The Arab world known as the Arab nation, the Arabsphere or the Arab states consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League. These Arab states occupy West Asia; the contemporary Arab world has a combined population of around 422 million inhabitants, over half of whom are under 25 years of age. In post-classical history, the Arab world was synonymous with the historic Arab empires and caliphates. Arab nationalism arose in the second half of the 19th century along with other nationalist movements within the Ottoman Empire; the Arab League was formed in 1945 to represent the interests of Arab people and to pursue the political unification of the Arab countries. The linguistic and political denotation inherent in the term Arab is dominant over genealogical considerations. In Arab states, Modern Standard Arabic is the only language used by the government; the language of an individual nation is called Darija, which means "everyday/colloquial language." Darija shares the majority of its vocabulary with standard Arabic, but it significantly borrows from Berber substrates, as well as extensively from French, the language of the historical colonial occupier of the Maghreb.
Darija is spoken and, to various extents, mutually understood in the Maghreb countries Morocco and Tunisia, but it is unintelligible to speakers of other Arabic dialects for those in Egypt and the Middle East. Although no globally accepted definition of the Arab world exists, all countries that are members of the Arab League are acknowledged as being part of the Arab world; the Arab League is a regional organisation that aims to consider in a general way the affairs and interests of the Arab countries and sets out the following definition of an Arab: An Arab is a person whose language is Arabic, who lives in an Arabic country, and, in sympathy with the aspirations of the Arabic people. This standard territorial definition is sometimes seen to be inappropriate or problematic, may be supplemented with certain additional elements; as an alternative to, or in combination with, the standard territorial definition, the Arab world may be defined as consisting of peoples and states united to at least some degree by Arabic language, culture or geographic contiguity, or those states or territories in which the majority of the population speaks Arabic, thus may include populations of the Arab diaspora.
When an ancillary linguistic definition is used in combination with the standard territorial definition, various parameters may be applied to determine whether a state or territory should be included in this alternative definition of the Arab world. These parameters may be applied to the states and territories of the Arab League and to other states and territories. Typical parameters that may be applied include: whether Arabic is spoken. While Arabic dialects are spoken in a number of Arab League states, Literary Arabic is official in all of them. Several states have declared Arabic to be an official or national language, although Arabic is today not as spoken there; as members of the Arab League, they are considered part of the Arab world under the standard territorial definition. Somalia has two official languages today and Somali, both of which belong to the larger Afro-Asiatic language family. Although Arabic is spoken by many people in the north and urban areas in the south, Somali is the most used language, contains many Arabic loan words.
Djibouti has two official languages and French. It has several formally recognized national languages; the majority of the population speaks Somali and Afar, although Arabic is widely used for trade and other activities. Comoros has three official languages: Arabic and French. Comorian is the most spoken language, with Arabic having a religious significance, French being associated with the educational system. Chad and Israel all recognize Arabic as an official language, but none of them is a member-state of the Arab League, although both Chad and Eritrea are observer states of the League and have large populations of Arabic speakers. Israel is not part of the Arab world. By some definitions, Arab citizens of Israel may concurrently be considered a constituent part of the Arab world. Iran has about 1.5 million Arabic speakers. Iranian Arabs are found in Ahvaz, a southwestern region in the Khuzestan Province. Mali and Senegal recognize Hassaniya, the Arabic dialect of the Moorish ethnic minority, as a national language.
Greece and Cyprus recognize Cypriot Maronite Arabic under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Additionally, though not part of the Arab world, has as its official language Maltese; the language is grammatically akin to Maghrebi Arabic. In the Arab world, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic, serves as an official language in the Arab League states, Arabic dialects are used as lingua fr
Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+
ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad Abu'l-Faras̲h̲ b. al-Jawzī referred to as Ibn al-Jawzī for short, or reverentially as Imam Ibn al-Jawzī by Sunni Muslims, was an Arab Muslim jurisconsult, orator, traditionist, judge and philologist who played an instrumental role in propagating the Hanbali school of orthodox Sunni jurisprudence in his native Baghdad during the twelfth-century. During "a life of great intellectual and political activity," Ibn al-Jawzi came to be admired by his fellow Hanbalis for the tireless role he played in ensuring that that particular school – the smallest of the four principal Sunni schools of law – enjoy the same level of "prestige" bestowed by rulers on the Maliki, Shafi'i, Hanafi rites. Belonging to a wealthy family, Ibn al-Jawzi received a "very thorough education" during his adolescent years, was fortunate to train under some of that era's most renowned Baghdadi scholars, including Ibn al-Zāg̲h̲ūnī, Abū Bakr al-Dīnawarī, Abū Manṣūr al-Jawālīkī. Although Ibn al-Jawzi's scholarly career continued to blossom over the next few years, he became most famous during the reign of al-Mustadi, the thirty-third caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate, whose support for Hanbalism allowed Ibn al-Jawzi to become "one of the most influential persons" in Baghdad, due to the caliph's approval of Ibn al-Jawzi's public sermonizing to huge crowds in both pastoral and urban areas throughout Baghdad.
