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William Phillips (economist)

Alban William Housego "A. W." "Bill" Phillips, MBE was a New Zealand economist who spent most of his academic career as a professor of economics at the London School of Economics. His best-known contribution to economics is the Phillips curve, which he first described in 1958, he designed and built the MONIAC hydraulic economics computer in 1949. Phillips was born at Te Rehunga near Dannevirke, New Zealand, to Harold Housego Phillips, a dairy farmer, his wife, Edith Webber, a schoolteacher and postmistress, he left New Zealand before finishing school to work in Australia at a variety of jobs, including crocodile hunter and cinema manager. In 1937 Phillips had to escape to Russia when Japan invaded China, he travelled across Russia on the Trans-Siberian Railway and made his way to Britain in 1938, where he studied electrical engineering. At the outbreak of World War II, Phillips was sent to Singapore; when Singapore fell, he escaped on the troopship Empire State, which came under attack before safely arriving in Java.

When Java, was overrun Phillips was captured by the Japanese, spent three and a half years interned in a prisoner of war camp in the Dutch East Indies. During this period he learned Chinese from other prisoners and miniaturised a secret radio, fashioned a secret water boiler for tea which he hooked into the camp lighting system. In 1946, he was made a Member of the Order of the British Empire for his war service. After the war he moved to London and began studying sociology at the London School of Economics, because of his fascination with prisoners of war's ability to organize themselves, but he became bored with sociology and developed an interest in Keynesian theory, so he switched his course to economics and within eleven years was a professor of economics. While a student at the LSE Phillips used his training as an engineer to develop MONIAC, an analogue computer which used hydraulics to model the workings of the British economy, inspiring the term hydraulic macroeconomics, it was well received and Phillips was soon offered a teaching position at the LSE.

He advanced from assistant lecturer in 1951 to professor in 1958. His work focused on British data and observed that in years when the unemployment rate was high, wages tended to be stable, or fall. Conversely, when unemployment was low, wages rose rapidly; this sort of pattern had been noticed earlier by Irving Fisher, but in 1958 Phillips published his own work on the relationship between inflation and unemployment, illustrated by the Phillips curve. Soon after the publication of Phillips' paper, the idea that there was a trade-off between a strong economy and low inflation caught the imagination of academic economists and policy-makers alike. Paul Samuelson and Robert Solow wrote an influential article describing the possibilities suggested by the Phillips curve in the context of the United States. What people think of as the Phillips curve has changed over time, but remains an important feature of macroeconomic analysis of economic fluctuations. Had he lived longer, Phillips' contributions might have been worthy of a Nobel Prize in economics.

He made several other notable contributions to economics relating to stabilization policy. He returned to Australia in 1967 for a position at Australian National University which allowed him to devote half his time to Chinese studies. In 1969 the effects of his war deprivations and smoking caught up with him, he had a stroke, prompting an early retirement and return to Auckland, New Zealand, where he taught at the University of Auckland. He died in Auckland on 4 March 1975. Mike Hally, Electronic Brains: Stories from the Dawn of the Computer Age, Joseph Henry Press, 2005, ISBN 0-309-09630-8 David Laidler, "Phillips in Retrospect". Catalogue of the Phillips papers at the Archives Division of the London School of Economics Works by or about A. W. H. Phillips 1914–1975 in libraries BBC Radio 4 programme about Bill Phillips, first broadcast February 2013

Wright Model H

The Wright Model H and Wright Model HS were enclosed fuselage aircraft built by the Wright Company A direct development of the Model F, the Model H introduced side by side seating for the two pilots, with long-span wings similar to the Model F. A short-span version was produced as the Model HS, marketed as a "Military Flyer" with the improvement of an enclosed fuselage and dual controls, its wings were shorter than the Model H for increased speed. The Model H was a two place, side-by-side configuration seating, open cockpit, biplane with twin rudders, powered with a single engine, propelled by two chain driven pusher propellers; the engine was enclosed in the nose of the aircraft with a driveshaft running rearward to the propeller drive chains. Howard Reinhart purchased a Wright Model HS for Pancho Villa, who hired him in support of his insurgent force, it was one of three aircraft in his small air force. In 2003, a Wright propeller matching the Model HS specifications was auctioned for over US$25,000.

The construction of the propeller was hand carved wood with a linen covering, metal tips and a custom finish. Model H 32 ft span 3-bay wings similar to the Model F introduced side-by-side seating. Model HS Short span 26 ft 6 in 2-bay wings Data from FlyingGeneral characteristics Crew: 2 Length: 26 ft 6 in Wingspan: 32 ft Height: 9 ft Wing area: 350 sq ft Powerplant: 1 × Wright 6-60 6-cylinder water cooled inline piston, 60 hp Propellers: 2-bladed pusher propellers aft of the wings, 8 ft 6 in diameterPerformance Maximum speed: 70 mph Stall speed: 30 mph Rate of climb: 400 ft/min Air Force photos of the Wright Model HS Image at Library of Congress

French ship Trajan (1811)

