The Tuscaloosa News
The Tuscaloosa News is a daily newspaper serving Tuscaloosa, United States, the surrounding area in west central Alabama. In 2012, Halifax Media Group acquired the Tuscaloosa News. Prior to that, the paper's owner was The New York Times Company; the New York Times Company acquired the News in 1985 from the Public Welfare Foundation, a charitable entity. The News had been donated to that foundation by its owner Edward Marsh, along with other newspapers he owned, before his death in 1964. In 2015, Halifax was acquired by GateHouse Media; the News has 34,600 Sunday. Of the 25 daily newspapers published in Alabama, the News has the fifth-highest daily circulation. Beginning in 2001, the News constructed and occupied a new 90,000-square-foot facility overlooking the Black Warrior River; the Tuscaloosa News has received two Pulitzer Prizes. The first was in 1957, when the paper won the prize for editorial writing, by Buford Boone on the issue of segregation at the University of Alabama; the second Pulitzer Prize was awarded for the paper's outstanding reporting on the tornado outbreaks of April 25 to 28, 2011.
Because Tuscaloosa is home to the University of Alabama, the News places particular emphasis on coverage of its sports programs, maintains a separate website for that coverage. Besides its editorial offices in Tuscaloosa, the News maintains a state capital bureau in Montgomery. Since late 2012, the Tuscaloosa News has become available in the Birmingham, area; the reason for its expansion into Birmingham is to fill a perceived void in the market when the Birmingham News cut back publication into three days a week earlier in the year. Official website Today's The Tuscaloosa News front page at the Newseum websiteTideSports.com
The Sun Also Rises
The Sun Also Rises, a 1926 novel by American Ernest Hemingway, portrays American and British expatriates who travel from Paris to the Festival of San Fermín in Pamplona to watch the running of the bulls and the bullfights. An early and enduring modernist novel, it received mixed reviews upon publication. However, Hemingway biographer Jeffrey Meyers writes that it is now "recognized as Hemingway's greatest work", Hemingway scholar Linda Wagner-Martin calls it his most important novel; the novel was published in the United States in October 1926 by Scribner's. A year Jonathan Cape published the novel in London under the title Fiesta, it remains in print. Hemingway began writing the novel on his birthday—21 July—in 1925, finished the draft manuscript two months in September. After setting aside the manuscript for a short period, he worked on revisions during the winter of 1926; the basis for the novel was Hemingway's trip to Spain in 1925. The setting was unique and memorable, depicting sordid café life in Paris and the excitement of the Pamplona festival, with a middle section devoted to descriptions of a fishing trip in the Pyrenees.
Hemingway's sparse writing style, combined with his restrained use of description to convey characterizations and action, demonstrates his "Iceberg Theory" of writing. The novel is a roman à clef: the characters are based on real people in Hemingway's circle, the action is based on real events. Hemingway presents his notion that the "Lost Generation"—considered to have been decadent and irretrievably damaged by World War I—was in fact resilient and strong. Hemingway investigates the themes of love and death, the revivifying power of nature, the concept of masculinity. In the 1920s Hemingway lived in Paris, was foreign correspondent for the Toronto Star, traveled to Smyrna to report about the Greco–Turkish War, he wanted to use his journalism experience to write fiction, believing that a story could be based on real events when a writer distilled his own experiences in such a way that, according to biographer Jeffrey Meyers, "what he made up was truer than what he remembered". With his wife Hadley Richardson, Hemingway first visited the Festival of San Fermín in Pamplona, Spain, in 1923, where he was following his recent passion for bullfighting.
