Timothy was an early Christian evangelist and the first Christian bishop of Ephesus, who tradition relates died around the year AD 97. Timothy was from the Lycaonian city of Lystra in Asia Minor, born of a Jewish mother who had become a Christian believer, a Greek father; the Apostle Paul met him during his second missionary journey and he became Paul’s companion and co-worker along with Silas. The New Testament indicates that Timothy traveled with Paul the Apostle, his mentor. Paul entrusted him with important assignments, he is addressed as the recipient of the Second Epistles to Timothy. Timothy was a native of Lystra in Lycaonia; when Paul and Barnabas first visited Lystra, Paul healed a person crippled from birth, leading many of the inhabitants to accept his teaching. When he returned a few years with Silas, Timothy was a respected member of the Christian congregation, as were his grandmother Lois and his mother Eunice, both Jews. In 2 Timothy 1:5, his mother and grandmother are noted as eminent for their faith.
Timothy is said to have been acquainted with the Scriptures since childhood. In 1 Corinthians 16:10 there is a suggestion that he was by nature reserved and timid: "When Timothy comes, see that you put him at ease among you, for he is doing the work of the Lord". Timothy's father was a Greek Gentile, thus Timothy had not been circumcised and Paul now ensured that this was done, according to the text Acts 16:1–3, to ensure Timothy's acceptability to the Jews whom they would be evangelizing. According to McGarvey: "Yet we see him in the case before us, circumcising Timothy with his own hand, this'on account of certain Jews who were in those quarters'"; this did not compromise the decision made at the Council of Jerusalem, that gentile believers were not required to be circumcised. Timothy became St Paul’s disciple, his constant companion and co-worker in preaching. In the year 52, Paul and Silas took Timothy along with them on their journey to Macedonia. Augustine extols his zeal and disinterestedness in forsaking his country, his house, his parents, to follow the apostle, to share in his poverty and sufferings.
Timothy may have been subject to ill health or "frequent ailments", Paul encouraged him to "use a little wine for your stomach's sake". When Paul went on to Athens and Timothy stayed for some time at Beroea and Thessalonica before joining Paul at Corinth. Timothy next appears in Acts during Paul's stay in Ephesus, in late 56 or early 57 Paul sent him forth to Macedonia with the aim that he would arrive at Corinth. Timothy arrived at Corinth. Timothy was with Paul in Corinth during the winter of 57–58 when Paul dispatched his Letter to the Romans. According to Acts 20:3–6, Timothy was with Paul in Macedonia just before Passover in 58. "That is the last mention of Timothy in Acts", Raymond Brown notes. In the year 64, Paul left Timothy at Ephesus, his relationship with Paul was close and Paul entrusted him with missions of great importance. Timothy's name appears as the co-author on 2 Corinthians, Colossians, 1 Thessalonians, 2 Thessalonians, Philemon. Paul wrote to the Philippians about Timothy, "I have no one like him".
When Paul was in prison and awaiting martyrdom, he summoned his faithful friend Timothy for a last farewell. That Timothy was jailed at least once during the period of the writing of the New Testament is implied by the writer of Hebrews mentioning Timothy's release at the end of the epistle; the apocryphal Acts of Timothy states that in the year 97, the 80-year-old bishop tried to halt a procession in honor of the goddess Diana by preaching the gospel. The angry pagans beat him, dragged him through the streets, stoned him to death. Timothy is venerated as an apostle and martyr by the Eastern Orthodox Church, with his feast day on 22 January; the General Roman Calendar venerates Timothy together with Titus by a memorial on 26 January, the day after the Feast of the Conversion of Saint Paul. From the 13th century until 1969 the feast of Timothy was on 24 January, the day before that of the Conversion of Saint Paul. Along with Titus and Silas, Timothy is commemorated by the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America and the Episcopal Church on 26 January.
