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Pauli exclusion principle

The Pauli exclusion principle is the quantum mechanical principle which states that two or more identical fermions cannot occupy the same quantum state within a quantum system simultaneously. This principle was formulated by Austrian physicist Wolfgang Pauli in 1925 for electrons, extended to all fermions with his spin–statistics theorem of 1940. In the case of electrons in atoms, it can be stated as follows: it is impossible for two electrons of a poly-electron atom to have the same values of the four quantum numbers: n, the principal quantum number, ℓ, the azimuthal quantum number, mℓ, the magnetic quantum number, ms, the spin quantum number. For example, if two electrons reside in the same orbital their n, ℓ, mℓ values are the same, therefore their ms must be different, thus the electrons must have opposite half-integer spin projections of 1/2 and −1/2. Particles with an integer spin, or bosons, are not subject to the Pauli exclusion principle: any number of identical bosons can occupy the same quantum state, as with, for instance, photons produced by a laser or atoms in a Bose–Einstein condensate.

A more rigorous statement is that concerning the exchange of two identical particles the total wave function is antisymmetric for fermions, symmetric for bosons. This means that if the space and spin coordinates of two identical particles are interchanged the wave function changes its sign for fermions and does not change for bosons; the Pauli exclusion principle describes the behavior of all fermions, while bosons are subject to other principles. Fermions include elementary particles such as quarks and neutrinos. Additionally, baryons such as protons and neutrons and some atoms are fermions, are therefore described by the Pauli exclusion principle as well. Atoms can have different overall "spin", which determines whether they are fermions or bosons — for example helium-3 has spin 1/2 and is therefore a fermion, in contrast to helium-4 which has spin 0 and is a boson; as such, the Pauli exclusion principle underpins many properties of everyday matter, from its large-scale stability, to the chemical behavior of atoms.

"Half-integer spin" means that the intrinsic angular momentum value of fermions is ℏ = h / 2 π times a half-integer. In the theory of quantum mechanics fermions are described by antisymmetric states. In contrast, particles with integer spin have symmetric wave functions. Bosons include the photon, the Cooper pairs which are responsible for superconductivity, the W and Z bosons. In the early 20th century it became evident that atoms and molecules with numbers of electrons are more chemically stable than those with odd numbers of electrons. In the 1916 article "The Atom and the Molecule" by Gilbert N. Lewis, for example, the third of his six postulates of chemical behavior states that the atom tends to hold an number of electrons in any given shell, to hold eight electrons which are arranged symmetrically at the eight corners of a cube. In 1919 chemist Irving Langmuir suggested that the periodic table could be explained if the electrons in an atom were connected or clustered in some manner. Groups of electrons were thought to occupy a set of electron shells around the nucleus.

In 1922, Niels Bohr updated his model of the atom by assuming that certain numbers of electrons corresponded to stable "closed shells". Pauli looked for an explanation for these numbers. At the same time he was trying to explain experimental results of the Zeeman effect in atomic spectroscopy and in ferromagnetism, he found an essential clue in a 1924 paper by Edmund C. Stoner, which pointed out that, for a given value of the principal quantum number, the number of energy levels of a single electron in the alkali metal spectra in an external magnetic field, where all degenerate energy levels are separated, is equal to the number of electrons in the closed shell of the noble gases for the same value of n; this led Pauli to realize that the complicated numbers of electrons in closed shells can be reduced to the simple rule of one electron per state if the electron states are defined using four quantum numbers. For this purpose he introduced a new two-valued quantum number, identified by Samuel Goudsmit and George Uhlenbeck as electron spin.

