British Academy of Film and Television Arts
The British Academy of Film and Television Arts is an independent charity that supports and promotes the art forms of the moving image in the United Kingdom. In addition to its annual awards ceremonies, BAFTA has an international programme of learning events and initiatives offering access to talent through workshops, scholarships and mentoring schemes in the United Kingdom and the United States. BAFTA started out as the British Film Academy, was founded in 1947 by a group of directors David Lean, Alexander Korda, Roger Manvell, Laurence Olivier, Emeric Pressburger, Michael Powell, Michael Balcon, Carol Reed, other major figures of the British film industry. David Lean was the founding chairman of the academy; the first Film Awards ceremony took place in May 1949 and honouring the films The Best Years of Our Lives, Odd Man Out and The World Is Rich. The Guild of Television Producers and Directors was set up in 1953 with the first awards ceremony in October 1954, in 1958 merged with the British Film Academy to form the Society of Film and Television Arts, whose inaugural meeting was held at Buckingham Palace and presided over by HRH The Duke of Edinburgh.
In 1976, Queen Elizabeth, The Duke of Edinburgh, The Princess Royal and The Earl Mountbatten of Burma opened the organisation's headquarters at 195 Piccadilly, in March the society became the British Academy of Film and Television Arts. BAFTA is an independent charity with a mission to "support and promote the art forms of the moving image, by identifying and rewarding excellence, inspiring practitioners and benefiting the public", it is a membership organisation comprising 7,500 individuals worldwide who are creatives and professionals working in and making a contribution to the film and games industries in the UK. In 2005, it placed an overall cap on worldwide voting membership "which now stands at 6,500". BAFTA does not receive any funding from the government: it relies on income from membership subscriptions, individual donations, trusts and corporate partnerships to support its ongoing outreach work. BAFTA has offices in Scotland and Wales in the UK, in Los Angeles and New York in the United States and runs events in Hong Kong and mainland China.
Amanda Berry OBE has been chief executive of the organisation since December 2000. In addition to its high-profile awards ceremonies, BAFTA manages a year-round programme of educational events and initiatives including film screenings and Q&As, tribute evenings, interviews and debates with major industry figures. With over 250 events a year, BAFTA's stated aim is to inspire and inform the next generation of talent by providing a platform for some of the world's most talented practitioners to pass on their knowledge and experience. Many of these events are free to watch online via its official channel on YouTube. BAFTA runs a number of scholarship programmes across US and Asia. Launched in 2012, the UK programme enables talented British citizens who are in need of financial support to take an industry-recognised course in film, television or games in the UK; each BAFTA Scholar receives up to £12,000 towards their annual course fees, mentoring support from a BAFTA member and free access to BAFTA events around the UK.
Since 2013, three students every year have received one of the Prince William Scholarships in Film and Games, supported by BAFTA and Warner Bros. These scholarships are awarded in the name of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge in his role as president of BAFTA. In the US, BAFTA Los Angeles offers financial support and mentorship to British graduate students studying in the US, as well as scholarships to provide financial aid to local LA students from the inner city. BAFTA New York's Media Studies Scholarship Program, set up in 2012, supports students pursuing media studies at undergraduate and graduate level institutions within the New York City area and includes financial aid and mentoring opportunities. Since 2015, BAFTA has been offering scholarships for British citizens to study in China, vice versa. BAFTA presents awards for film and games, including children's entertainment, at a number of annual ceremonies across the UK and in Los Angeles, USA; the BAFTA award trophy is a mask, designed by American sculptor Mitzi Cunliffe.
When the Guild merged with the British Film Academy to become the Society of Film and Television Arts the British Academy of Film and Television Arts, the first'BAFTA award' was presented to Sir Charles Chaplin on his Academy Fellowship that year. Today's BAFTA award – including the bronze mask and marble base – weighs 3.7 kg and measures 27 cm x 14 cm x 8 cm. In 2017, the British Academy of Film and Television Arts introduced new entry rules for British Films Only starting from 2018 season. BAFTA's annual film awards ceremony is known as the British Academy Film Awards, or "the BAFTAs", reward the best work of any nationality seen on British cinema screens during the preceding year. In 1949 the British Film Academy, as it was known, presented the first awards for films made in 1947 and 1948. Since 2008 the ceremony has been held at the Royal Opera House in London's Covent Garden, it had been held in the Odeon cinema on Leicester Square since 2000. Since 2017, the BAFTA ceremony has been held at the Royal Albert Hall.