Timothy's feast is kept by the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod on 24 January. In the 4th century, the relics of Timothy were transferred from Ephesus to Constantinople and placed in the Church of the Holy Apostles near the tombs of St Andrew and St Luke. On in the 13th century, the relics seem to have been taken to Italy by a count returning from the crusades, buried around 1239 in the Termoli Cathedral; the remains were re-discovered in 1945, during restoration works. Timothy is the patron invoked against intestinal disorders. Eunice Lois Acts of Timothy First Epistle to Timothy Second Epistle to Timothy Clement of Rome St. Timothy and Martyr Saints Colonnade Statue in St Peter's Square
Epistle to the Romans
The Epistle to the Romans or Letter to the Romans shortened to Romans, is the sixth book in the New Testament. Biblical scholars agree that it was composed by the Apostle Paul to explain that salvation is offered through the gospel of Jesus Christ, it is the longest of the Pauline epistles. In the opinion of Jesuit scholar Joseph Fitzmyer, the book "overwhelms the reader by the density and sublimity of the topic with which it deals, the gospel of the justification and salvation of Jew and Greek alike by the grace of God through faith in Jesus Christ, revealing the uprightness and love of God the Father."N. T. Wright notes that Romans is...neither a systematic theology nor a summary of Paul's lifework, but it is by common consent his masterpiece. It dwarfs most of his other writings, an Alpine peak towering over villages. Not all onlookers have viewed it in the same light or from the same angle, their snapshots and paintings of it are sometimes remarkably unalike. Not all climbers have taken the same route up its sheer sides, there is frequent disagreement on the best approach.
What nobody doubts is that we are here dealing with a work of massive substance, presenting a formidable intellectual challenge while offering a breathtaking theological and spiritual vision. The scholarly consensus is. C. E. B. Cranfield, in the introduction to his commentary on Romans, says: The denial of Paul's authorship of Romans by such critics... is now rightly relegated to a place among the curiosities of NT scholarship. Today no responsible criticism disputes its Pauline origin; the evidence of its use in the Apostolic Fathers is clear, before the end of the second century it is listed and cited as Paul's. Every extant early list of NT books includes it among his letters; the external evidence of authenticity could indeed hardly be stronger. The letter was most written while Paul was in Corinth while he was staying in the house of Gaius, transcribed by Tertius, his amanuensis. There are a number of reasons. Paul was about to travel to Jerusalem on writing the letter, which matches Acts where it is reported that Paul stayed for three months in Greece.
This implies Corinth as it was the location of Paul's greatest missionary success in Greece. Additionally, Phoebe was a deacon of the church in Cenchreae, a port to the east of Corinth, would have been able to convey the letter to Rome after passing through Corinth and taking a ship from Corinth's west port. Erastus, mentioned in Romans 16:23 lived in Corinth, being the city's commissioner for public works and city treasurer at various times, again indicating that the letter was written in Corinth; the precise time at which it was written is not mentioned in the epistle, but it was written when the collection for Jerusalem had been assembled and Paul was about to "go unto Jerusalem to minister unto the saints", that is, at the close of his second visit to Greece, during the winter preceding his last visit to that city. The majority of scholars writing on Romans propose the letter was written in late 55/early 56 or late 56/early 57. Early 55 and early 58 both have some support, while German New Testament scholar Gerd Lüdemann argues for a date as early as 51/52, following on from Knox, who proposed 53/54.
Lüdemann is the only serious challenge to the consensus of mid to late 50s. Some manuscripts have a subscription at the end of the Epistle: προς Ρωμαιους is found in these manuscripts: Codex Sinaiticus, Codex Alexandrinus, Codex Vaticanus, Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus, Codex Claromontanus. For ten years before writing the letter, Paul had traveled around the territories bordering the Aegean Sea evangelizing. Churches had been planted in the Roman provinces of Galatia, Macedonia and Asia. Paul, considering his task complete, wanted to preach the gospel in Spain, where he would not "build upon another man’s foundation"; this allowed him to visit Rome on a long-time ambition of his. The letter to the Romans, in part, gives reasons for his visit. In addition to Paul's geographic location, his religious views are important. First, Paul was a Hellenistic Jew with a Pharisaic background, integral to his identity: see Paul the Apostle and Judaism for details, his concern for his people runs throughout the letter.
Second, the other side of the dialogue is Paul's conversion and calling to follow Christ in the early 30s. The most probable ancient account of the beginning of Christianity in Rome is given by a 4th-century writer known as Ambrosiaster: It is established that there were Jews living in Rome in the times of the Apostles, that those Jews who had believed passed on to the Romans the tradition that they ought to profess Christ but keep the law... One ought
Amphipolis is a municipality in the Serres regional unit of Greece. The seat of the municipality is Rodolivos, it was an ancient Greek polis, a Roman city, whose large remains can still be seen. Amphipolis, an Athenian colony, was the seat of the battle between the Spartans and Athenians in 422 BC, the place where Alexander the Great prepared for campaigns leading to his invasion of Asia. Alexander's three finest admirals, Nearchus and Laomedon, resided in Amphipolis, the place where, after Alexander's death, his wife Roxana and their small son Alexander IV were exiled and murdered. Excavations in and around the city have revealed ancient walls and tombs; the finds are displayed at the archaeological museum of Amphipolis. At the nearby vast Kasta burial mound, an ancient Macedonian tomb has been revealed; the Lion of Amphipolis monument nearby is a popular destination for visitors. It was located within the region of Edonis. Throughout the 5th century BC, Athens sought to consolidate its control over Thrace, strategically important because of its primary materials, the sea routes vital for Athens' supply of grain from Scythia.
