SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Pavel Tsitsianov

Prince Pavel Dmitriyevich Tsitsianov known as Pavle Dimitris dze Tsitsishvili was a Georgian nobleman and a prominent General of the Imperial Russian Army. Responsible for conquering large parts of Persia's Caucasus territories during the Russo-Persian War of 1804-1813, from 1802 to 1806 he served as the Russian Commander-in-chief in the Caucasus. Tsitsianov was born in the noble Georgian family of Tsitsishvili to Dimitri Pavles dze Tsitsishvili and his wife Elizabeth Bagration-Davitashvili, his grandfather, moved to Russia in the early 1700s as part of a group of Georgian émigrés accompanying the exiled Georgian monarch Vakhtang VI. Tsitsianov had Mikhail Dmitrievich Tsitsianov, a Senator of the Russian Empire. Tsitsianov began his career at the elite Preobrazhensky Regiment of the Imperial Guard in 1772. In 1786 he was appointed Colonel of a Grenadier regiment and it was in this capacity that he began his distinguished career during the Russo-Turkish War under Catherine the Great. In the aforementioned war, he fought at Khotin, on the Salchea River, at Ismail, Bender.

In 1796 the Empress scrambled to belatedly punish Persia for its invasion of Georgia, sending-off Tsitsianov as part of the Persian Expedition of 1796 under the command of Count Valerian Zubov. Following the mixed results of the mission, as well as the death of the Empress and the subsequent disorder associated with the reign of Emperor Paul I, Tsitsianov temporarily retired from service but returned to work after the enthronement of Alexander I. In 1802 Tsitsianov was appointed the Governor General of newly annexed Georgia, where his rule was characterized by uncompromising policies towards the locals, including the exile of the remaining members of Georgia's ruling dynasty to Russia, he carried out important projects, such as upgrading the Georgian Military Road, by leading the Russian armies to successes in the early stages of the upcoming 1804-1813 Russo-Iranian war. Tsitsianov's name was pronounced as "Sisianov" or "Zizianov" in Persian. Most Iranians referred to him by this title. "Ispokhdor" translates as "his work is shit / he whose job is shit".

As Prof. Stephanie Cronin states, Tsitsianov presided over a new round of brutal military aggression, that triggered the Russo-Persian War of 1804-1813, he had strong negative feelings towards Muslims in general and the "Persians" in particular, held in contempt everything related to Iran. A prime example of tactics and attitude were shown in the conquest of Ganja in early 1804; as added by Cronin, Tsitsianov's conquest of Ganja, which reduced the city to rubble and resulted in the murder of its governor, Javad Khan, his son, many of the city's defenders and civilian population, was no less brutal and murderous than Agha Mohammad Khan's sack of Tiflis in 1795. Though many resented his policies, Tsitsianov's rule brought some of the much needed stability for Georgians in terms of keeping at bay the rampant incursions and marauding by Lezgian mountaineers; when one of his generals was killed in battle with the Lezgians, his rage knew no bounds and wrote an angry letter to the Sultan of Elisu: "Shameless sultan with the soul of a Persian - so you still dare to write to me!

Yours is the soul of a dog and the understanding of an ass, yet you think to deceive me with your specious phrases. Know that until you become a loyal vassal of my Emperor I shall only long to wash my boots in your blood": Under the orders of Emperor Alexander I, he led the Russian armies into the new Russo-Persian War. In the summer of 1804, he advanced against the Persian forces in Persian Armenia, fought at Gyumri, Echmiadzin, on the Zang River, Yerevan, his actions earned him the Order of 1st Degree. In 1806 he rode up to the walls of Baku, with characteristic bravado, to partake in the ceremony of transferring the city to Russian rule after a successful siege; when the general was about to receive the keys to the city, troops loyal to the Khan of Baku unexpectedly shot him and his fellow Georgian aide-de-camp Elisbar Eristov, with Tsitsianov's head and both hands cut off. The third member of the small mission escaped to relate the gruesome tale, his head was sent to Fat′h-Ali Shah Qajar in Tehran.

In relation to this episode, it is noteworthy that in 1806, Mirza Mohammad Akhbari, a teacher of Akhbari school of Fiqh in Tehran promised Fat′h-Ali Shah Qajar to secure the death of Tsitsianov by supernatural means. Retreating for a period of forty days to the shrine at Shah-Abdol-Azim, he began to engage in certain magical practices, such as beheading wax figures representing Tsitsianov. After the general was in fact assassinated, his severed head arrived in Tehran just before the forty days were up; because Fat′h-Ali Shah feared that the supernatural powers of Mirza might be turned against him, he exiled him to Arab Iraq. Cronin, Stephanie. Iranian-Russian Encounters: Empires and Revolutions Since 1800. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-41562-433-6. Mikaberidze, Alexander. Russian Officer Corps of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. Casemate Publishers. ISBN 978-1-61121-002-6. Mikaberidze, Alexander. Historical Dictionary of Georgia. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1-44224-146-6. Tapper, Richard. Frontier Nomads of Iran: A Political and Social History of the Shahsevan.

Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521583367

Nenad Baćina

Nenad Baćina is a former Croatian footballer and current football manager. Baćina was born in 1971 in Croatia; as a professional football player he played with several Croatian First League clubs, NK Primorac, NK Mladost 127, NK Belišće, between 1989 and 1999. Between 2000 and 2005 he played at the Singaporean S-League club Singapore Armed Forces Football Club, he won two S-League Championships in 2000 and 2002. For three seasons he was the team captain. During his professional football playing career he graduated at the University of Split as a professor of Physical Education and Sport Science. In 2005, he started his coaching career as the youth development coach at the NK Spinut Soccer Clinic in Croatia. Three years 2008, he joined Malaysian Super League club PDRM FC as the Head Coach Advisor and Technical Consultant during Malaysian Cup competition. PDRM FC reached. In 2009, Baćina was appointed as the head coach of Woodlands Wellington FC in Singapore professional S-League. From February 2010 till June 2011 he was the senior team head coach assistant and head coach of Football Academy at NK Sloga in Croatia.