The ceremony had been performed during April or May of each year, but since 2002 it has been held in February to precede the academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences' Academy Awards, or Oscars. In order for a film to be considered for a BAFTA nomination its first public exhibition must be displayed in a cinema and it must have a
Auschwitz concentration camp
The Auschwitz concentration camp was a complex of more than 40 Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II and the Holocaust. It consisted of the main camp and administrative headquarters in Oświęcim. Germany invaded Poland in September 1939, sparking World War II, they converted Auschwitz I from an army barracks to a prison camp for Polish political prisoners; the first prisoners were German criminals who were brought to the camp as functionaries in May 1940, the first gassing of prisoners took place in block 11 of Auschwitz I in September 1941. Auschwitz II–Birkenau became a major site of the Nazis' Final Solution to the Jewish Question. Transport trains delivered Jews from all over German-occupied Europe to the camp's gas chambers from early 1942 until late 1944. At least 1.1 million people died at Auschwitz of the estimated 1.3 million sent there, some 90 percent of them were Jews. One in six Jews killed in the Holocaust died at the camp.
Others deported to Auschwitz included 150,000 non-Jewish Poles, 23,000 Roma, 15,000 Soviet prisoners of war, 400 Jehovah's Witnesses, tens of thousands of diverse nationalities, an unknown number of homosexual men. Many of those not killed in the gas chambers died because of starvation, forced labor, infectious diseases, individual executions, medical experiments. In the course of the war, the camp was staffed by 7,000 members of the German Schutzstaffel 12 percent of whom were convicted of war crimes. Several were executed, including camp commandant Rudolf Höss; the Allies did not act on early reports of atrocities, their failure to bomb it or its railways remains controversial. At least 802 prisoners tried to escape, 144 and two Sonderkommando units launched a brief, unsuccessful uprising on 7 October 1944, consisting of prisoners assigned to staff the gas chambers. Soviet troops approached Auschwitz in January 1945, most of the prisoners were sent west on a death march; the remaining prisoners were liberated on 27 January 1945, a day commemorated as International Holocaust Remembrance Day.
In the following decades, survivors wrote memoirs of their experiences in Auschwitz, such as Primo Levi, Viktor Frankl, Elie Wiesel, the camp became a dominant symbol of the Holocaust. In 1947, Poland founded the Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum on the site of Auschwitz I and II, it was named a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1979; the ideology of Nazism brought together elements of antisemitism, racial hygiene and eugenics, combined them with pan-Germanism and territorial expansionism with the goal of obtaining more Lebensraum for the Germanic people. After the Nazi seizure of power in Germany, boycotts of German Jews and acts of violence against them became ubiquitous, legislation was passed excluding them from the civil service and certain professions, including the law. Harassment and economic pressure were used to encourage them to leave Germany. On 15 September 1935, the Reichstag passed the Nuremberg Laws, prohibiting marriages between Jews and people of Germanic extraction, extramarital relations between Jews and Germans, the employment of German women under the age of 45 as domestic servants in Jewish households.
The Reich Citizenship Law defined as citizens those of "German or kindred blood". Thus Jews and other minorities were stripped of their citizenship. By the start of World War II in 1939, around 250,000 of Germany's 437,000 Jews had emigrated to the United States, the United Kingdom, other countries; when Germany invaded Poland in September 1939, triggering World War II, Adolf Hitler ordered that the Polish leadership and intelligentsia be destroyed. 65,000 civilians, viewed as inferior to the Aryan master race, had been killed by the end of 1939. In addition to leaders of Polish society, the Nazis killed Jews, the Roma, the mentally ill. SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich head of the Gestapo, ordered on 21 September 1939 that Polish Jews be rounded up and concentrated into cities with good rail links; the intention was to deport them to points further east, or to Madagascar. Two years in June 1941, in an attempt to obtain new territory, Hitler invaded the Soviet Union. Auschwitz I, a former Polish army barracks, was the main camp and administrative headquarters of the camp complex.