The couple returned to Pamplona in 1924—enjoying the trip immensely—this time accompanied by Chink Dorman-Smith, John Dos Passos, Donald Ogden Stewart and his wife. The two stayed at the hotel of his friend Juanito Quintana; that year, they brought with them a different group of American and British expatriates: Hemingway's Michigan boyhood friend Bill Smith, Stewart divorced Duff, Lady Twysden, her lover Pat Guthrie, Harold Loeb. In Pamplona, the group disintegrated. Hemingway, attracted to Duff, was jealous of Loeb, on a romantic getaway with her. Against this background was the influence of the young matador from Ronda, Cayetano Ordóñez, whose brilliance in the bullring affected the spectators. Ordóñez honored Hemingway's wife by presenting her, from the bullring, with the ear of a bull he killed. Outside of Pamplona, the fishing trip to the Irati River was marred by polluted water. Hemingway had intended to write a nonfiction book about bullfighting, but decided that the week's experiences had presented him with enough material for a novel.
A few days after the fiesta ended, on his birthday, he began writing what would become The Sun Also Rises. By 17 August, with 14 chapters written and a working title of Fiesta chosen, Hemingway returned to Paris, he finished the draft on 21 September 1925, writing a foreword the following weekend and changing the title to The Lost Generation. A few months in December 1925, Hemingway and his wife spent the winter in Schruns, where he began revising the manuscript extensively. Pauline Pfeiffer joined them in January, and—against Hadley's advice—urged him to sign a contract with Scribner's. Hemingway left Austria for a quick trip to New York to meet with the publishers, on his return, during a stop in Paris, began an affair with Pauline, he returned to Schruns to finish the revisions in March. In June, he was in Pamplona with both Pfeiffer. On their return to Paris, Richardson asked for a separation, left for the south of France. In August, alone in Paris, Hemingway completed the proofs, dedicating the novel to his son.
After the publication of the book in October, Hadley asked for a divorce. Hemingway maneuvered Boni & Liveright into terminating their contract so he could have The Sun Also Rises published by Scribner's instead. In December 1925 he wrote The Torrents of Spring—a satirical novella attacking Sherwood Anderson—and sent it to his publishers Boni & Liveright, his three-book contract with them included a termination clause should they reject a single submission. Unamused by the satire against one of their most saleable authors, Boni & Liveright rejected it and terminated the contract. Within weeks Hemingway signed a contract with Scribner's, who agreed to publish The Torrents of Spring and all of his subsequent work. Scribner's published the novel on 22 October 1926, its first edition consisted of 5090 copies. Cleonike Damianakes illustrated the dust jacket with a Hellenistic design of a seated, robed woman, her head bent to her shoulder, eyes closed, one hand holding an apple, her shoulders and a thigh exposed.
Editor Maxwell Perkins intended "Cleon's respectably sexy" design to attract "the feminine readers who control the destinies of so many novels". Two
Pamplona or Iruña is the capital city of the Autonomous Community of Navarre, in Spain, also of the former Kingdom of Navarre. Pamplona is the second largest city in the greater Basque cultural region, composed of two Spanish autonomous communities and Basque Country, the French Basque Country. Pamplona has a moderate climate being at 446 metres in terms of elevation. In addition to its elevation, Pamplona being inland results in cool nights by Spanish standards; the city is famous worldwide for the running of the bulls during the San Fermín festival, held annually from July 6 to 14. This festival was brought to literary renown with the 1926 publication of Ernest Hemingway's novel The Sun Also Rises, it is home to Osasuna, the only Navarrese football club to have played in the Spanish top division. Pamplona is located in the middle of Navarre in a rounded valley, known as the Basin of Pamplona, that links the mountainous North with the Ebro valley, it is 92 km from the city of San Sebastián, 117 km from Bilbao, 735 km from Paris and 407 km from Madrid.
The climate and landscape of the basin is a transition between those two main Navarrese geographical regions. Its central position at crossroads has served as a commercial link between those different natural parts of Navarre; the historical centre of the city is on the left bank of a tributary of the Ebro. The city has developed on both sides of the river; the climate of Pamplona is classified as oceanic with influences of a semi-continental mediterranean climate. Precipitation patterns do not vary much over the course of the year as is typical of marine climates, but both classifications are possible due to the Mediterranean patterns of somewhat drier summer months. Sunshine hours are more similar to the oceanic coastal climate in nearby Basque locations than typical Spanish mediterranean areas are, but rainfall is lower than in Bilbao and San Sebastián. In the winter of 75–74 BC, the area served as a camp for the Roman general Pompey in the war against Sertorius, he is considered to be the founder of Pompaelo, "as if Pompeiopolis" in Strabo's words, which became Pamplona, in modern Spanish.