Trajan was a Téméraire-class 74-gun ship of the line of the French Navy. Commissioned in Antwerp, Trajan served in Missiessy's squadron before being stationed at Antwerp in March, along with Gaulois, for the defence of the town. At the Bourbon Restoration in 1814, she returned to Brest. In 1822 she was found to be in need of a refit, was struck in 1827. Trajan was broken up in 1829. Roche, Jean-Michel. Dictionnaire des bâtiments de la flotte de guerre française de Colbert à nos jours 1 1671 - 1870. P. 443. ISBN 978-2-9525917-0-6. OCLC 165892922. Winfield, Rif & Stephen S Roberts French Warships in the Age of Sail 1786 - 1861: Design Construction and Fates.. ISBN 9781848322042

St Mary's, Barkly West

The Parish Church of St Mary the Virgin, Barkly West, was for some years the principal Anglican parish on the Diamond Fields, South Africa, the churches established soon afterwards at the Dry Diggings – what would become Kimberley – were at first mere outstations. The first visit by an Anglican priest to the Diamond Fields, in 1870, came from the Free State when the Revd Charles Clulee, born in 1837 Birmingham, spent part of a winter holiday there from Bloemfontein. Revd. Clulee was head of the Grammar School in Bloemfontein, ran the diocesan "Native Mission". Ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the Diamond Fields – which, like the Diocese of Bloemfontein as a whole, lay beyond the Queen’s dominions – was first extended with the arrival of Archdeacon Henry Kitton from Grahamstown in November 1870, he was temporarily appointed by the bishop of Grahamstown "to the pastoral charge of the whole district on both sides of the river." Anglican services and rites were to be performed only by the archdeacon or clergymen he had authorized – until permanent arrangements were made.

Within a month, "Church of England Services" were being advertised and held at Pniel, "in the new church tent". Moving swiftly to consolidate an Anglican presence, Kitton convened a meeting of the English Church Committee in December 1870. R. W. Murray, accepting office as secretary, advocated the erection of a church building and in February 1871 the British High Commissioner Sir Henry Barkly, during his visit, laid the foundation stone, it was in February 1871 that the Revd Henry Sadler arrived via Bloemfontein, was referred to as "Chaplain to the Fields", within the Diocese of Bloemfontein. Sadler had been recruited in England during Bishop Robert Gray’s recent visit there, he saw to the completion of the church building. St Mary the Virgin, Barkly West, was dedicated with Fr E. Stenson as first rector, it held its place as the first and principal parish at this western edge of the Diocese of Bloemfontein until other parishes – such as those in Kimberley – could stand on their own. When in 1911 the Bishops of the Church of the Province of South Africa agreed to the formation of a separate Diocese of Kimberley and Kuruman, soon to be a city, had for long eclipsed Barkly West in size and importance, both civil and ecclesiastical

William Clarke (English politician)

Sir William Clarke was an English politician. Born about 1623 in London of obscure parentage, he was admitted as a student to Inner Temple in 1645 and called to the bar in 1653. On 28 January 1661 he was appointed Secretary at War, after having served for at least the previous twelve years as secretary to General Monck. Clarke served as Secretary to the Council of the Army, 1647–1649, Secretary to General Monck and the Commanders of the Army in Scotland, 1651-1660. Clarke served as the Secretary at War from 1661 to his death in 1666, as a casualty of war with the Dutch. With the Restoration, both Monck and Clarke had great favour with Charles II, who bestowed knighthood upon Clarke and gave him the use, for a term of some years, of the great lodge and 60 acres within Marylebone Park, his widow was Dorothy Clarke, they had one son, George Clarke. In November 1652 Monck became a general at sea in the First Anglo-Dutch War, concluded with an English victory in the Battle of Scheveningen in August 1653, although a peace treaty was not signed for another eight months.

The Commonwealth government of Oliver Cromwell tried to avoid further conflict with the Dutch Republic, but the Treaty of Westminster planted the seeds of future conflict. The Restoration government of Charles II negotiated a new treaty with the Dutch Republic in 1661, concluding the treaty by 1662. By 1664, English ships had begun provoking Dutch ships, the English invaded the Dutch colony of New Netherland in North America on 24 June 1664, had control of it by October; this Second Anglo-Dutch War was to cost Clarke his life. In the winter of 1666 the Dutch created a strong anti-English alliance. On 26 January, Louis declared war. In February Frederick III of Denmark did the same after having received a large sum. By the spring of 1666, the Dutch had rebuilt their fleet with much heavier ships — thirty of them possessing more cannon than any Dutch ship in early 1665 — and threatened to join with the French; the result was one of the longest naval engagements in history. Despite administrative and logistic difficulties, a fleet of eighty ships under General-at-Sea Monck, the Commonwealth veteran, set sail at the end of May 1666.

In his official capacity Clarke attended Monck aboard the Royal Charles. The Four Days' Battle began on June 1. On the 2nd day, Clarke's right leg was shattered by a cannonball. Monck reported that "he bore it bravely" but, two days Clarke died, his body was buried at Harwich. The Clarke Papers are Sir William's working papers for 1623/24 to 1666, bequeathed by George Clarke, Sir William's son, to Worcester College, Oxford; these papers, an important primary source for the English Civil War and the Interregnum, were first brought to wide public attention by the historian Charles Harding Firth. He published a four volume selection entitled The Clarke Papers; the papers themselves are 51 bound volumes with a large amount of unbound material. In 2005, the historian Frances Henderson published a new selection of Clarke's working papers taken from the large collection of his writings in shorthand