Pavia is a town and comune of south-western Lombardy in northern Italy, 35 kilometres south of Milan on the lower Ticino river near its confluence with the Po. It has a population of c. 73,086. The city was the capital of the Kingdom of the Lombards from 572 to 774. Pavia is the capital of the fertile province of Pavia, known for a variety of agricultural products, including wine, rice and dairy products. Although there are a number of industries located in the suburbs, these tend not to disturb the peaceful atmosphere of the town, it is home to the ancient University of Pavia, which together with the IUSS, Ghislieri College, Borromeo College, Nuovo College, Santa Caterina College, the Istituto per il Diritto allo Studio, belongs to the Pavia Study System. Pavia is the episcopal seat of the Roman Catholic Bishop of Pavia; the city possesses many artistic and cultural treasures, including several important churches and museums, such as the well-known Certosa di Pavia. The Central Hospital of Pavia is one of the most important hospitals in Italy.

Dating back to pre-Roman times, the town of Pavia known as Ticinum, was a municipality and an important military site under the Roman Empire. It was said by Pliny the Elder to have been founded by the Laevi and Marici, two Ligurian tribes, while Ptolemy attributes it to the Insubres; the Roman city most began as a small military camp, built by the consul Publius Cornelius Scipio in 218 BC to guard a wooden bridge he had built over the river Ticinum, on his way to search for Hannibal, rumoured to have managed to lead an army over the Alps and into Italy. The forces of Rome and Carthage ran into each other soon thereafter, the Romans suffered the first of many crushing defeats at the hands of Hannibal, with the consul himself losing his life; the bridge was destroyed, but the fortified camp, which at the time was the most forward Roman military outpost in the Po Valley, somehow survived the long Second Punic War, evolved into a garrison town. Its importance grew with the extension of the Via Aemilia from Ariminum to the Po River, which it crossed at Placentia and there forked, one branch going to Mediolanum and the other to Ticinum, thence to Laumellum where it divided once more, one branch going to Vercellae - and thence to Eporedia and Augusta Praetoria - and the other to Valentia - and thence to Augusta Taurinorum.

It was at Pavia in 476 AD that the reign of Romulus Augustulus, the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire ended and Roman rule ceased in Italy. Romulus Augustulus, while considered the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, was a usurper of the imperial throne. Though being the emperor, Romulus Augustulus was the mouthpiece for his father Orestes, the person who exercised power and governed Italy during Romulus Augustulus's short reign. Ten months after Romulus Augustulus's reign began, Orestes's soldiers under the command of one of his officers named Odoacer and killed Orestes in the city of Pavia in 476; the rioting that took place as part of Odoacer's uprising against Orestes sparked fires that burnt much of Pavia to the point that Odoacer, as the new king of Italy, had to suspend the taxes for the city for five years so that it could finance its recovery. Without his father, Romulus Augustulus was powerless. Instead of killing Romulus Augustulus, Odoacer pensioned him off at 6,000 solidi a year before declaring the end of the Western Roman Empire and himself king of the new Kingdom of Italy.

Odoacer's reign as king of Italy did not last long, because in 488 the Ostrogothic peoples led by their king Theoderic invaded Italy and waged war against Odoacer. After fighting for 5 years, Theoderic defeated Odoacer and on March 15, 493, assassinated Odoacer at a banquet meant to negotiate a peace between the two rulers. With the establishment of the Ostrogoth kingdom based in northern Italy, Theoderic began his vast program of public building. Pavia was among several cities that Theodoric chose to expand, he began the construction of the vast palace complex that would become the residence of Lombard monarchs several decades later. Theoderic commissioned the building of the Roman-styled amphitheatre and bath complex in Pavia. Near the end of Theoderic's reign the Christian philosopher Boethius was imprisoned in one of Pavia's churches from 522 to 525 before his execution for treason, it was during Boethius's captivity in Pavia that he wrote his seminal work the Consolation of Philosophy. Pavia played an important role in the war between the Eastern Roman Empire and the Ostrogoths that began in 535.