After a first unsuccessful attempt at colonisation in 497 BC by the Milesian Tyrant Histiaeus, the Athenians founded a first colony at Ennea-Hodoi in 465 BC, but these first ten thousand colonists were massacred by the Thracians. A second attempt took place in 437 BC on the same site under the guidance of Hagnon, son of Nicias, successful; the city and its first walls date from this time. The new settlement took the name of Amphipolis, a name, the subject of much debate about its etymology. Thucydides claims the name comes from the fact that the Strymon River flows "around the city" on two sides. However, a more probable explanation is the one given by Julius Pollux: that the name indicates the vicinity of an isthmus. Amphipolis became the main power base of the Athenians in Thrace and a target of choice for their Spartan adversaries; the Athenian population remained much in the minority in the city. For this reason Amphipolis remained an independent city and an ally of the Athenians, rather than a colony or member of the Athens-led Delian League.
However, in 424 BC the Spartan general Brasidas took control of the city. A rescue expedition led by the Athenian general, historian, Thucydides had to settle for securing Eion and could not retake Amphipolis, a failure for which Thucydides was sentenced to exile. A new Athenian force under the command of Cleon failed once more in 422 BC during the Battle of Amphipolis at which both Cleon and Brasidas lost their lives. Brasidas survived long enough to hear of the defeat of the Athenians and was buried at Amphipolis with impressive pomp. From on he was regarded as the founder of the city and honoured with yearly games and sacrifices; the city itself kept its independence until the reign of king Philip II despite several Athenian attacks, notably because of the government of Callistratus of Aphidnae. In 357 BC, Philip succeeded where the Athenians had failed and conquered the city, thereby removing the obstacle which Amphipolis presented to Macedonian control over Thrace. According to the historian Theopompus, this conquest came to be the object of a secret accord between Athens and Philip II, who would return the city in exchange for the fortified town of Pydna, but the Macedonian king betrayed the accord, refusing to cede Amphipolis and laying siege to Pydna as well.
The city was not incorporated into the Macedonian kingdom, for some time preserved its institutions and a certain degree of autonomy. The border of Macedonia was not moved further east. Nomenclature, the calendar and the currency were all replaced by Macedonian equivalents. In the reign of Alexander the Great, Amphipolis was an important naval base, the birthplace of three of the most famous Macedonian admirals: Nearchus and Laomedon, whose burial place is most marked by the famous lion of Amphipolis; the importance of the city in this period is shown by Alexander the Great's decision that it was one of the six cities at which large luxurious temples costing 1,500 talents were built. Alexander prepared for campaigns here against Thrace in 335 BC and his army and fleet assembled near the port before the invasion of Asia; the port was used as naval base during his campaigns in Asia. After Alexander's death, his wife Roxana and their young son Alexander IV were exiled by Cassander and murdered here.
Throughout Macedonian sovereignty Amphipolis was a strong fortress of great strategic and economic importance, as shown by inscriptions. Amphipolis became one of the main stops on the Macedonian royal road, on the Via Egnatia, the principal Roman road which crossed the southern Balkans. Apart from the ramparts of the lower town, the gymnasium and a set of well-preserved frescoes from a wealthy villa are the only artifacts from this peri
Cyprus the Republic of Cyprus, is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean, located south of Turkey, west of Syria and Lebanon, northwest of Israel, north of Egypt, southeast of Greece. The earliest known human activity on the island dates to around the 10th millennium BC. Archaeological remains from this period include the well-preserved Neolithic village of Khirokitia, Cyprus is home to some of the oldest water wells in the world. Cyprus was settled by Mycenaean Greeks in two waves in the 2nd millennium BC; as a strategic location in the Middle East, it was subsequently occupied by several major powers, including the empires of the Assyrians and Persians, from whom the island was seized in 333 BC by Alexander the Great. Subsequent rule by Ptolemaic Egypt, the Classical and Eastern Roman Empire, Arab caliphates for a short period, the French Lusignan dynasty and the Venetians, was followed by over three centuries of Ottoman rule between 1571 and 1878.
