated Facility, an international virtual organisation that promotes the paradigm of lambda networking. Neggers chairs the Governance Working Group of GLIF, he was one of the initiators of the creation of NetherLight, the GLIF Open Lightpath Exchange in Amsterdam, represented SURFnet in the GLORIAD initiative since its inception in 2003. In July 2012, Neggers retired from his position at SURFnet, but continued as a strategic advisor to the SURF Foundation and as one of the Dutch representatives in the e-Infrastructure Reflection Group. In July 2014, Neggers took up the job as interim director of SURF, he retired in 2015. In 2002, Boudewijn Nederkoorn and Kees Neggers were jointly elected ICT Personality of the Year by the Dutch ICT-Office.
On his retirement from SURFnet in 2012, Kees Neggers was appointed Officer of the Order of Orange-Nassau. He was inducted into the Internet Hall of Fame in August 2013
David J. Farber
David J. Farber is a professor of computer science, noted for his major contributions to programming languages and computer networking, he is Distinguished Career Professor of Computer Science and Public Policy at the School of Computer Science, Heinz College, Department of Engineering and Public Policy at Carnegie Mellon University. Farber graduated from the Stevens Institute of Technology in 1956 and began an 11-year career at Bell Laboratories, where he helped design the first electronic switching system and the SNOBOL programming languages, he subsequently held industry positions at the Rand Corporation and Scientific Data Systems, followed by academic positions at the University of California and the University of Delaware. At Irvine his research work was focused on creating the world's first operational distributed computer system. While a member of the electrical engineering department of the University of Delaware, he helped conceive and organize the major American research networks CSNET, NSFNet, the National Research and Education Network.
He helped create the NSF/DARPA-funded Gigabit Network Test bed Initiative and served as the Chairman of the Gigabit Test bed Coordinating Committee. Farber subsequently was appointed Alfred Fitler Moore Professor of Telecommunication Systems at the University of Pennsylvania where he held appointments as Professor of Business and Public Policy at the Wharton School of Business and as a Faculty Associate of the Annenberg School for Communication, he served as Chief Technologist at the US Federal Communications Commission while on leave from the university. Farber is a founding editor of ICANNWatch, he serves on the board of advisers of The Liquid Information Company. Farber is an IEEE Fellow, ACM Fellow, recipient of the 1995 SIGCOMM Award for lifelong contributions to computer communications, he has served on the board of directors of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, the Electronic Privacy Information Center advisory board, the Board of Trustees of the Internet Society, as a member of the Presidential Advisory Committee on High Performance Computing and Communications, Information Technology and Next Generation Internet.
He runs a large mailing list called Interesting-People. In 2012, in memory of his son, he established the Joseph M. Farber prize at the Stevens Institute of Technology, which recognizes a graduating senior majoring in one of the disciplines of the College of Arts and Letters who displays a keen interest in and concern for civil liberties and their importance in preserving and protecting human rights. On August 3, 2013, Farber was inducted into the Pioneers Circle of the Internet Hall of Fame. Carnegie Mellon University: Engineering and Public Policy: EPP Faculty: David J. Farber at the Wayback Machine Listbox: Interesting-People Farberisms
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite to link devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of private, academic and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies; the Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web, electronic mail and file sharing. Some publications no longer capitalize "internet"; the origins of the Internet date back to research commissioned by the federal government of the United States in the 1960s to build robust, fault-tolerant communication with computer networks. The primary precursor network, the ARPANET served as a backbone for interconnection of regional academic and military networks in the 1980s; the funding of the National Science Foundation Network as a new backbone in the 1980s, as well as private funding for other commercial extensions, led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies, the merger of many networks.
The linking of commercial networks and enterprises by the early 1990s marked the beginning of the transition to the modern Internet, generated a sustained exponential growth as generations of institutional and mobile computers were connected to the network. Although the Internet was used by academia since the 1980s, commercialization incorporated its services and technologies into every aspect of modern life. Most traditional communication media, including telephony, television, paper mail and newspapers are reshaped, redefined, or bypassed by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as email, Internet telephony, Internet television, online music, digital newspapers, video streaming websites. Newspaper and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging, web feeds and online news aggregators; the Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of personal interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, social networking. Online shopping has grown exponentially both for major retailers and small businesses and entrepreneurs, as it enables firms to extend their "brick and mortar" presence to serve a larger market or sell goods and services online.
Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries. The Internet has no single centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; the overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address space and the Domain Name System, are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force, a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise. In November 2006, the Internet was included on USA Today's list of New Seven Wonders; when the term Internet is used to refer to the specific global system of interconnected Internet Protocol networks, the word is a proper noun that should be written with an initial capital letter.
In common use and the media, it is erroneously not capitalized, viz. the internet. Some guides specify that the word should be capitalized when used as a noun, but not capitalized when used as an adjective; the Internet is often referred to as the Net, as a short form of network. As early as 1849, the word internetted was used uncapitalized as an adjective, meaning interconnected or interwoven; the designers of early computer networks used internet both as a noun and as a verb in shorthand form of internetwork or internetworking, meaning interconnecting computer networks. The terms Internet and World Wide Web are used interchangeably in everyday speech. However, the World Wide Web or the Web is only one of a large number of Internet services; the Web is a collection of interconnected documents and other web resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. As another point of comparison, Hypertext Transfer Protocol, or HTTP, is the language used on the Web for information transfer, yet it is just one of many languages or protocols that can be used for communication on the Internet.
The term Interweb is a portmanteau of Internet and World Wide Web used sarcastically to parody a technically unsavvy user. Research into packet switching, one of the fundamental Internet technologies, started in the early 1960s in the work of Paul Baran and Donald Davies. Packet-switched networks such as the NPL network, ARPANET, the Merit Network, CYCLADES, Telenet were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s; the ARPANET project led to the development of protocols for internetworking, by which multiple separate networks could be joined into a network of networks. ARPANET development began with two network nodes which were interconnected between the Network Measurement Center at the University of California, Los Angeles Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science directed by Leonard Kleinrock, the NLS system at SRI International by Douglas Engelbart in Menlo Park, California, on 29 October 1969; the third site was the Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics Center at the University of California, Santa Barbara, followed by the University of