In the vast majority of the public sermons delivered during al-Mustadi's reign, Ibn al-Jawzi presented a stanch defense of the prophet Muhammad's example, vigorously criticized all those whom he considered to be schismatics in the faith. At the same time, Ibn al-Jawzi's reputation as a scholar continued to grow due to the substantial role he played in managing many of the most important universities in the area, as well as on account of the sheer number of works he wrote during this period; as regards the latter point, it is important to note that part of Ibn al-Jawzi's legacy rests on his reputation for having been "one of the most prolific writers" of all time, with scholars like Ibn Taymīyah studying over a thousand works written by Ibn al-Jawzi during their years of training. As scholars have noted, Ibn al-Jawzi's prodigious corpus, "varying in length" as it does, touches upon "all the great disciplines" of classical Islamic study. Ibn al-Jawzi was born between 507-12 H./1113-19 CE to a "fairly wealthy family" in Baghdad.
His parents proceeded to give their son a "thorough education" in all the principal disciplines of the period, whence Ibn al-Jawzi had the good fortune of studying under such notable scholars of the time as Ibn al-Zāghūnī, Abū Bakr al-Dīnawarī, Abū Manṣūr al-Jawālīkī, Abu'l-Faḍl b. al-Nāṣir, Abū Ḥakīm al-Nahrawānī and Abū Yaʿlā the Younger. Additionally, Ibn al-Jawzi began to be influenced by the works of other scholars he read but whom he had never met such as Abu Nu`aym, a Shafi'i Ashari mystic, al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, a Hanbali who had changed to Shafi'ism, the prominent Hanbali thinker Ibn `Aqīl, whom Ibn al-Jawzi would both praise and criticize in his writings, he was an adherent of the Ashari school of dialectical theology, an aspect of his thought that would distinguish him from many of his fellow Hanbali thinkers, In his early works he criticized speculation in theology, in particular modernizing trends among the Sufis. Ibn al-Jawzi began his career proper during the reign of al-Muqtafi, the thirty-first caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate, whose Hanbali vizier, Ibn Hubayra, served as a patron of Ibn al-Jawzi's scholarship.
Beginning his scholarly career as a teaching assistant to his mentor Abū Ḥakīm al-Nahrawānī, who taught Hanbali jurisprudence in two separate schools, Ibn al-Jawzi succeeded al-Nahrawānī as "master of these two colleges" after the latter's death in 1161. A year or so prior to this, Ibn al-Jawzi had begun his career as a preacher, as Ibn Hubayra had given him free rein to deliver his passionate sermons every Friday in the vizer's own house. After al-Muqtafi's death, the succeeding caliph, al-Mustanjid, called upon Ibn al-Jawzi to preach his sermons in the ruler's Palace mosque – one of the most prominent houses of worship in the whole of Baghdad – during the three military interventions of the Fatimid caliphate in the city. In these sermons, Ibn al-Jawzi is said to have "vigorously defended the prophetic precedent and criticized, not only all those whom he considered to be schismatics, but the jurists who were too blindly attached to their own schools of law."During the reign of the succeeding Abbasid caliph, al-Mustadi, Ibn al-Jawzi began to be recognized "as one of the most influential persons in Baghdad."
As this particular ruler was partial to Hanbalism, Ibn al-Jawzi was given free rein to promote Hanbalism by way of his preaching throughout Baghdad. The numerous sermons Ibn al-Jawzi delivered from 1172 to 1173 cemented his reputation as the premier scholar in Baghdad at the time. Ibn al-Jawzi's stature as a scholar only continued to grow in the following years. By 1179, Ibn al-Jawzi had written over one hundred and fifty works and was directing five colleges in Baghdad simultaneously, it was at this time that he told al-Mustadi to engrave an inscription onto the venerate
Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe is most considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity; the division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary places two comparatively small countries and Georgia, in both continents.
Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2016; the European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals, it includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.
The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans. In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess; the word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor." Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
William Alexander Greenhill
William Alexander Greenhill was an English physician, literary editor and sanitary reformer. William Alexander Greenhill was the youngest of three sons of George Greenhill, treasurer of the Stationers' Company, he was educated at Rugby School under Thomas Arnold: a favourite pupil of Arnold, he married Arnold's niece Laura Ward. At Rugby he befriended A. H. Clough, W. C. Lake, A. P. Stanley and C. J. Vaughan. B. in 1839 and M. D. in 1840. Greenhill was appointed physician to the Radcliffe Infirmary in 1839. A "pioneer in the cause of sanitary reform, in the days when sanitary reform was thought a crazy fanaticism", he first wrote on Oxford's public health and mortality for the Ashmolean Society, after a cholera outbreak in Oxford. In 1840 he hosted Richard Francis Burton in his house, encouraging the young student to study the Arabic by introducing him to the Spanish scholar Don Pascual de Gayangos. At the time Greenhill, who lived in John Henry Newman's parish, was serving as Newman's churchwarden.