However, in times it has been discovered that it was the chief town of the Vascones. They called it Iruña, translating to'the city'. Roman Pompaelo was located in the province of Hispania Tarraconensis, on the Ab Asturica Burdigalam, the road from Burdigala to Asturica. During the Germanic invasions of 409 and as a result of Rechiar´s ravaging, Pamplona went through much disruption and destruction, starting a cycle of general decline along with other towns across the Basque territory but managing to keep some sort of urban life. During the Visigothic period, Pamplona alternated between self-rule, Visigoth domination or Frankish suzerainty in the Duchy of Vasconia. In the years 466 to 472, Pamplona was conquered by the Visigoth count Gauteric, but they seemed to abandon the restless position soon, struggling as the Visigoth Kingdom was to survive and rearrange its lands after their defeats in Gaul. During the beginning of the 6th century, Pamplona stuck to an unstable self-rule, but in 541 Pamplona along with other northern Iberian cities was raided by the Franks.
Circa 581, the Visigoth king Liuvigild overcame the Basques, seized Pamplona, founded in the town of Victoriacum. Despite the legend citing Saint Fermin as the first bishop of Pamplona and his baptising of 40,000 pagan inhabitants in just three days, the first reliable accounts of a bishop date from 589, when bishop Liliolus attended the Third Council of Toledo. After 684 and 693, a bishop called Opilano is mentioned again in 829, followed by Wiliesind and a certain Jimenez from 880 to 890. In the 10th century, important gaps are found in bishop succession, recorded unbroken only after 1005. At the time of the Umayyad invasion in 711, the Visigothic king Roderic was fighting the Basques in Pamplona and had to turn his attention to the new enemy coming from the south. By 714-16, the Umayyad troops had reached the Basque-held Pamplona, with the town submitting after a treaty was brokered between the inhabitants and the Arab military commanders; the position was garrisoned by Berbers, who were stationed on the outside of the actual fortress, established the cemetery unearthed not long ago at the Castle Square.
During the following years, the Basques south of the Pyrenees don't seem to have shown much resistance to the Moorish thrust, Pamplona may have flourished as a launching point and centre of assembly for their expeditions into Gascony. In 740, the Wali Uqba ibn al-Hayyay imposed direct central Cordovan discipline on the city. However, in 755 the last governor of Al-Andalus, Yusuf al Fihri, sent an expedition north to quash Basque unrest near Pamplona, resulting in the defeat of the Arab army. From 755 until 781, Pamplona remained autonomous relying on regional alliances. Although sources are not clear, it seems apparent that in 778 the town was in hands of a Basque local or a Muslim rebel faction loyal to the Franks at the moment of Charlemagne's crossing of the Pyrenees to the south. However, on his way back from the failed expedition to Saragossa in August, the walls and the town were destroyed by Charlemagne (ahead of the Frankish defeat in the famous Ba
Macmillan Publishers Ltd is an international publishing company owned by Holtzbrinck Publishing Group. It operates in more than thirty others. Macmillan was founded in 1843 by Daniel and Alexander Macmillan, two brothers from the Isle of Arran, Scotland. Daniel was the business brain, while Alexander laid the literary foundations, publishing such notable authors as Charles Kingsley, Thomas Hughes, Francis Turner Palgrave, Christina Rossetti, Matthew Arnold and Lewis Carroll. Alfred Tennyson joined the list in 1884, Thomas Hardy in 1886 and Rudyard Kipling in 1890. Other major writers published by Macmillan included W. B. Yeats, Rabindranath Tagore, Nirad C. Chaudhuri, Seán O'Casey, John Maynard Keynes, Charles Morgan, Hugh Walpole, Margaret Mitchell, C. P. Snow, Rumer Godden and Ram Sharan Sharma. Beyond literature, the company created such enduring titles as Nature, the Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians and Sir Robert Harry Inglis Palgrave's Dictionary of Political Economy. George Edward Brett opened the first Macmillan office in the United States in 1869 and Macmillan sold its U.