Cyprus was placed under the UK's administration based on the Cyprus Convention in 1878 and was formally annexed by Britain in 1914. While Turkish Cypriots made up 18% of the population, the partition of Cyprus and creation of a Turkish state in the north became a policy of Turkish Cypriot leaders and Turkey in the 1950s. Turkish leaders for a period advocated the annexation of Cyprus to Turkey as Cyprus was considered an "extension of Anatolia" by them. Following nationalist violence in the 1950s, Cyprus was granted independence in 1960; the crisis of 1963–64 brought further intercommunal violence between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots, which displaced more than 25,000 Turkish Cypriots into enclaves and brought the end of Turkish Cypriot representation in the republic. On 15 July 1974, a coup d'état was staged by Greek Cypriot nationalists and elements of the Greek military junta in an attempt at enosis, the incorporation of Cyprus into Greece; this action precipitated the Turkish invasion of Cyprus on 20 July, which led to the capture of the present-day territory of Northern Cyprus in the following month, after a ceasefire collapsed, the displacement of over 150,000 Greek Cypriots and 50,000 Turkish Cypriots.
A separate Turkish Cypriot state in the north was established by unilateral declaration in 1983. These events and the resulting political situation are matters of a continuing dispute; the Republic of Cyprus has de jure sovereignty over the entire island, including its territorial waters and exclusive economic zone, with the exception of the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, which remain under the UK's control according to the London and Zürich Agreements. However, the Republic of Cyprus is de facto partitioned into two main parts: the area under the effective control of the Republic, located in the south and west, comprising about 59% of the island's area. Another nearly 4% of the island's area is covered by the UN buffer zone; the international community considers the northern part of the island as territory of the Republic of Cyprus occupied by Turkish forces. The occupation is viewed as illegal under international law, amounting to illegal occupation of EU territory since Cyprus became a member of the European Union.
Cyprus is a major tourist destination in the Mediterranean. With an advanced, high-income economy and a high Human Development Index, the Republic of Cyprus has been a member of the Commonwealth since 1961 and was a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement until it joined the European Union on 1 May 2004. On 1 January 2008, the Republic of Cyprus joined the eurozone; the earliest attested reference to Cyprus is the 15th century BC Mycenaean Greek, ku-pi-ri-jo, meaning "Cypriot", written in Linear B syllabic script. The classical Greek form of the name is Κύπρος; the etymology of the name is unknown. Suggestions include: the Greek word for the Mediterranean cypress tree, κυπάρισσος the Greek name of the henna tree, κύπρος an Eteocypriot word for copper, it has been suggested, for example, that it has roots in the Sumerian word for copper or for bronze, from the large deposits of copper ore found on the island. Through overseas trade, the island has given its name to the Classical Latin word for copper through the phrase aes Cyprium, "metal of Cyprus" shortened to Cuprum.
The standard demonym relating to Cyprus or its people or culture is Cypriot. The terms Cypriote and Cyprian are used, though less frequently; the earliest confirmed site of human activity on Cyprus is Aetokremnos, situated on the south coast, indicating that hunter-gatherers were active on the island from around 10,000 BC, with settled village communities dating from 8200 BC. The arrival of the first humans correlates with the extinction of the dwarf hippos and dwarf elephants. Water wells discovered by archaeologists in western Cyprus are believed to be among the oldest in the world, dated at 9,000 to 10,500 years old. Remains of an 8-month-old cat were discovered buried with a human body at a separate Neolithic site in Cyprus; the grave is estimated to be 9,500 years old, predating ancient Egyptian civilisation and pushing back the ear
Barnabas, born Joseph, was an early Christian, one of the prominent Christian disciples in Jerusalem. According to Acts 4:36, Barnabas was a Cypriot Jew. Named an apostle in Acts 14:14, he and Paul the Apostle undertook missionary journeys together and defended Gentile converts against the Judaizers, they traveled together making more converts, participated in the Council of Jerusalem Barnabas and Paul evangelized among the "God-fearing" Gentiles who attended synagogues in various Hellenized cities of Anatolia. Barnabas' story appears in the Acts of the Apostles, Paul mentions him in some of his epistles. Tertullian named him as the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews, but this and other attributions are conjecture. Clement of Alexandria and some scholars have ascribed the Epistle of Barnabas to him, but his authorship is disputed. Although the date and circumstances of his death are unverifiable, Christian tradition holds that Barnabas was martyred at Salamis, Cyprus, in 61 AD, he is traditionally identified as the founder of the Cypriot Orthodox Church.
