Paul von Hindenburg

Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known as Paul von Hindenburg, was a German general and statesman who commanded the Imperial German Army during World War I and became President of Germany from 1925 until his death, during the Weimar Republic. He played a key role in the Nazi Machtergreifung in January 1933 when, under pressure from advisers, he appointed Adolf Hitler Chancellor of Germany though the Nazis were a minority in both the cabinet and the Reichstag. Born to a family of minor Prussian nobility, Hindenburg joined the Prussian army in 1866 where he saw combat during the Austro-Prussian and Franco-Prussian wars, he retired with the rank of General of the Infantry in 1911, but was recalled to military service at the age of 66 following the outbreak of World War I in July 1914 and shortly thereafter received nationwide attention as the victor of the Battle of Tannenberg. Upon being named Chief of the General Staff in 1916, his popularity among the German public increased and produced a large cult of personality.

As Wilhelm II delegated his authority to the Army High Command and his deputy, General Erich Ludendorff, established a de facto military dictatorship that controlled Germany for the rest of the war. Hindenburg retired again in 1919, but returned to public life in 1925 to be elected the second President of Germany, he defeated Hitler in a runoff to win reelection in 1932. He was opposed to Hitler and was a major player in the increasing political instability in the Weimar Republic that ended with Hitler's rise to power, he dissolved the Reichstag twice in 1932 and agreed to appoint Hitler Chancellor of Germany in January 1933. Hindenburg did this to satisfy Hitler's demands that he should play a part in the Weimar government, for Hitler was the leader of the Nazi party, which had won a plurality in the November 1932 elections. In February he approved the Reichstag Fire Decree, which suspended various civil liberties, in March signed the Enabling Act of 1933, which gave Hitler's regime arbitrary powers.

Hindenburg died the following year, after which Hitler declared himself Führer und Reichskanzler, or Supreme Leader and Chancellor, which superseded both the President and Chancellor. Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg was born in Posen, the son of Prussian aristocrat Hans Robert Ludwig von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg and his wife Luise Schwickart, the daughter of physician Karl Ludwig Schwickart and wife Julie Moennich, his paternal grandparents were Otto Ludwig Fady von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, through whom he was remotely descended from the illegitimate daughter of Count Heinrich VI of Waldeck, his wife Eleonore von Brederfady. Hindenburg was a direct descendant of Martin Luther and his wife Katharina von Bora, through their daughter Margareta Luther. Hindenburg's younger brothers and sister were Otto and Bernhard. One of his first-cousins was the great-grandmother of IKEA founder Ingvar Kamprad, his family were all Lutheran Protestants in the Evangelical Church of Prussia, which since 1817 included both Calvinist and Lutheran parishioners.

Paul was proud of his family and could trace ancestors back to 1289. The dual surname was adopted in 1789 to secure an inheritance and appeared in formal documents, but in everyday life they were von Beneckendorffs. True to family tradition his father supported his family as an infantry officer. In the summer they visited his grandfather at the Hindenburg estate of Neudeck in East Prussia. At age 11 Paul entered the Cadet Corps School at Wahlstatt. At 16 he was transferred to the School in Berlin, at 18 he served as a page to the widow of King Frederick William IV of Prussia. Graduates entering the army were presented to King William I, who asked for their father's name and rank, he became a second lieutenant in the Third Regiment of Foot Guards. When the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 broke out Hindenburg wrote his parents: "I rejoice in this bright-coloured future. For the soldier war is the normal state of things…If I fall, it is the most honorable and beautiful death". During the decisive Battle of Königgrätz he was knocked unconscious by a bullet that pierced his helmet and creased the top of his skull.

Regaining his senses, he wrapped his head in a towel and resumed leading his detachment, winning a decoration. He was battalion adjutant. After weeks of marching, the Guards attacked the village of Saint Privat. Climbing a gentle slope, they came under heavy fire from the superior French rifles. After four hours the Prussian artillery came up to blast the French lines while the infantry, filled with the "holy lust of battle", swept through the French lines, his regiment suffered 1096 casualties, he became regimental adjutant. The Guards were spectators at the Battle of Sedan and for the following months sat in the siege lines surrounding Paris, he was his regiment's elected representative at the Palace of Versailles when the German Empire was proclaimed on 18 January 1871. After the French surrender he watched from afar the suppression of the Paris Commune. In 1873 he passed in the competitive entrance examination for admission to the Kriegsakademie in Berlin After three years of study, his grades were high enough for an appointment with the General Staff.

