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Paulinus of York

Paulinus was a Roman missionary and the first Bishop of York. A member of the Gregorian mission sent in 601 by Pope Gregory I to Christianize the Anglo-Saxons from their native Anglo-Saxon paganism, Paulinus arrived in England by 604 with the second missionary group. Little is known of Paulinus' activities in the following two decades. After some years spent in Kent in 625, Paulinus was consecrated a bishop, he accompanied Æthelburg of Kent, sister of King Eadbald of Kent, on her journey to Northumbria to marry King Edwin of Northumbria, succeeded in converting Edwin to Christianity. Paulinus converted many of Edwin's subjects and built some churches. One of the women Paulinus baptised was a future saint, Hilda of Whitby. Following Edwin's death in 633, Paulinus and Æthelburg fled Northumbria, leaving behind a member of Paulinus' clergy, James the Deacon. Paulinus returned to Kent, he received a pallium from the pope, symbolizing his appointment as Archbishop of York, but too late to be effective.

After his death in 644, Paulinus was canonized as a saint and is now venerated in the Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Anglican Churches. Paulinus was a monk from Rome sent to the Kingdom of Kent by Pope Gregory I in 601, along with Mellitus and others, as part of the second group of missionaries sent to convert the Anglo-Saxons to Christianity, he was an Italian by birth. The second group of missionaries arrived in Kent by 604, but little is known of Paulinus' further activities until he went to Northumbria. Paulinus remained in Kent until 625, when he was consecrated as bishop by Justus, the Archbishop of Canterbury, on 21 July, he accompanied Æthelburg, the sister of King Eadbald of Kent, to Northumbria where she was to marry King Edwin of Northumbria. A condition of the marriage was that Edwin had promised that he would allow Æthelburg to remain a Christian and worship as she chose. Bede, writing in the early 8th century, reports that Paulinus wished to convert the Northumbrians, as well as provide religious services to the new queen.

There is some difficulty with Bede's chronology on the date of Æthelburh's marriage, as surviving papal letters to Edwin urging him to convert imply that Eadbald only had become a Christian, which conflicts with Bede's chronology. The historian D. P. Kirby argues that Paulinus and Æthelburh must therefore have gone to Northumbria earlier than 624, that Paulinus went north, not as a bishop, but as a priest, returning to be consecrated; the historian Henry Mayr-Harting agrees with Kirby's reasoning. Another historian, Peter Hunter Blair, argues that Æthelburh and Edwin were married before 625, but that she did not go to Northumbria until 625. If Kirby's arguments are accepted the date of Paulinus' consecration needs to be changed by a year, to 21 July 626. Bede describes Paulinus as "a man tall of stature, a little stooping, with black hair and a thin face, a hooked and thin nose, his aspect both venerable and awe-inspiring". Bede relates that Paulinus told Edwin that the birth of his and Æthelburg's daughter at Easter 626 was because of Paulinus' prayers.

The birth coincided with a foiled assassination attempt on the king by a group of West Saxons from Wessex. Edwin promised to convert to Christianity and allow his new daughter Eanflæd to be baptised if he won a victory over Wessex, he did not fulfill his promise after his subsequent military success against the West Saxons however, only converting after Paulinus had revealed the details of a dream the king had before he took the throne, during his exile at the court of King Rædwald of East Anglia. In this dream, according to Bede, a stranger told Edwin that power would be his in the future when someone laid a hand on his head; as Paulinus was revealing the dream to Edwin, he laid his hand on the king's head, the proof Edwin needed. A late seventh-century hagiography of Pope Gregory I claims that Paulinus was the stranger in the vision, it is unlikely that it was supernatural affairs and Paulinus' persuasion alone that caused Edwin to convert. The Northumbrian nobles seem to have been willing and the king received letters from Pope Boniface V urging his conversion.