S. operations to the Brett family, George Platt Brett, Sr. and George Platt Brett, Jr. in 1896, resulting in the creation of an American company, Macmillan Publishing called the Macmillan Company. With the split of the American company from its parent company in England, George Brett, Jr. and Harold Macmillan remained close personal friends. Macmillan Publishers re-entered the American market in 1954 under the name St. Martin's Press. Macmillan of Canada was founded in 1905. After retiring from politics in 1964, former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Harold Macmillan became chairman of the company, serving until his death in December 1986, he had been with the family firm as a junior partner from 1920 to 1940, from 1945 to 1951 while he was in the opposition in Parliament. Holtzbrinck Publishing Group purchased the company in 1999. Pearson acquired the Macmillan name in America in 1998, following its purchase of the Simon & Schuster educational and professional group. Holtzbrinck purchased it from them in 2001.
McGraw-Hill continues to market its pre-kindergarten through elementary school titles under its Macmillan/McGraw-Hill brand. The US operations of Holtzbrinck Publishing changed its name to Macmillan in October 2017, its audio publishing imprint changed its name from Audio Renaissance to Macmillan Audio, while its distribution arm was renamed from Von Holtzbrinck Publishers Services to Macmillan Publishers Services. With Pan Macmillan's purchase of Kingfisher, a British children's publisher, Roaring Brook Press publisher Simon Boughton would take oversee Kingfisher's US business in October 2007. By some estimates, as of 2009 e-books account for three to five per cent of total book sales, are the fastest growing segment of the market. According to The New York Times and other major publishers "fear that massive discounting by retailers including Amazon, Barnes & Noble and Sony could devalue what consumers are willing to pay for books." In response, the publisher introduced a new boilerplate contract for its authors that established a royalty of 20 per cent of net proceeds on e-book sales, a rate five per cent lower than most other major publishers.
Following the announcement of the Apple iPad on 27 January 2010—a product that comes with access to the iBookstore—Macmillan gave Amazon.com two options: continue to sell e-books based on a price of the retailer's choice, with the e-book edition released several months after the hardcover edition is released, or switch to the agency model introduced to the industry by Apple, in which both are released and the price is set by the publisher. In the latter case, Amazon.com would receive a 30 per cent commission. Amazon responded by pulling all Macmillan books, both physical, from their website. On 31 January 2010, Amazon chose the agency model preferred by Macmillan. In April 2012, the United States Department of Justice filed United States v. Apple Inc. naming Apple and four other major publishers as defendants. The suit alleged that they conspired to fix prices for e-books, weaken Amazon.com's position in the market, in violation of antitrust law. In December 2013, a federal judge approved a settlement of the antitrust claims, in which Macmillan and the other publishers paid into a fund that provided credits to customers who had overpaid for books due to the price-fixing.