Intending to use it to house political prisoners, Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler, head of the Schutzstaffel, approved the site in April 1940 on the recommendation of SS-Obersturmbannführer Rudolf Höss of the Concentration Camps Inspectorate. Höss oversaw the development of the camp and served as its first commandant, with SS-Obersturmführer Josef Kramer as his deputy. Around 1,000 m long and 400 m wide, Auschwitz I consisted of 20 brick buildings, six of them two-story; the camp housed the SS by 1943 held 30,000 inmates. The first 30 prisoners arrived on 20 May 1940 after being transported from the Sachsenhausen concentration camp in Oranienburg, Germany. Convicted German criminals, the men were known as "greens" after the green triangles they were required to w
2018 Cannes Film Festival
The 71st annual Cannes Film Festival was held from 8 to 19 May 2018. Australian actress Cate Blanchett acted as President of the Jury; the Japanese film Shoplifters, directed by Hirokazu Kore-eda, won the Palme d'Or. Asghar Farhadi's psychological thriller Everybody Knows, starring Javier Bardem, Penélope Cruz and Ricardo Darín, opened the festival and competed in the Main Competition section, it was the second Spanish-language film to open Cannes, following Pedro Almodóvar's Bad Education, which screened on the opening night of the 2004 festival. The official festival poster features Jean-Paul Belmondo and Anna Karina from Jean-Luc Godard's 1965 film Pierrot le Fou, it is the second time the festival poster was inspired by Godard's film after his 1963 film Contempt at the 2016 festival. According to festival's official statement, the poster is inspired by and paid tribute to the work of French photographer Georges Pierre. Cate Blanchett, Australian actress, Jury President Chang Chen, Taiwanese actor Ava DuVernay, American director Robert Guédiguian, French director Khadja Nin, Burundian singer-songwriter Léa Seydoux, French actress Kristen Stewart, American actress Denis Villeneuve, Canadian director Andrey Zvyagintsev, Russian director Benicio del Toro, Puerto Rican actor, Jury President Kantemir Balagov, Russian director Julie Huntsinger, American executive director of the Telluride Film Festival Annemarie Jacir, Palestinian writer and director Virginie Ledoyen, French Actress Ursula Meier, Swiss film director, Jury President Marie Amachoukeli, French director Iris Brey, French-American critic and writer Sylvain Fage, French president of Cinéphase Jeanne Lapoirie, French cinematographer Arnaud and Jean-Marie Larrieu, French directors and writers Bertrand Bonello, French film director, Jury President Valeska Grisebach, German film director Khalil Joreige, Lebanese artist and film director Alanté Kavaïté, French-Lithuanian film director Ariane Labed, French actress International Critics' Week Joachim Trier, Norwegian film director, Jury President Chloë Sevigny, American actress and film director Nahuel Pérez Biscayart, Argentinian actor Eva Sangiorgi, Italian director of the Vienna International Film Festival Augustin Trapenard, French culture journalistL'Œil d'or Emmanuel Finkiel, French director, Jury President Lolita Chammah, French actress Isabelle Danel, French critic Kim Longinotto, British documentary filmmaker Paul Sturtz, American director of the True/False Film Festival The following films were selected to compete for the Palme d'Or: indicates film eligible for the Caméra d'Or as a feature directorial debut.
Indicates film in competition for the Queer Palm. The following films were selected to compete in the Un Certain Regard section: indicates film eligible for the Caméra d'Or as a feature directorial debut. Indicates film in competition for the Queer Palm; the following films were selected to be screened out of competition: indicates film eligible for the Caméra d'Or as a feature directorial debut. Indicates film in competition for the Queer Palm; the following films were selected be shown in the special screenings section: indicates film eligible for the Œil d'or for documentary feature. The following films were selected for the International Critics' Week section: indicates film eligible for the Caméra d'Or as a feature directorial debut. Indicates film in competition for the Queer Palm; the following films were selected to be screened in the Directors' Fortnight section: indicates film eligible for the Caméra d'Or as a feature directorial debut. Indicates film in competition for the Queer Palm. indicates film in competition for the Queer Palm.