The Pauli exclusion principle with a single-valued many-particle wavefunction is equivalent to requiring the wavefunction to be antisymmetric with respect to exchange. An antisymmetric two-particle state is represented as a sum of states in which one particle is in state | x ⟩ and the other in state | y ⟩, is given by: | ψ ⟩ = ∑ x, y A | x, y ⟩, antisymmetry under exchange means that A = −A; this implies A = 0 when x = y, Pauli exclusion. It is true in any basis. Conversely, i

Debug symbol

A debug symbol is a special kind of symbol that attaches additional information to the symbol table of an object file, such as a shared library or an executable. This information allows a symbolic debugger to gain access to information from the source code of the binary, such as the names of identifiers, including variables and routines; the symbolic information may be compiled together with the module's binary file, or distributed in a separate file, or discarded during the compilation and/or linking. This information can be helpful while trying to investigate and fix a crashing application or any other fault. Debug symbols include not only the name of a function or global variable, but the name of the source code file in which the symbol occurs, as well as the line number at which it is defined. Other information includes the type of the symbol, the scope, the size, for classes, the name of the class, the methods and members in it. All of this additional information can take up quite a bit of space the filenames and line numbers.

Thus, binaries with debug symbols can become quite large several times the stripped file size. To avoid this extra size, most operating system distributions ship binaries that are stripped, i.e. from which all of the debugging symbols have been removed. This is accomplished, for example, with the strip command in unix; some compilers will output the symbolic debugging information into a separate file, rather than placing it together with the binary. The SysV Application Binary Interface includes a specification for the format of debug symbols; this allows any compatible compiler or assembler to create debug symbols in a standardized format, for any debugger, such as GDB, to gain access and display these symbols. For example, part of the important debug information includes the line of code in the source file which defines that symbol, as well as symbols associated with exception frames. Microsoft compilers generate a file called a PDB file containing debug symbols; some companies ship the PDB on their CD/DVD to enable troubleshooting and other companies allow downloading debug symbols from the Internet.

The WinDBG debugger and the Visual Studio IDE can be configured to automatically download debug symbols for Windows DLLs on demand. The PDB debug symbols that Microsoft distributes include only public functions, global variables and their data types; the Mozilla Corporation has similar infrastructure but distributes full debug information. Both Microsoft and Mozilla offer the source code to make debugging easier. On Apple platforms, debug symbols are optionally emitted during the build process as dSYM file. Apple uses the term "symbolicate" to refer to the replacement of addresses in diagnostic files with human readable values. Symbolic debuggers have existed since the mainframe era since the first introduction of suitable computer displays on which to display the symbolic debugging information, they were not restricted to high level compiled languages and were available for Assembly language programs. For the IBM/360, these produced object code that included "SYM cards"; these were ignored by the program loader but were useful to a symbolic debugger as they were kept on the same program library as the executable logic code.

CA/EZTEST Debugging data format Microsoft SYMDEB Digital Research SID Microsoft Symbol Server Microsoft Reference Source Server: Mozilla Source Server: NET libraries at SymbolSource:

Yodmongkol Vor Saengthep

Sirichai Thaiyen or Yodmongkol Vor Saengthep or Yodmongkol CP Freshmart is a professional boxer from Thailand. He is the former interim WBA Flyweight champion he is PABA Flyweight champion. Vor Saengthep began fighting professionally in 2009, he challenged for WBA interim title in Flyweight weight class against Koki Eto from Japan by TKO in round 12 on November 29, 2013 at City Hall Ground, Thailand. In December 20, 2014 he lost to Juan Carlos Reveco by TKO in the round 5 for WBA world champion title in Flyweight weight class at Polideportivo Gustavo Toro Rodríguez, San Martín, Argentina to decide a true champion. On June 17, 2018, he faced Artem Dalakian undefeated Ukrainian WBA Flyweight world title holder in Kyiv, as no. 1 challenger. In this time, he has two former WBC world champions, Sirimongkol Singwangcha and Oleydong Sithsamerchai as a boxing partners; the result is that he was knockdown 3 times before defeated TKO in round 8. Professional boxing record for Yodmongkol Vor Saengthep from BoxRec

Insomnia Publications

Insomnia Publications Ltd was a British comic book publishing company. Insomnia was an independent comics publisher founded by Managing Director Crawford Coutts in 2006 to publish his own work, it was based in Edinburgh, with various partners in London and Vancouver. Insomnia began publishing Layer Zero in an anthology title as showcase for new creators. 2009 saw the release of Cancertown and Cages, the first Insomnia Graphic Novels by which the company would make its name as an independent publisher, focused on "instant trades" or "albums" in the European model, along with art portfolio books. It was one of the first independent companies to partner with Sony to bring digital comics to the PSP. Insomnia books are aimed at teen/mature readers and most have an 18+ age rating; the focus is on stories which are unusual, literate and thought-provoking. In 2009 Insomnia launched the Vigil imprint starting with Burke and Hare. Following internal problems in early 2010, Insomnia Publications filed final accounts with Companies House on 30 June 2010.