In 2010, Macmillan Education submitted to an investigation on grounds of fraudulent practices. The Macmillan division admitted to bribery in an attempt to secure a contract for an education project in southern Sudan; as a direct result of the investigation, sanctions were applied by the World Bank Group, namely a 6-year debarment declaring the company ineligible to be awarded Bank-financed contracts. In December 2011, Bedford and Worth Publishing Group, Macmillan's higher education group, changed its name to Macmillan Higher Education while retaining the Bedford and Worth name for its k–12 educational unit; that month, Brian Napack resigned as Macmillan president while staying on for transitional purposes. In May 2015, London-based Macmillan Science and Education merged with Berlin-based Springer Science+Business Media to form Springer Nature, jointly controlled by Holtzbrinck Publishing Group and BC Partners. US publishing divis
Piggott is a city in Clay County, United States, one of that county's two seats. It is the northern terminus of the Arkansas segment of the Crowley's Ridge Parkway, a National Scenic Byway; as of the 2010 census, Piggott's population was 3,849. The town was named after his sister. Piggott is best known for its association with American writer and Nobel laureate Ernest Hemingway, whose second wife Pauline Pfeiffer was the daughter of prominent local landowner and businessman Paul Pfeiffer. After meeting and marrying in Paris in the late 1920s, Hemingway and Pauline made frequent and lengthy visits to her parents' home in Piggott, where Ernest Hemingway wrote portions of A Farewell to Arms, other works; the Pfeiffer House and Carriage House are now preserved as the Hemingway-Pfeiffer Museum and Educational Center, run by Arkansas State University. The town was mentioned in the 1990s television sitcom Evening Shade, set in Arkansas; the high school football team coached by "Wood Newton" celebrated when it tied Piggott High in a game, which it always lost.
Piggott was one of the filming sites for Andy Griffith's acting debut, A Face in the Crowd. The film, which starred Patricia Neal, featured several Piggott citizens as extras. Scenes were filmed in the northeast Arkansas town of Paragould. Several locations in Piggott are featured in the movie, including the Piggott Mohawk football field, the old Clay County jail, a swimming pool at the Matilda and Karl Pfeiffer residence. Piggott was chosen when a friend of Ernest Hemingway. Recommended the site to writer Budd Schulberg. Piggott is located in eastern Clay County at 36°23′2″N 90°11′34″W, on the eastern edge of Crowley's Ridge. U. S. Route 62 passes through the city, running west 25 miles to Corning and northeast 45 miles to Interstate 55 at New Madrid, Missouri; the northern terminus of U. S. Route 49 is in Piggott. According to the United States Census Bureau, Piggott has a total area of 5.3 square miles, of which 5.2 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles, or 1.01%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,894 people, 1,726 households, 1,101 families residing in the city.
The population density was 751.8 people per square mile. There were 1,912 housing units at an average density of 369.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.59% White, 0.23% Black or African American, 0.18% Native American, 0.18% from other races, 0.82% from two or more races. 0.77% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,726 households out of which 27.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.0% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.2% were non-families. 33.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.20 and the average family size was 2.79. In the city, the population was spread out with 22.1% under the age of 18, 7.4% from 18 to 24, 23.9% from 25 to 44, 23.3% from 45 to 64, 23.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.3 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $25,404, the median income for a family was $35,625. Males had a median income of $25,482 versus $19,405 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,382. About 8.1% of families and 9.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.2% of those under age 18 and 15.9% of those age 65 or over. Mayor: Travis Williams City Clerk/Treasurer: Julie McMillon District Judge: David Copelin City Attorney: Kimberly B. Dale Police Chief: Jeremy Wicker Fire Chief: Mike Haley Street Superintendent: Gary Chronister Water Superintendent: Bradley Scheffler Electric Superintendent: Bruce Swan Power Plant Superintendent: David Finley State Senate District: 20 State House District: 56 U. S. Congressional District: 1 The Piggott School District is composed of two campuses. Piggott Elementary School is the campus for grades K-6, while Piggott High School is composed of grades 7-12.