A ban on Netflix films in competition, which came about after the streaming giant refused to show them in French cinemas, has meant the issues of streaming and distribution have been hot topics. The issue prompted Juror Ava DuVernay, who made 13th for Netflix, to make a plea for "flexibility of thought". In March and April 2018, weeks before general delegate Thierry Frémaux was set to unveil the official selection, reports suggested streaming service Netflix was to pull its already-selected films from premiering at the festival in retaliation for the barring of Netflix films from competing, they were still allowed to premiere in other sections, many opted for an Out of Competition berth. The films affected were Alfonso Cuarón's Roma, Morgan Neville's They'll Love Me When I'm Dead, Orson Welles' final film The Other Side of the Wind, Paul Greengrass' Norway, Jeremy Saulnier's Hold the Dark. Netflix pulled all of their films from selection. Notably, in the press conference announcement, Frémaux commented that he wanted The Other Side of the Wind and had planned to screen it as a special screening with the Welles-related documentary They'll Love Me When I'm Dead.
He noted that he had selected Roma for competition. Danish film director Lars von Trier returned to Cannes with his film The House That Jack Built, after he was declared "persona non grata" at the 2011 festival; the chair of the jury Cate Blanchett has called for gender parity at the Cannes Film Festival, calling it "almost a gladiatorial sport". However, she concedes that there has been improvements and the change "won't happen overnight". During the festival, 82 female film professionals, led by Jury president Cate Blanchett and veteran director Agnès Varda, took part to a demonstration on the red carpet, demanding more equality between men and women in the film industry, notably the end of the pay gap. In Competition Palme d'Or: Shoplifters by Hirokazu Kore-eda Grand Prix: BlacKkKlansman by Spike Lee Best Director: Paweł Pawlikowski for Cold War Best Screenplay: Alice Rohrwacher for Happy as Lazzaro Jafar Panahi and Nader Saeivar for 3 Faces Best Actress: Sa
The Woman in the Fifth
The Woman in the Fifth is a 2011 French-British-Polish drama film directed and written by Paweł Pawlikowski. Adapted from Douglas Kennedy's 2007 novel of the same name, the film centers on a divorced American writer who moves to Paris to be closer to his young daughter; as he embarks on an affair with a mysterious widow, a dark force seems to be taking control of his life. American writer Tom Ricks arrives in Paris to be closer to his young daughter who lives with his ex-wife. We learn that the divorce was caused by Tom's mental illness, from which he has recovered. Broke, he accepts a job as a night guard for a local crime boss who owns a run down hostel. Stationed in a basement office, his only task is to push a button; the tranquility of the night, will help him focus on his new novel. His days become more exciting when he starts a romance with Margit, a mysterious and elegant widow who sets strange rules to their meetings: she will only see him at her apartment in the fifth arrondissement, at 5pm sharp, twice a week and he should ask no questions about her work or her past life.
He gets closer to Ania, the Polish barmaid of the hostel where he lives, who has literary interests. Tom's relationship with Ania becomes a sexual affair, his neighbor blackmails him about it. Shortly after the neighbor is killed, his daughter goes missing, Tom begins to believe that a dark force has entered his life, punishing anyone who has done him wrong. After the police accuse him of murdering his neighbor, Tom tries to use his weekly visits to Margit's apartment as an alibi; the police find out that she died and hasn't lived at this address for the past 15 years. He is let go; when the two meet in the corridor of the police station, one is led to believe that somebody planted evidence to frame the owner of the hostel. He continues the affair with Ania, but decides to encounter Margit again, tells her she is not real, she says she is the most real love he'll encounter in his life, that she knows him from the inside. She tells him to say goodbye to his wife and daughter, they embrace and he accuses her of having done something with his daughter, he starts to choke her.
His daughter is found wandering in the forest, is reunited with her mother. In the final scene, Ania waits for him at the bar but Tom ascends the stairs once again to Margit's apartment; the movie fades out as the door to her apartment opens... Ethan Hawke as Tom Ricks Kristin Scott Thomas as Margit Kadar Joanna Kulig as Ania Samir Guesmi as Sezer Delphine Chuillot as Nathalie Grégory Gadebois as Lieutenant Children Unit Anne Benoît as Teacher The Woman in the Fifth was produced by Paris-based Haut Et Court with UK’s Film4 Productions, co-financed by the UK Film Council and SPI Poland. Pawlikowski saw the film as "a story about a man torn between the need for family and stability and the need to be creative". In 2009, he approached Hawke to play the lead character while the actor was performing in a play at the Old Vic in London, United Kingdom. Thomas was cast as the "woman in the Fifth" shortly afterward; the filming took place in Paris, from April to June 2010. Premiered at the 2011 Toronto International Film Festival, the film opened in France on 16 November 2011.