On the 20 August 2010, Crawford Coutts issued a statement released creators from their contracts with the company. Crawford Coutts Layer Zero Anthologies by various creators Cages by Melanie Cook. Foreword by Ben Templesmith Cancertown by Cy Dethan, Stephen Downey, Melanie Cook and Nic Wilkinson. Foreword by Bryan Talbot Buskers by Jeyems Samuel, Sean Michael Wilson and Michiru Morikawa Titles in the Virgil "Bio-Graphic Novels" imprint include: Burke and Hare by Martin Conaghan and Will Pickering. Foreword by Alan Grant Art books include: MILK by Stref Official website The Red Eye Weekly News Blog Cancertown Website

Respect for Marriage Act

The Respect for Marriage Act, abbreviated as RFMA, was a proposed bill in the United States Congress that would have repealed the Defense of Marriage Act and required the U. S. federal government to recognize the validity of same-sex marriages. It was supported by former U. S. Representative Bob Barr, original sponsor of the Defense of Marriage Act, former President Bill Clinton, who signed DOMA in 1996; the administration of President Barack Obama supported RFMA. Having been introduced in several previous Congresses, the last version of the proposal was put forth in the 114th Congress in both the House and the Senate in January 2015. Senator Dianne Feinstein of California remarked that this Congress must "ensure that married, same-sex couples are treated under federal law". On June 26, 2015, the U. S. Supreme Court ruled in Obergefell v. Hodges that the 14th Amendment requires all U. S. states to recognize same-sex marriages. This decision rendered the last remaining provision of DOMA unenforceable and made the Respect for Marriage act de facto federal law.

The Respect for Marriage Act would now only remove the unenforceable provisions from the statutes. Until 1996, the federal government of the United States customarily recognized marriages conducted in any state for the purpose of federal legislation. Following an unsuccessful lawsuit aimed at legalizing same-sex marriage in Hawaii, the United States Congress passed the Defense of Marriage Act, one section of which forbids the federal government from recognizing same-sex marriages. H. R.2523, the Respect for Marriage Act, as introduced in the House on June 26, 2013, read: A BILL To repeal the Defense of Marriage Act and ensure respect for State regulation of marriage. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE; this Act may be cited as the "Respect for Marriage Act". SEC. 2. REPEAL OF SECTION ADDED TO TITLE 28, UNITED STATES CODE, BY SECTION 2 OF THE DEFENSE OF MARRIAGE ACT. Section 1738C of title 28, United States Code, is repealed, the table of sections at the beginning of chapter 115 of title 28, United States Code, is amended by striking the item relating to that section.

SEC. 3. MARRIAGE RECOGNITION. Section 7 of title 1, United States Code, is amended to read as follows: Sec. 7. Marriage For the purposes of any Federal law in which marital status is a factor, an individual shall be considered married if that individual's marriage is valid in the State where the marriage was entered into or, in the case of a marriage entered into outside any State, if the marriage is valid in the place where entered into and the marriage could have been entered into in a State. In this section, the term'State' means a State, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any other territory or possession of the United States. In addition to repealing DOMA, the legislation would have established a method for the federal government to determine whether a marriage is valid for federal purposes, a legal dilemma known as choice of laws. Anticipating that federal courts and administrators would need to determine the validity for federal purposes of a marriage, recognized in one state and not another, or in a foreign country and not by every U.

S. state, it created two tests. If celebrated in a state of the U. S. a marriage is valid for federal purposes if valid in that state. If celebrated elsewhere, a marriage is valid for federal purposes if it is valid in at least one U. S. state. Legal scholars disputed whether the language of the Respect for Marriage Act was an appropriate solution to the problem. Lynn Wardle wrote that it "is substantively biased to circumvent state policies that do not allow or recognize same-sex marriage" and "a violation of federalism". William Baude endorsed the language of the Respect for Marriage Act, he argued that the options are to give priority to the place a marriage is celebrated or to the domicile of the married couple, that one's domicile is more manipulated, that basing the choice of law on the place of celebration "promotes predictability and stability". The 2009 bill was introduced by U. S. Representative Jerrold Nadler of New York on September 15, 2009, garnered 120 cosponsors; the 2011 bill was introduced by U.