In recent years, the school has enrolled around 1,000 students per school year. The schools offer several extracurricular activities for students including athletics and various clubs and organizations; the athletic program includes boys' football, basketball, baseball and track and field. Girls' sports include basketball, tennis, softball and field, golf. Most the school added a skeet shooting team to its list of activities. PHS opened a new gymnasium during the 2007-2008 athletic season. Frances Greer, opera singer Pauline Pfeiffer, second wife of Ernest Hemingway City of Piggott official website Crowley's Ridge Parkway - Arkansas Hemingway-Pfeiffer Museum and Educational Center Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture entry
Parkersburg is a city in Butler County, United States. The population was 1,870 in the 2010 census, a decline from 1,889 in the 2000 census. Parkersburg, although not the county seat, has the highest population of all the cities in Butler County; the first known settlers to the Parkersburg area were John Connell and his son William, who built a log cabin in 1857. A railroad company surveyed the area in the early 1860s. A depot was erected in 1865 and two railroads, the Illinois Central and the Chicago North Western, were built through the town; the town was soon platted and recorded and given the name of "Parkersburg" in honor of Pascal P. Parker, a prominent settler and the town's first postmaster; the first major business was a hotel built by Thomas Williams, called The Williams House. It became known as the Commercial House. Parkersburg was incorporated on December 7, 1874; the first "School House" was built in the 1860s. Parkersburg became an independent school district in the Spring of 1871.
A new school was built in 1872. This building burned beyond repair on October 9, 1893 in the "great fire of Parkersburg" which destroyed most of the business district. In 1894 a modern, three-story, brick structure was built. In 1930 the school added an gymnasium; the first electric power was furnished by the Parkersburg Electric Light & Power Company, composed of local citizens who built the plant in 1898 at a cost of ten thousand dollars. Parkersburg's roads were paved around 1920; the first water tower only had a capacity of 40,000 gallons. Seven people died in Parkersburg and two in rural New Hartford from injuries sustained when a confirmed EF5 tornado struck the region on May 25, 2008. At least 70 individuals were transported to nearby hospitals; the south side of Parkersburg was destroyed and turned into rubble. Over 400 homes were destroyed or damaged, the roof was taken off the high school and destroyed, the Elementary School was damaged as well; the surviving residents were evacuated. Today, Parkersburg is considered to be a model of disaster recovery and resiliency in the aftermath of a natural disaster.
The local water utility called the Iowa Rural Water Association for assistance after the city went on a boiled water notice. Utility infrastructure was left intact, but the tornado and clean-up efforts damaged the connections in numerous homes. Parkersburg's longitude and latitude coordinates in decimal form are 42.574419, -92.786729. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.42 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,870 people, 779 households, 529 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,316.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 870 housing units at an average density of 612.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 99.0% White, 0.2% African American, 0.2% Asian, 0.1% from other races, 0.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.0% of the population. There were 779 households of which 31.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.7% were married couples living together, 9.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 32.1% were non-families.
29.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.96. The median age in the city was 38.9 years. 27% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.1% male and 51.9% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,889 people, 811 households, 550 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,655.7 people per square mile. There were 850 housing units at an average density of 745.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.99% White, 0.11% African American, 0.05% Native American, 0.05% Asian, 0.16% from other races, 0.64% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.53% of the population. There were 811 households out of which 29.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.0% were married couples living together, 9.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.1% were non-families.
30.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.89. Age spread: 25.1% under the age of 18, 6.6% from 18 to 24, 25.7% from 25 to 44, 21.5% from 45 to 64, 21.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $32,083, the median income for a family was $40,313. Males had a median income of $31,949 versus $20,000 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,978. About 5.5% of families and 7.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.2% of those under age 18 and 10.4% of those age 65 or over. Miracle Park on the west side of Parkersburg is a premier outdoor recreational attraction, it encompasses two expansive and separate playground areas, one for younger children and another for older children.
Miracle Park is one of the top outdoor playgrounds. Miracle Park includes an outdoor swimming pool, three shelter houses, concrete basketball courts, a granite Veterans Memorial constructed in 2010. Schwartz Memorial Park on th
For Whom the Bell Tolls
For Whom the Bell Tolls is a novel by Ernest Hemingway published in 1940. It tells the story of Robert Jordan, a young American in the International Brigades attached to a republican guerrilla unit during the Spanish Civil War; as a dynamiter, he is assigned to blow up a bridge during an attack on the city of Segovia. The novel is regarded as one of Hemingway's best works, along with The Sun Also Rises, A Farewell to Arms, The Old Man and the Sea. Ernest Hemingway wrote For Whom the Bell Tolls in Cuba. In Cuba, he lived in the Hotel Ambos Mundos; the novel was finished in July 1940 at the InterContinental New York Barclay Hotel in New York City and published in October. It is based on Hemingway's experiences during the Spanish Civil War and features an American protagonist, named Robert Jordan, who fights with Spanish guerillas for the Republicans; the characters in the novel include those who are purely fictional, those based on real people but fictionalized, those who were actual figures in the war.