The following year it was released in the US on 15 June. The film received mixed reviews, with a "fresh" rating of 63% on Rotten Tomatoes and a score of 57 at Metacritic; the Woman in the Fifth on IMDb The Woman in the Fifth at Rotten Tomatoes The Woman in the Fifth at Metacritic
Alfonso Cuarón Orozco is a Mexican film director, producer and editor. His work has received many accolades, he has been nominated for 10 Academy Awards and won five, including two Best Director awards for Gravity and Roma. He is the first Latin American director to receive the award for Best Director, he has received Academy Awards for Best Film Editing for Gravity and Best Cinematography for Roma. Cuarón's other notable films include the family drama A Little Princess, the drama Y Tu Mamá También, the fantasy film Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, the dystopian thriller Children of Men. Alfonso Cuarón Orozco was born in Mexico City on 28 November 1961, the son of Alfredo Cuarón, a doctor specializing in nuclear medicine, Cristina Orozco, a pharmaceutical biochemist, he has two brothers, Carlos a filmmaker, Alfredo, a conservation biologist. Cuarón studied philosophy at the National Autonomous University of Mexico and filmmaking at CUEC, a school within the same university. There, he met the director Carlos Marcovich and cinematographer Emmanuel Lubezki, they made what would be his first short film, Vengeance Is Mine.
Cuarón began working on television in Mexico, first as a technician and as a director. His television work led to assignments as an assistant director for several film productions including La Gran Fiesta, Gaby: A True Story and Romero, in 1991, he landed his first big-screen directorial assignment. Sólo con Tu Pareja is a sex comedy about a womanizing businessman who, after having sex with an attractive nurse, is fooled into believing he's contracted AIDS. In addition to writing and directing, Cuarón co-edited the film with Luis Patlán, it is somewhat unusual for directors to be credited co-editors, although the Coen Brothers and Robert Rodriguez have both directed and edited nearly all of their films. Cuarón continued this close involvement in editing on several of his films; the film, which starred cabaret singer Astrid Hadad and model/actress Claudia Ramírez, was a big hit in Mexico. After this success, director Sydney Pollack hired Cuarón to direct an episode of Fallen Angels, a series of neo-noir stories produced for the Showtime premium cable network in 1993.
In 1995, Cuarón released his first feature film produced in the United States, A Little Princess, an adaptation of Frances Hodgson Burnett's classic novel. Cuarón's next feature was a literary adaptation, a modernized version of Charles Dickens's Great Expectations starring Ethan Hawke, Gwyneth Paltrow and Robert De Niro. Cuarón's next project found him returning to Mexico with a Spanish-speaking cast to film Y Tu Mamá También, starring Gael García Bernal, Diego Luna and Maribel Verdú, it was a provocative and controversial road comedy about two sexually obsessed teenagers who take an extended road trip with an attractive married woman, much older than them. The film's open portrayal of sexuality and frequent rude humor, as well as the politically and relevant asides, made the film an international hit and a major success with critics. Cuarón shared an Academy Award nomination for Best Original Screenplay with co-writer and brother Carlos Cuarón. In 2004, Cuarón directed the third film in the successful Harry Potter series, Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban.
Cuarón faced criticism from some Harry Potter fans for his approach to the film. At the time of the movie's release, author J. K. Rowling, who had seen and loved Cuarón's film Y Tu Mamá También, said that it was her personal favorite from the series so far. Critically, the film was better received than the first two installments, with some critics remarking its new tone and for being the first Harry Potter film to capture the essence of the novels. Cuarón's feature Children of Men, an adaptation of the P. D. James novel starring Clive Owen, Julianne Moore and Michael Caine, received wide critical acclaim, including three Academy Award nominations. Cuarón himself received two nominations for his work on the film in Best Film Editing and Best Adapted Screenplay, he created the production and distribution company Esperanto Filmoj, which has credits in the films Duck Season, Pan's Labyrinth, Gravity. Cuarón directed the controversial public service announcement "I Am Autism" for Autism Speaks, criticized by disability rights groups for its negative portrayal of autism.