After the Eastern Roman general Belisarius's victory over the Ostrogothic leader Wittigis in 540 and the loss of most of the Ostrogoth lands in Italy, Pavia was among the last centres of Ostrogothic resistance that continued the war and opposed Eastern Roman rule. After the capitulation of the Ostrogothic leadership in 540 more than a thousand men remained garrisoned in Pavia and Verona dedicated to opposing Eastern Roman rule; the resilience of Ostrogoth strongholds like Pavia against invading forces allowed pockets of Ostrogothic rule to limp along until being defeated in 561. Pavia and the peninsula of Italy didn't remain long under the rule of the Eastern Roman Empire

Giovanni Battista Gervasio

Giovanni Battista Gervasio was an Italian musician and composer. Born in Naples he was one of the first generation of virtuoso-mandolinists who left Italy and played the mandolin in Europe in the 18th century, he was a composer for the mandolin and his works can be found scattered in 18th century collections such as the Gimo music collection and the Bibliothèque Nationale de France. He wrote a mandolin method Methode facile pour apprendre a quatre cordes, instrument pour les dames, published in Paris in 1767, he performed in London 1768 and in Frankfurt-on-the-Main in December 10, 1777 and the Concert Spirituel in Paris on December 24, 1784. He advertised in 1785 that he was master of singing and mandolin to Her Royal Highess, the Princess of Prussia. A work of music addressed to her exists today in the Bibliothèque Nationale de France. Gervasio advertised his teaching services in Grenoble in 1785; as the last known advertisement for him, it has been proposed that he settled and died there. Works in the Gimo collection were collected by a Swedish man, Jean Lefebure, "in the first half of 1762" in Italy.

They were hand-copied commercial products. Mandolin Sonata in C major and bass Mandolin Sonata in D major and bass Mandolin Sonata in D major and bass Mandolin Sonata in G major and bass Duet in E-flat major for Two Mandolins Trio Sonata in D Major Trio in D major, 2 mandolins and bass Sonata for Mandolin, bass. No. 1. D major, This is in two parts. Six duets for two mandolins Airs for the mandolin, violin or German flute interspersed with songs two sonatas for mandolin and bass The Sonata for mandolin, bass. No. 1. D major by Giovai Battista Gervasio, given to a Prussian princess; the work was labeled "for chamber study" on the title page. 2011. Aonzo / Buttiero recordings. Il mandolino italiano nel settecento, Carlo Aonzo, Elena Buttiero 2016. Centaur Records. Gimo-Samling: 18th Century Sonatas & Trio Sonatas for Mandolin, played by Duo Acquavella. Public domain sheet music for Gervasio Sparks, Paul; the Classical Mandolin. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195173376

United States District Court for the District of Maine

The U. S. District Court for the District of Maine is the U. S. district court for the state of Maine. The District of Maine was one of the original thirteen district courts established by the Judiciary Act of 1789 though Maine was not a separate state from Massachusetts until 1820; the court is headquartered at the Edward T. Gignoux United States Courthouse in Portland and has a second courthouse in Bangor, Maine; the U. S. Attorney for the District of Maine represents the United States in criminal and civil litigation before the court. Halsey Frank was confirmed as the U. S. Attorney for the District of Maine on October 3, 2017. Appeals from the District of Maine are heard by the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit; the District of Maine was one of the thirteen original districts created on September 24, 1789, by the Judiciary Act of 1789, 1 Stat. 73. At the time, Maine was part of the state of Massachusetts; as with other jurisdictions of the time, the District of Maine was assigned a single judgeship.

Not being assigned to a judicial circuit, it was granted the same jurisdiction as the United States circuit court, except in appeals and writs of error, which were the jurisdiction of the U. S. Circuit Court for the District of Massachusetts; the circuit court jurisdiction of the District of Maine was repealed on February 1801 by 2 Stat. 89, restored on March 8, 1802 by 2 Stat. 132. On March 30, 1820, shortly after Maine entered the Union, the District of Maine was assigned to the First Circuit and its internal circuit court jurisdiction was again repealed by 3 Stat. 554. A second judgeship was authorized on October 1978, by, 92 Stat. 1629, a third was authorized on December 1, 1990, by 104 Stat. 5089. As of January 1, 2019: Chief judges have administrative responsibilities with respect to their district court. Unlike the Supreme Court, where one justice is nominated to be chief, the office of chief judge rotates among the district court judges. To be chief, a judge must have been in active service on the court for at least one year, be under the age of 65, have not served as chief judge.

A vacancy is filled by the judge highest in seniority among the group of qualified judges. The chief judge serves until age 70, whichever occurs first; the age restrictions are waived if no members of the court would otherwise be qualified for the position. When the office was created in 1948, the chief judge was the longest-serving judge who had not elected to retire on what has since 1958 been known as senior status or declined to serve as chief judge. After August 6, 1959, judges could not remain chief after turning 70 years old; the current rules have been in operation since October 1, 1982. Courts of Maine List of current United States District Judges List of United States federal courthouses in Maine Maine Supreme Judicial Court United States District Court for the District of Maine