Convinced and many of his followers were baptised at York in 627. One story relates that during a stay with Edwin and Æthelburg at their palace in Yeavering, Paulinus spent 36 days baptising new converts. Paulinus was an active missionary in Lindsey, his missionary activities help show the limits of Edwin's royal authority. Pope Gregory's plan had been that York would be England's second metropolitan see, so Paulinus established his church there. Although built of stone, no trace of it has been found. Paulinus built a number of churches on royal estates, his church in Lincoln has been identified with the earliest building phase of the church of St Paul in the Bail. Among those consecrated by Paulinus were Hilda the founding abbess of Whitby Abbey, Hilda's successor, Eanflæd, Edwin's daughter; as the only Roman bishop in England, Paulinus consecrated another Gregorian missionary, Honorius, as Archbishop of Canterbury after Justus' death, some time between 628 and 631. Edwin was defeated by an alliance of Gwynedd Welsh and Mercian Angles, being killed at the Battle of Hatfield Chase, on a date traditionally given as 12 October 633.

One problem with the dating of the battle is that Pope Honorius I wrote in June 634 to Paulinus and Archbishop Honorius saying that he was sending a pallium, the symbol of an archbishop's authority, to each of them. The pope's letter shows no hint that news of Edwin's death had reached Rome nine mon

Indian locomotive class WCAG-1

WCAG–1 is a class of dual-power AC/DC series locomotives used in the Indian Railways system. They are the only class of the WCAG series, they were designed for use by Central Railways in the Ghat section towards Nashik and Pune. The WCAG-1 locomotives were developed after Central Railways faced a massive locomotive crisis in the 1990s. During this period, many of the WCM locomotives, which began to show their age, suffered several failures; as a result, CR had a tough time in maintaining train schedules, which led to the demand for a locomotive similar to the WCAM-2/2P, successful in the Western Railways. Thus the WCAG-1 was introduced along with more power and traction; the locomotive class was jointly developed by RDSO and BHEL in 1997. Components were shared with the WCAM-3 locos. Co-Co fabricated bogies with secondary suspension. Monocoque underframe. Air brakes were original equipment, they were manufactured under a BOLT contract with BHEL, were still owned by BHEL rather than by IR. Axle-hung, nose-suspended, force ventilated, taper roller bearings Speed control by tap changers in AC mode and resistance notching in DC mode.

Motors can be placed in different series-parallel combinations. Auxiliaries from Elgi, S F India, Gresham & Craven, etc. Static converter from ACEC for auxiliary supply. In DC mode, rheostatic braking by self-excitation of traction motors available until 17 km/h. Elgi compressor, other auxiliaries from S F India. Rated for 105 km/h in DC mode, but these locomotives have been restricted to run upto speeds of 100kph only. Traction motor configurations as in the WCAM-1/2 and WAM-4; the class are in active service in the Central Railway zone. CR uses WCAG-1 locos on Mumbai-Pune and Mumbai-Igatpuri sections which had ghat portions as well as speed restrictions of about 80 km/h. WCAG-1 locomotives now serve in routes in and around Nagpur, Bhusaval. Due to exclusivity in operation/maintenance of these locomotives, they do not go beyond the Central Railway's zone limits; these dual-traction models deliver 4600 hp in DC mode and 5000 hp in AC mode, post 25 kV transformation, WCAG-1s were transformed into pure AC locomotives, the performance was more improved.

Freight rakes double-headed by WCAG-1 are a common sight on the ghat sections. MU operation possible with 3 units. WCAG-1s are exclusive to Kalyan ELS and Kalyan DLS of CR. Locomotives of India History of rail transport in India Rail transport in India Indian Railways