The feast day of Barnabas is celebrated on June 11. Barnabas is identified as the cousin of Mark the Evangelist on the basis of Colossians 4. Infrequent occurrence in the Septuagint to its presence in Josephus and Philo, "anepsios" carries the connotation of "cousin"; some traditions hold that Aristobulus of Britannia, one of the Seventy Disciples, was the brother of Barnabas. Acts 11:24 describes Barnabas as "a good man, full of the Holy Spirit and of faith", his Hellenic Jewish parents called him Joseph, but when recounting the story of how he sold all his goods and gave the money to the apostles in Jerusalem, the Book of Acts says the apostles called him Barnabas. The Greek text of the Acts 4:36 explains the name as υἱὸς παρακλήσεως, hyios paraklēseōs, meaning "son of encouragement" or "son of consolation". One theory is that this is from the Aramaic בר נחמה, bar neḥmā, meaning'son consolation'. Another is that it is related to the Hebrew word nabī meaning "prophet". In the Syriac Bible, the phrase "son of consolation" is translated bara dbuya'a.
Barnabas appears in Acts, a history of the early Christian church. He appears in several of Paul's epistles. Barnabas, a native of Cyprus and a Levite, is first mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles as a member of the early Christian community in Jerusalem, who sold some land that he owned and gave the proceeds to the community; when the future Apostle Paul returned to Jerusalem after his conversion, Barnabas introduced him to the apostles. Easton, in his Bible Dictionary, supposes that they had been fellow students in the school of Gamaliel; the successful preaching of Christianity at Antioch to non-Jews led the church at Jerusalem to send Barnabas there to oversee the movement. He found the work so extensive and weighty that he went to Tarsus in search of Paul, "an admirable colleague", to assist him. Paul labored with him for a whole year. At the end of this period, the two were sent up to Jerusalem with contributions from the church at Antioch for the relief of the poorer Christians in Judea.
They returned to Antioch taking the cousin or nephew of Barnabas. They went to Cyprus and some of the principal cities of Pamphylia and Lycaonia. After recounting what the governor of Cyprus Sergius Paulus believed, Acts 13:9 speaks of Barnabas's companion no longer as Saul, but as Paul, his Roman name, refers to the two no longer as "Barnabas and Saul" as heretofore, but as "Paul and Barnabas". Only in 14:14 and 15:12-25 does Barnabas again occupy the first place, in the first passage with recollection of 14:12, in the last 2, because Barnabas stood in closer relation to the Jerusalem church than Paul. Paul appears as the more eloquent missionary, whence the Lystrans regarded him as Hermes and Barnabas as Zeus; the King James Version renders the Greek name "Zeus" by the Latin name "Jupiter". Returning from this first missionary journey to Antioch, they were again sent up to Jerusalem to consult with the church there regarding the relation of Gentiles to the church. According to Galatians 2:9-10, Barnabas was included with Paul in the agreement made between them, on the one hand, James and John, on the other, that the two former should in the future preach to the pagans, not forgetting the poor at Jerusalem.
This matter having been settled, they returned again to Antioch, bringing the agreement of the council that Gentiles were to be admitted into the church without having to adopt Jewish practices. After they had returned to Antioch from the Jerusalem council, they spent some time there. Peter came and associated there with the Gentiles, eating with them, until criticized for this by some disciples of James, as against Mosaic law. Upon their remonstrances, Peter yielded through fear of displeasing them, refused to eat any longer with the Gentiles. Barnabas followed his example. Paul considered that they "walked not uprightly according to the truth of the gospel" and upbraided them before the whole church. Paul asked Barnabas to accompany him on another journey. Barnabas wished to take John Mark along, but Paul did not, as he had left them on the earlier journey; the dispute
Kavala is a city in northern Greece, the principal seaport of eastern Macedonia and the capital of Kavala regional unit. It is situated on the Bay of Kavala, across from the island of Thasos and on the Egnatia motorway, a one-and-a-half-hour drive to Thessaloniki and a forty-minute drive to Drama and Xanthi, it is about 150 kilometers west of Alexandroupoli. In Antiquity the name of the city was Neapolis. During the Middle Ages, it was renamed Christoupolis; the etymology of the modern name of the city is disputed. Some mention an ancient Greek village Skavala near the town. Other proposals include either from the Italian cavallo, its nickname is The cyan city. The city was founded in the late 7th century BC by settlers from Thassos, it was one of several Thassian colonies along the coastline, all founded in order to take advantage of rich gold and silver mines those located in the nearby Pangaion mountain. Worship of Parthenos / the Virgin, a female deity of Greek–Ionian origin associated with Athena, is archaeologically attested in the Archaic period.