In December 2011 he was appointed the head coach of FC Hougang United in the Singapore professional S-League. In December 2012 he was appointed as the head coach of Tampines Rovers Football Club, defending champion of the Singapore S-League, he was relieved from his job in May 2013 after perceived failure in the AFC Cup, although the club were leading the S. League at the time of his dismissal. Bacina was named as assistant manager of Malaysian club Johor Darul Ta'zim F. C. on March 2014, assisting his compatriot Bojan Hodak. May 2015 Bacina is appointed as the manager of Johor Darul Ta'zim II F. C.. Nenad Baćina holds a UEFA PRO Coaching License. In 2016, Baćina was appointed as the team manager and head coach of Penang FA. In August 2017 Baćina was appointed as the assistant manager of Malaysia national under-19 football team. In February 2020 he was appointed as the assistant manager of PSM Makassar, again assisting his compatriot Bojan Hodak. 6. Http://kallangroar.com/news/exclusive-interviews/coffee-with-nenad-bacina-part-one/ 7.

Http://kallangroar.com/news/exclusive-interviews/coffee-with-ex-tampines-rovers-coach-nenad-bacina-part-2-final/ 8.http://www.dalmacijanews.com/Nogomet/View/tabid/89/ID/109205/Nenad-Bacina-je-hit-trener-u-Singapuru-Najteze-se-dokazati-u-svojoj-sredini.aspx 9.http://www.foxsportsasia.com/editorial/news/detail/item886958/2012-S-League-Team-of-the-Season/ 10. Https://www.fourfourtwo.com/sg/features/sleague-old-boys-nenad-bacina-croat-a-soft-spot-singapore

Army of the Duchy of Warsaw

Army of the Duchy of Warsaw refers to the military forces of the Duchy of Warsaw. The Army was based on the Polish Legions, it was composed of infantry with a strong cavalry force supported by artillery. The Napoleonic customs and traditions resulted in some social tensions, but are credited with helpful modernization and useful reforms; the cadre of the Army of the Duchy of Warsaw was formed by the legionnaires of the Polish Legions. In addition, it was filled by older soldiers from the Army of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, who responded to the call to arms of Józef Poniatowski, patriotic youth. In 1808, after the first emergency period was over, the Duchy felt more secure, those who wished to leave the army were given leave; the army was expanded with large waves of new recruits on the eve of new wars in 1809 and 1812, when the Duchy fought other partitioners, which resulted in an influx of recruits from those territories, hoping to see their home liberated. The final recruitment phase was that in the fall and winter of 1813, when the Duchy was trying to rally to its own defense in the aftermath of Napoleon's defeat in Russia.

Upon its creation, the Army numbered 30,000. The size of the army was a considerable economic burden to the small state; the army was expanded several times. Several regiments were sponsored by the French. For the war of 1812 100,000 men were fielded – more than the Army of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth numbered. In the fall of 1813, the Army, reconstructed after the defeat in Russia, numbered about 20,000 or 40,000, it is estimated. In addition to the Army of the Duchy of Warsaw, Poles served in other formations allied to France. In addition to the standing army, a national guard could be called into action, as happened in 1809 and 1811. Notable Polish commanders of the Army of the Duchy of Warsaw included Prince Józef Poniatowski and Jan Henryk Dąbrowski; the Army of the Duchy of Warsaw was composed of the following formations: one regiment of cuirassiers ten regiments of uhlan lancers. The Army was the site of a cultural clash of new, democratic French traditions and old Polish customs, with clashes on the role of nobility in the military – with some conservatives attempting to restrict the officer rank to the nobles.

The French revolutionary and civic traditions, passed through veteran legionnaires, resulted in more motivation of the peasant recruits, compared to the army of the old Commonwealth. The educational role of the army is seen as one of its major if unintended successes; the army was improved due to the modernization and adoption of modern French military rules and tactics. Overall, the era of the Duchy of Warsaw marked a period of modernization of the Polish Army, with a new military doctrine and science, codified by Polish military scholar of that era, Ignacy Prądzyński; the obligatory time of service was set at 6 years, with any citizens aged 21 to 28 having a chance to be randomly chosen for conscription. The Army was supported by the new schools, with the 3-year Elementary School and a 1-year Applicant School for Artillery and Engineering. Overall, the Polish units were reckoned by the French to be motivated and of high quality; the army was formed at the time of the creation of the Duchy of Warsaw in 1807.

The army participated in numerous wars on the side of Napoleonic France, including in the War of the Fourth Coalition, Peninsular War, the War of the Fifth Coalition of 1809, in the War of the Sixth Coalition of 1812–1813. In the Russian campaign of 1812, the Polish units formed an entire corps of the Grande Armée; the army sustained over 70% losses. The Army suffered further heavy casualties in the battle of Leipzig in 1813, where Prince Poniatowski died. After Napoleonic defeats in 1813, the Duchy was occupied by Napoleon's enemies; as several garrisons in fortresses held out, much of the Army followed Napoleon back to France that year. Disorganized after Poniatowski's death, in 1814, the army still had about 8,000 people in French-controlled territories in France, but was incorporated into the French Army, ceased to exist after the final defeat of Napoleon. After the Treaty of Fontainebleau most of the Polish soldiers were given into the custody of the Russians. Army of the Congress Poland Military of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Polish Armed Forces