List of Sherlock Yack characters

This is a list of characters from Sherlock Yack. Sherlock Yack: Sherlock is the zoo detective who solves cases. Unlike Sherlock Holmes, he's a yak, is terrible in playing bagpipes, he was once a student in a Shaolin-like Buddhist monastery led by an ancient vulture called the Ball of Purity, took time to pass his test. Hermione: A young female stoat and Sherlock's apprentice, she helps him to find clues and proofs. She doesn't like bagpipes when Sherlock plays them, she sometimes replaces Sherlock like answering the call and finding the culprit. According to Sherlock, she is the daughter of a friend of his. Ball of Puity: is a old vulture and was Sherlock's trainer before he became a detective, he trained Sherlock hard until he was trained during his flashbacks. Babelle: she is hermione's aunt and a dogga who appeared in "Who Robbed The Crane?". Gazelle Ninja: A ninja Gazelle that looks the same as the zoo's Gazelle only in a ninja outfit. Doctor Beaky: A scientific blue heron who only makes his words simple if some animals don't understand, which always occurs whenever an animal is injured and either Sherlock Yack or Hermione ask him what's wrong with the injured animal.

Seal: He enjoys playing water ball, ring toss, is well-dressed, cheats at cards. Turtle: An old female turtle who walks slowly. Piranha: A turquoise piranha fish who eats anything that he sees, requires a fish bowl to move around when outside his enclosure. Pelican: A pelican who appeared in "Who Robbed The Seal?", "Who Wants To Fry The Piranha?", "Who Broke The Crane's Voice?", "Who Robbed The Tapir?", "Who Made Stork Fart?", "Who Sunk The Pelican?". He claims that he is not a pirate, he works at the practical jokes store. Bird of Paradise: A painter who only paints portraits of himself. Hyena: A hyena art student who appeared in "Who Tagged The Bird of Paradise?" and "Who Soaped Up Mrs. Hippo?". Marabou: A photographer who knows all about art, he'll tell anyone about it. Chameleon: Chameleon is an anthropomorphic lizard and a resident of the zoo. Crane: A female crane and childhood friend of Ostrich before she tried to sabotage Ostrich in "Who Painted The Ostrich?". Ostrich: Ostrich is one of the long-legged birds in the zoo.

She is nearsighted and makes grammatical errors. Ostrich dates Elephant. Stork: A stork famous at the zoo for her marvelous singing voice. Peacock: An arrogant peacock who sees himself as the most beautiful animal in the zoo. Skunk: A grumpy gardener who only likes to clean, she can get mad if her place is dirty. Gorilla: One of the strongest animal in the zoo, he is athletic, likes bananas, practices boxing. Gorilla is employed as a bouncer at Baboon's restaurant. Elephant: An elephant who appeared in "Who Plugged Up The Elephant's Trunk?", "Who Knotted Up The Octopus?", "Who Trunked The Elephant?". Mr. Sloth & Mrs. Sloth: Two sloths who appeared in "Who Plugged Up The Elephant's Trunk?", "Who Dented The Turtle?". Mrs. Sloth appeared in "Who Cemented The Turtle?". Both of them talk and move slowly and are seen napping. Lion: A laid back lion who agrees with whatever anyone says aloud. Cheetah: A racing champion cheetah whose enclosure is filled with exercise equipment and various medals and trophies he has won.

Tiger: An old colorblind tiger who used to serve in a commando unit of the army. Gazelle: A gazelle beautician who opened her own business after being fired by Mrs. Fennec in "Who Sabotaged Mrs. Fennec's Machine?". Giraffe: A female giraffe who writes the gossip column of the zoo's newspaper. Raccoon Speed: A Sushi deliveryman who gets around the zoo using his moped, he owns a business called Speedy Raccoon's Sushi and has a motto that claims the sushi will be there by the time a buyer has finished ordering. Chef Panda: The husband of Mrs. Panda and the chef for his own restaurant, he used to be bigger but he has lost a lot of weight since he opened the restaurant since he never took a holiday and was more focused on feeding others. Mrs. Panda: Chef Panda's wife. Mr. Hippo: A hippo who decided to become a repairman after Chef Panda fired him, he is not good repairman as whatever he was working on falls apart. He is a bit clumsy as he hits his hand with his own hammer. Porcupine: A porcupine who enjoys playing golf in his free time.