Other Oxford academic friends included Charles Page Eden, William John Copeland, Charles Marriott, J. B. Morris and James Bowling Mozley. A political liberal, Greenhill supported William Ewart Gladstone's election as MP for the university in 1847. Like other university liberals, however, he was discomfited by Gladstone's direction in the 1880s: he did not vote liberal in 1885 or 1886 In 1851 Greenhill resigned his Radcliffe Infirmary post and attempted practice as an Oxford physician. However, he moved that year to Hastings on grounds of health, though he may have wanted to escape Oxford's febrile religious controversies. For many years he was physician to the St. Leonards and East Sussex Infirmary, his investigations of mortality rates in Hastings showed the insanitary conditions of artisan housing, despite the town's new popularity as a health resort. In 1857 he founded the Hastings Cottage Improvement Society, was its secretary from 1857 to 1891: this company bought up and improved insanitary accommodation, as well as building new housing of a better standard.
The venture's success prompted Greenhill to promote the idea at the National Association for the Promotion of Social Science, establish a similar organisation in London, the London Labourers' Dwellings Society, of which he was secretary from 1862 to 1876. On Gladstone's recommendation, Greenhill was granted a civil list pension of £60 in 1881. At the time of his death at The Croft, aged 81, Greenhill had outlived his wife and his eldest daughter and son, who had each died young. Greenhill's interest in Arabic and Greek medical writers resulted in a Greek and Latin edition of Theophilus, a Latin edition of Thomas Sydenham, an English translation from the Arabic of Rhazes on small-pox, a large number of articles in William Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. In the mid-1840s he published anonymous memoirs of James Stonhouse, Thomas Harrison Burder and George Cheyne, edited material on physicians' social duties by Jacob Horst, Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland, Thomas Gisbourne. Greenhill was an enthusiast for Sir Thomas Browne, his 1881 edition of Religio Medici for Macmillan's'Golden Treasury' series was praised for its scholarship, becoming a standard edition of the book.
His edition of Browne's Hydriotaphia and Garden of Cyrus, unfinished at his death, was completed by his friend E. H. Marshall and published in 1896, he was an editor and frequent contributor to the British Medical Journal, contributed to Notes and Queries and the Dictionary of National Biography. Θεοφιλου... Περι της τους ἀνθρωπου κατασκευης βιβλια Εʹ. Theophili... De corporis humani fabrica libri V, Oxford, 1842. Latin and Greek Prayers for the Medical Profession, London, 1842 Advice to a Medical Student, London, 1843 Thomae Sydenham opera omnia, Sydenham Society, 2 vols, 1844, 1846. English & Latin Life of the Rev. Sir James Stonhouse, Bart. with extracts from his tracts and correspondence, Oxford: J. H. Parker, 1844 Anecdota Syndenhamia: medical notes and observations of Thomas Sydenham, M. D. hitherto unpublished, 1845 Life of Thomas Harrison Burder, M. D. with extracts from his correspondence, London: Rivingtons, 1845 Life of George Cheyne, M. D. with extracts from his works and correspondence, Oxford: John Henry Parker, 1846 On the relations of the physician to the sick, to the public and to his colleagues, Oxford, 1846.
A treatise on the small-pox and measles, 1847 Medical report of the case of Miss H. M. 1847 On the duties of physicians, resulting from their profession, Oxford, 1847. Monthly report on the mortality and public health of Oxford. Ashmolean Society, 1849–50. On the establishment and management of cottage-improvement societies: a paper read in the fifth department of the National Association for the Promotion of Social Science, in the Guildhall, London, 9 June 1862, London, 1862 Adversaria medico-philologica, London and Edwards, 13 parts, 1864–1872. Reprinted from the British and Foreign Medico-Chirurgical Review. ‘A Classified List of the Charitable Institutions of Hastings and St. Leonards, Ha
Johan Ludvig Heiberg (historian)
Johan Ludvig Heiberg was a Danish philologist and historian. He is best known for his discovery of unknown texts in the Archimedes Palimpsest, for his edition of Euclid's Elements that T. L. Heath translated into English, he published an edition of Ptolemy's Almagest. Heiberg was born in the son of Johanne Henriette Jacoba and Emil Theodor Heiberg. Heiberg was Professor of Classical Philology at the University of Copenhagen from 1896 until 1924. Among his more than 200 publications were editions of the works of Archimedes, Apollonius of Perga, Serenus of Antinouplis and Hero of Alexandria. Many of his editions are still in use today; the French Academy of Sciences awarded him the Prix Binoux for 1912. His sister married biochemist Max Henius. Heiberg inspected the vellum manuscript in Constantinople in 1906, realized that it contained mathematical works by Archimedes that were unknown to scholars at the time. Heiberg's examination of the manuscript was with the naked eye only, while modern analysis of the texts has employed x-ray and ultraviolet light.
The Archimedes Palimpsest is stored at the Walters Art Museum in Baltimore, Maryland. The Archimedes Palimpsest at the Walters Art Museum PDF scans of Heiberg's edition of the works of Archimedes, now in the public domain PDF scans of Heiberg's edition of Ptolemy's Almagest How do we know about Greek mathematics? How do we know about Greek mathematicians? Eureka! 1,000-year-old text by Greek maths genius Archimedes goes on display Daily Mail, October 18, 2011. Works by Johan Ludvig Heiberg at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Johan Ludvig Heiberg at Internet Archive