S. Representative Jerrold Nadler of New York on March 16, 2011, a U. S. Senate version was introduced by Dianne Feinstein of California on the same day. President Obama announced his support for the bill on July 19, 2011. In September 2011, Ileana Ros-Lehtinen of Florida became the 125th cosponsor of the bill in the U. S. House of Representatives and the first Republican member of the U. S. Congress to announce support for the bill. In December 2012, Richard Hanna and Charles Bass became the next Republicans to cosponsor the bill. On July 20, 2011, Sen. Patrick Leahy of Vermont chaired the first-ever congressional hearing on a proposal to repeal the Defense of Marriage Act. On October 25, 2011, Sen. Leahy announced that the Senate Judiciary Committee would begin debate on November 3, 2011, with a committee vote to happen the following week. On November 3, 2011, the bill was debated in the Senate Judiciary Committee, where its passage was a foregone conclusion due to sufficient votes to pass being found in the 10 Democratic members of the committee, who are cosponsors of the bill.

During the debate Sen. Feinstein noted that DOMA denies same-sex couples more than 1,100 federal rights and benefits that are provided to all other members of that class married couples, including rights to Social Security spousal benefits, protection from estate taxes when a spouse passes away, the ability to file taxes jointly and c

Akira Nakajima

Akira Nakajima was a Japanese ophthalmologist. At Tokyo University, Nakajima became a Doctor of Medicine in 1945 and a Doctor in Medical Science in 1953. From 1945 to 1949, he worked in the department of ophthalmology of University Hospital, University of Tokyo. From 1949 to 1954 he was the Akita Professor of the eye clinic at the Hanaoka Mine Hospital. At Juntendo University in Tokyo he worked in the ophthalmology department as an assistant professor from 1954 to 1960 and a full professor from 1960 to 1989, retiring there as professor emeritus in 1989. Dr. Nakajima has done research on many topics in ophthalmology, including Behçet's disease, clinical investigations of lamellar keratoplasty, the epidemiology of age-related cataracts in Tibet, experimental degeneration of the retina in mice, he is a member of the Academia Ophthalmologica Internationalis. He is a member of the International Council of Ophthalmology, he was the president of the Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology in 1972–1976.

He is the father of two children. 1986 — Gonin Medal awarded at the University of Lausanne 1987 — José Rizal Medal awarded in Kuala Lumpur by the Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology 2000 — 3rd Order Middle Rising Sun awarded by the Japanese Emperor Kenshi Satoh, Masayasu Bando, & Akira Nakajima. "Fluorescence in human lens." Experimental Eye Research 16.2: 167–172. Kanjiro Masuda, Akira Urayama, Mitsuko Kogure, Akira Nakajima, Kimihiro Nakae, & Goro Inaba. "Double-masked trial of cyclosporin versus colchicine and long-term open study of cyclosporin in Behçet's disease." The Lancet 333, no. 8647: 1093–1096. Tian-Sheng Hu, Q. U. Zhen, Robert D. Sperduto, Jia-Liang Zhao, Roy C. Milton, Akira Nakajima. "Age-related cataract in the Tibet Eye Study." Archives of Ophthalmology 107, no. 5: 666–669. Doi:10.1001/archopht.1989.01070010684027 Akira Nakajima. "Epidemiology of visual impairment and blindness." Current Opinion in Ophthalmology 2, no. 6: 733–738. Yoshihiro Hotta, Keiko Fujiki, Mutsuko Hayakawa, Akira Nakajima, Atsushi Kanai, Yukihiko Mashima, Yoshiki Hiida, Kei Shinoda, Keiko Yamada, Yoshihisa Oguchi.

"Clinical features of Japanese Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy with 11778 mutation of mitochondrial DNA." Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology 39, no. 1: 96–108