He was promoted to captain in 1878 and assigned to the staff o

Consort Niu

Consort Niu, imperial consort rank Zhaorong was an imperial consort of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty. She was a concubine to Emperor Shunzong. Nothing is known about Consort Niu's background, as there is no biography of her in the collections of empresses' and imperial consorts' biographies of the Old Book of Tang or the New Book of Tang, it is not known when she became Li Song's concubine, but it appeared to be during the time that he was serving as crown prince under his father Emperor Dezong. In 805, after Emperor Dezong's death, Li Song became emperor. Li Song had, in late 804, suffered a debilitating stroke that rendered him paralyzed and unable to speak, it was said that, as a result, after he became emperor, he met the officials and was in the palace behind a screen, attended to by Consort Niu and the eunuch Li Zhongyan. By this point, Consort Niu was carrying the title of Zhaorong, the sixth highest rank for imperial consorts, it was said that Consort Niu and Li Zhongyan formed a group of decision-makers, along with Emperor Shunzong's trusted officials Wang Shuwen and Wang Pi and the chancellor Wei Zhiyi, they made the decisions on Emperor Shunzong's behalf.

They feared Emperor Shunzong's oldest son Li Chun the Prince of Guangling, purportedly because of Li Chun's decisiveness, resisted the suggestions by a number of officials that Li Chun be created crown prince. By written proposal of the imperial scholar Zheng Yin, however, Li Chun was created crown prince anyway. Late in 805, by which time Wang Shuwen and Wang Pi had lost power, Emperor Shunzong yielded the throne to Li Chun and took the title of Taishang Huang, he died in 806. Nothing further was recorded in history about Consort Niu, it is not known whether she suffered any reprisals or when she died. Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 236

The Squaw Man (1918 film)

The Squaw Man is a 1918 American Western film directed by Cecil B. DeMille, it is a remake of DeMille's 1914 film of the same name, based upon a 1905 play by Edwin Milton Royle. The film was made as an experiment to prove DeMille's theory that a good film is based on a good story, it cost $40,000 to make and grossed $350,000. It would be remade again by DeMille in 1931; the 1918 The Squaw Man is a lost film with only the last reel extant. As described in a film magazine, Jim Wynnegate, a young Englishman, assumes the guilt for the embezzlement of trust funds that were lost in speculation by his cousin Henry, he settles in the west, where he buys a ranch. In a quarrel with Cash Hawkins, Jim is saved from death by Naturich, a young Indian woman, who shoots the outlaw, he becomes known as the squaw man. Soon a son is born, five years pass, his cousin Henry and Jim is summoned back to England to assume the title Earl of Kerhill, he having been exonerated by the deathbed confession of his cousin. He decides to send his son home to England, the parting between the mother and son are most pathetic.

Naturich, about to be arrested for the killing of Hawkins, commits suicide while huddled among her child's playthings. Elliott Dexter as Jim Wynnegate Ann Little as Naturich Katherine MacDonald as Diana, Henry's Wife Theodore Roberts as Big Bill Jack Holt as Cash Hawkins Thurston Hall as Henry, Jim's Cousin Tully Marshall as Sir John Applegate Herbert Standing as Dean Of Trentham Edwin Stevens as Bud Hardy Helen Dunbar as Dowager Countess Winter Hall as Fletcher Julia Faye as Lady Mabel Noah Beery as Tabywana Pat Moore as Little Hal Jim Mason as Grouchy Monte Blue as Happy William Brunton as Shorty Charles Ogle as Bull Cowan Guy Oliver as Kid Clarke Jack Herbert as Nick M. Hallward as Lord Tommy Clarence Geldart as Solicitor Like many American films of the time, The Squaw Man was subject to restrictions and cuts by city and state film censorship boards. For example, the Chicago Board of Censors required a cut, in Reel 4, of the intertitle "By God, you've got to make her happy", the shooting of Cash Hawkins, the shooting of the man in an ambush, the modification of the plot by the transposition of the scenes of baby moccasins, etc. to indicate that the marriage had taken place prior to when any intimacy between Naturich and Jim Wynnegate had taken place, which would include placing the intertitle "Send for the Justice of the Peace" before the moccasin scene.

The House That Shadows Built The Squaw Man on IMDb The Squaw Man at AllMovie The Squaw Man at the TCM Movie Database The Squaw Man at the American Film Institute Catalog