Coyote: A coyote who considers his fleas to be his best friends and howls at certain times of the day. Flamingo: A flamingo Postman who refers to the last thing in his sentences in different ways. Dromedary: A dromedary camel who tried to become a zoo detective in "Who Targeted The Tiger?" but decided to instead become a detective novel writer by the end of the episode. Parrot: A parrot who runs a radio joke show that involves imitating and prank calling other animals, he is allergic to cat hair. Myna: A myna bird who worked as Parrot's assistant and was his biggest fan for years, but unlike Parrot his jokes are not funny. Bobcat: An old bobcat/lynx who like Old Horse suffers from memory problems. Mrs. Hippo: A female hippo who owns a salon. Vampire bat: A vampire bat musician from Mexico who plays the guitar at night and sleeps during the day. Beaver: A nervous guitarist who's afraid of heights. Environment, he resides in the musician's enclosure alongside Howler Monkey and Boa. Little Roo: He is the son of Kangaroo and appeared in "Who Stuck The Gorilla in the Sand?" and was babysat by Hermione in Who Broke The Crane's Voice?.

Rockhopper: Rockhopper is the zoo's main fashion designer. Baby Panda: A baby panda that appeared in some of the Ball of Purity flashback sequences. Lemur: A lemur, employed as a prop-man for most

Joseph Lavery

Joseph Aloysius Lavery was a New Zealand rugby footballer, part of the professional 1907-1908 New Zealand rugby tour of Great Britain. Lavery worked on for the New Zealand Railways Department. Lavery started his career playing for Temuka in 1901 before moving to Christchurch Albion where he was a club mate of Hubert Turtill and Charlie Pearce. Lavery represented Canterbury between 1902 and 1904 and played for the South Island in 1903. Lavery joined the professional All Blacks tour of Great Britain and Australia in 1907-1908, thus switching codes to rugby league as all members of the touring party received a life ban from the New Zealand Rugby Union. However, he was not in the touring parties first selection and played in mid-week games, scoring two tries. Despite this Lavery played in one test match for New Zealand. After the tour Lavery opted to stay in Britain and signed with Leeds, becoming the club's first overseas player. Lavery played for Leigh, Salford in 1910, was the first overseas player to play for either club.

By 1913 he had returned to New Zealand and played for Linwood in the first season of the Canterbury Rugby League competition. He represented Canterbury in 1915. Lavery fought in World War I, in May 1918 the Linwood club minutes recorded a "vote of sympathy" for Lavery, "who had returned wounded"

Paulina MikuĊ‚a

Paulina Mikuła is a Polish television presenter, Internet personality, popularizer of Polish language knowledge. She is a graduate of Polish studies of Warsaw University. In 2013, she created the vlog channel Mówiąc Inaczej, where she explains how to speak Polish in line with its prescriptive standard. In 2016, Mikuła wrote the usage guide Mówiąc inaczej published by Flow Books. In 2019, her YouTube channel reached over 435,000 subscribers. At the end of 2016, Mikuła with Anna Gacek hosted the first edition of the program Bake Off - Ale ciacho on TVP2, it is said that the main consequence of her activity is the growing number of young people who show interest in the Polish language and its prescriptive standard, their higher willingness to work and develop their way of speaking Polish

Yom Kippur War

The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War, or October War known as the 1973 Arab–Israeli War, was a war fought from October 6 to 25, 1973, by a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel. The war took place in Sinai and the Golan—occupied by Israel during the 1967 Six-Day War—with some fighting in African Egypt and northern Israel. Egypt's initial war objective was to use its military to seize a foothold on the east bank of the Suez Canal and use this to negotiate the return of the rest of Sinai; the war began when the Arab coalition launched a joint surprise attack on Israeli positions, on Yom Kippur, the holiest day in Judaism, which occurred that year during the Muslim holy month of Ramadan. Egyptian and Syrian forces crossed ceasefire lines to enter the Sinai Peninsula and the Golan Heights, respectively. Both the United States and the Soviet Union initiated massive resupply efforts to their respective allies during the war, this led to a near-confrontation between the two nuclear superpowers.