At the end of the 6th century BC Neapolis claimed independence from Thassos and began issuing its own silver coins with the head of Gorgo on one side. A few decades a large Ionic temple made from Thassian marble replaced the Archaic one. Parts of it can now be seen in the town's archaeological museum. In 411 BC, during the Peloponnesian War, Neapolis was besieged by the allied armies of the Spartans and the Thassians but remained faithful to Athens. Two Athenian honorary decrees in 410 and 407 BC rewarded Neapolis for its loyalty. Neapolis was a town of Macedonia, located 14 km from the harbour of Philippi, it was a member of the Second Athenian League. The military Roman road Via Egnatia helped commerce to flourish, it became a Roman civitas in 168 BC, was a base for Brutus and Cassius in 42 BC, before their defeat in the Battle of Philippi. The Apostle Paul landed at Kavala on his first voyage to Europe. In the 6th century, Byzantine emperor Justinian I fortified the city in an effort to protect it from barbarian raids.
In Byzantine times the city was called Christoupolis and belonged to the theme of Macedonia. The first surviving mention of the new name is in a taktikon of the early 9th century; the city is mentioned in the "Life of St. Gregory of Dekapolis". In the 8th and 9th centuries, Bulgarian attacks forced the Byzantines to reorganise the defence of the area, giving great care to Christoupolis with fortifications and a notable garrison. Bulgarians captured the city in 834 under Presian First of Bulgaria and held it until it fell in the hands of the Lombards in 1197. In 1302, the Catalans failed to capture the city. In order to prevent them from coming back, the Byzantine emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos built a new long defensive wall. In 1357 two Byzantine officers and brothers and John, controlled the city and its territory. Excavations have revealed the ruins of an early Byzantine basilica under an Ottoman mosque in the Old Town, it was used until the late Byzantine era. The Ottoman Turks first captured the city in 1387 and destroyed it in 1391, as a Mount Athos chronicle testifies.
Kavala was part of the Ottoman Empire from 1387 to 1912. In the middle of the 16th century, Ibrahim Pasha, Grand Vizier of Suleiman the Magnificent, contributed to the town's prosperity and growth by the construction of an aqueduct; the Ottomans extended the Byzantine fortress on the hill of Panagia. Both landmarks are among the most recognizable symbols of the city today. Mehmet Ali, the founder of a dynasty that ruled Egypt, was born in Kavala in 1769, his house has been preserved as a museum. In August 1916 rests of the IV Army Corps, stationed at Kavala under Ioannis Hatzopoulos surrendered to the advancing Bulgarian army; these events provoked a military revolt in Thessaloniki, which led to the establishment of the Provisional Government of National Defence, Greece's entry into the First World War. After the Greco-Turkish War of 1919–1922, the city entered a new era of prosperity because of the labour offered by the thousands of refugees that moved to the area from Asia Minor; the development was both agricultural.
Kavala became involved in the processing and trading of tobacco. Many buildings related to the storage and processing of tobacco from that era are preserved in the city. During the Interwar period and the Second Hellenic Republic, Kavala was the 4th largest city in Greece. In 1934 Dimitrios Partsalidis was elected mayor of Kavala, the first communist mayor in modern Greek history; the city gained temporarly by the Press, the nickname "little Moscow". During World War II and after the fall of Athens, Bulgaria conquered the city; the entire Jewish community of the city was exterminated during the Occupation. Following the years after WWII, the city faced economic immigration. In the late 1950s Kavala expanded towards the sea by reclaiming land from the area west of the port. In 1967, King Constantine II left Athens for Kavala in an unsuccessful attempt to launch a counter-coup against the military junta; the municipality of Kavala was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the two former municipalities, which became municipal units: The municipality has an area of 351.35 square kilometres.
The population of the new muni