Set in the Sierra de Guadarrama mountain range between Madrid and Segovia, the action takes place during four days and three nights. For Whom the Bell Tolls became a Book of the Month Club choice, sold half a million copies within months, was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize, became a literary triumph for Hemingway. Published on 21 October 1940, the first edition print run was 75,000 copies priced at $2.75. The book's title is taken from the metaphysical poet John Donne's series of meditations and prayers on health and sickness published in 1624 as Devotions upon Emergent Occasions Meditation XVII; the poem is given to schoolchildren to study. Hemingway quotes part of the meditation in the book's epigraph, which in turn refers to the practice of funeral tolling: No man is an Island, intire of it selfe; the point made by the choice of this title and epigraph is that the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939, a major topic of debate in Western intellectual and political circles, is not of importance only to Spaniards.
Furthermore, the title and epigraph can be interpreted as a reference to the themes of death within the novel between the characters of Robert Jordan and Anselmo. The novel graphically describes the brutality of the civil war in Spain during this time, it is told through the thoughts and experiences of the protagonist, Robert Jordan. It draws on Hemingway's own experiences in the Spanish Civil War as a reporter for the North American Newspaper Alliance. Jordan is an American who had lived in Spain during the pre-war period, fights as an irregular soldier for the Republic against Francisco Franco's fascist forces. An experienced dynamiter, he is ordered by a Russian general to travel behind enemy lines and destroy a bridge with the aid of a band of local anti-fascist guerrillas, in order to prevent enemy troops from responding to an upcoming offensive. On his mission, Jordan meets the rebel Anselmo who brings him to the hidden guerrilla camp and acts as an intermediary between Jordan and the other guerrilla fighters.
In the camp, Jordan encounters María, a young Spanish woman whose life had been shattered by her parents' execution and her rape at the hands of the Falangists at the outbreak of the war. His strong sense of duty clashes with both the unwillingness of the guerrilla leader Pablo to commit to an operation that would endanger himself and his band, Jordan's own new-found lust for life which arises from his love for María. Pablo's wife, with the support of the other guerillas, displaces Pablo as the group leader and pledges the allegiance of the guerrillas to Jordan's mission; when another band of anti-fascist guerrillas, led by El Sordo, is surrounded and killed during a raid they conducted in support of Jordan's mission, Pablo steals the dynamite detonators and exploder, hoping to prevent the demolition and thereby avoid fascist reprisals. Although he disposes of the detonators and exploder by throwing them down a gorge into the river, Pablo regrets abandoning his comrades and returns to assist in the operation.
The enemy, apprised of the coming offensive, has prepared to ambush it in force and it seems unlikely that the blown bridge will do much to prevent a rout. Regardless of this, Jordan understands that he must still demolish the bridge unless he receives explicit orders not to. Lacking the detonation equipment stolen by Pablo, Jordan plans an alternative method to explode the dynamite by using hand grenades with wires attached so that their pins can be pulled from a distance; this improvised plan is more dangerous because the men must be nearer to the explosion. While Pilar and other guerrilla members attack the posts at the two ends of the bridge and Anselmo plant and detonate the dynamite, costing Anselmo his life when he is hit by a piece of shrapnel. While escaping, Jordan is maimed. Knowing that his wound is severe enough that he is unlikely to survive, that he would slow the others down, he bids goodbye to María and ensures that she escapes to safety with the surviving guerrillas, he refuses an offer from Agustín to shoot him and lies in agony, hoping to kill an enemy officer and delay their pursui