The war began with a successful Egyptian crossing of the Suez Canal. Egyptian forces crossed the cease-fire lines advanced unopposed into the Sinai Peninsula. After three days, Israel had mobilized most of its forces and halted the Egyptian offensive, resulting in a military stalemate; the Syrians coordinated their attack on the Golan Heights to coincide with the Egyptian offensive and made threatening gains into Israeli-held territory. Within three days, Israeli forces had pushed the Syrians back to the pre-war ceasefire lines; the Israel Defense Forces launched a four-day counter-offensive deep into Syria. Within a week, Israeli artillery began to shell the outskirts of Damascus, Egyptian President Sadat began to worry about the integrity of his major ally, he believed that capturing two strategic passes located deeper in the Sinai would make his position stronger during post-war negotiations. The Israelis counter-attacked at the seam between the two Egyptian armies, crossed the Suez Canal into Egypt, began advancing southward and westward towards the city of Suez in over a week of heavy fighting that resulted in heavy casualties on both sides.

On October 22, a United Nations–brokered ceasefire unraveled, with each side blaming the other for the breach. By October 24, the Israelis had improved their positions and completed their encirclement of Egypt's Third Army and the city of Suez; this development led to tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union, a second ceasefire was imposed cooperatively on October 25 to end the war. The war had far-reaching implications; the Arab world had experienced humiliation in the lopsided rout of the Egyptian–Syrian–Jordanian alliance in the Six-Day War but felt psychologically vindicated by early successes in this conflict. The war led Israel to recognize that, despite impressive operational and tactical achievements on the battlefield, there was no guarantee that they would always dominate the Arab states militarily, as they had through the earlier 1948 Arab–Israeli War, the Suez Crisis, the Six-Day War; these changes paved the way for the subsequent peace process. The 1978 Camp David Accords that followed led to the return of the Sinai to Egypt and normalized relations—the first peaceful recognition of Israel by an Arab country.

Egypt continued its drift away from the Soviet Union and left the Soviet sphere of influence entirely. The war was part of the Arab–Israeli conflict, an ongoing dispute that included many battles and wars since 1948, when the state of Israel was formed. During the Six-Day War of 1967, Israel had captured Egypt's Sinai Peninsula half of Syria's Golan Heights, the territories of the West Bank, held by Jordan since 1948. On June 19, 1967, shortly after the Six-Day War, the Israeli government voted to return the Sinai to Egypt and the Golan Heights to Syria in exchange for a permanent peace settlement and a demilitarization of the returned territories, it rejected a full withdrawal to the boundaries and the situation before the war and insisted on direct negotiations with the Arab governments as opposed to accepting negotiation through a third party. This decision was it conveyed to any Arab state. Notwithstanding Abba Eban's insistence that this was indeed the case, there seems to be no solid evidence to corroborate his claim.

No formal peace proposal was made either indirectly by Israel. The Americans, who were briefed of the Cabinet's decision by Eban, were not asked to convey it to Cairo and Damascus as official peace proposals, nor were they given indications that Israel expected a reply; the Arab position, as it emerged in September 1967 at the Khartoum Arab Summit, was to reject any peaceful settlement with the state of Israel. The eight participating states – Egypt, Jordan, Iraq, Algeria and Sudan – passed a resolution that would become known as the "three no's": there would be no peace, no recognition and no negotiation with Israel. Prior to that, King Hussein of Jordan had stated that he could not rule out a possibility of a "real, permanent peace" between Israel and the Arab states. Armed hostilities continued on a limited scale after the Six-Day War and escalated into the War of Attrition, an attempt to wear down the Israeli position through long-term pressure. A ceasefire was signed in August 1970. President Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt died in September 19