In 2010, Cuarón began to develop a drama set in space. He was joined by producer David Heyman, with whom Cuarón worked on Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. Starring Sandra Bullock and George Clooney, the film was released in the fall of 2013 and opened the 70th Venice International Film Festival in August. On 12 January 2014, Alfonso accepted the Golden Globe Award in the category of Best Director; the film received ten Academy Award nominations, including Best Director. Cuarón won for Best Directing, becoming the first Latin American to win the award, while he and Mark Sanger received the award for Best Film Editing. In 2013, Cuarón created Believe, a science fiction/fantasy/adventure series, broadcast as part of the 2013–14 United States network television schedule on NBC as a mid-season entry; the series was created by Cuarón for Bad Robot Productions and Wa
Cold War (2018 film)
Cold War is a 2018 historical period drama film directed by Paweł Pawlikowski, who co-wrote the screenplay with Janusz Głowacki and Piotr Borkowski. It is an international co-production by producers in France and the United Kingdom. Set in Poland and France during the Cold War from the late 1940s until the 1960s, the story follows a musical director who discovers a young singer, exploring their subsequent love story over the years. Loosely inspired by the lives of Pawlikowski's parents, the film stars Tomasz Kot and Joanna Kulig as the co-leads. Borys Szyc, Agata Kulesza, Cédric Kahn and Jeanne Balibar appear in supporting roles. Cold War premiered at the 2018 Cannes Film Festival on 10 May 2018. Critics praised its acting, screenplay and cinematography; the film has received numerous accolades, including three nominations at the 91st Academy Awards and four at the 72nd British Academy Film Awards, including Best Direction and Best Film Not in the English Language. In post-war Poland and Irena are holding auditions for a state-sponsored folk music ensemble.
Wiktor's attention is captured by Zula, an ambitious and captivating young woman, faking a peasant identity and is on probation after attacking her abusive father. Wiktor and Zula fall into a deep and obsessive attraction with each other and have sex after a performance. Wiktor and Irena are pressured by bureaucrats to include pro-Communist and Stalinist propaganda in their performances, a decision which would allow the troupe to tour the eastern bloc. Both Wiktor and Irena are opposed to the changes, but the career-driven, opportunistic Kaczmarek agrees to the additions, a resentful Irena quits. Kaczmarek is interested in Zula and pressures her into spying on Wiktor for him, but Zula refuses to tell him any incriminating information; when the ensemble visits Berlin, Wiktor plans to flee to the west with Zula, the two affirm their love and passion. However, Zula fails to show up at a rendezvous with Wiktor, so he crosses the border alone. Years Zula meets Wiktor in Paris, where he is working at a jazz club.
Though they both have other partners, their continued mutual attraction is clear. When Wiktor asks Zula why she failed to appear with him to cross the border, she says she lacked confidence in herself. A year Wiktor attends one of the troupe's performances in Yugoslavia, where Zula spots him in the audience and becomes visibly shaken. Two years Wiktor is working in Paris as a film score composer, where Zula reunites with him. Wiktor attempts to build a solo career for Zula, including inflating her backstory to appear more interesting to his friend, film producer Michel, at a party, which annoys her. Meanwhile, Zula becomes jealous of Wiktor's past lovers, as work on her record strains their relationship, she begins to drink and act out in public. Wiktor and Zula finish Zula's record, she reveals that she had an affair with insults Wiktor, causing him to strike her. She disappears, when Wiktor confronts Michel, he reveals she has returned to Poland. Against Kaczmarek's advice, Wiktor returns to Poland.
Zula meets with him at a work camp, where he reveals that he has been sentence to a "generous" 15 years of hard labor on charges of crossing the borders and espionage. Zula promises to free him. Years a freed Wiktor meets with Kaczmarek at a club where Zula, now a barely-functioning alcoholic, is performing. Zula arranged for an early release for Wiktor by agreeing to marry Kaczmarek, now has a young son with him. Wiktor and Zula escape to a bathroom together, where a miserable and defeated Zula begs Wiktor to rescue her; the two take a bus to an abandoned church seen at the beginning of the film, where they prepare to commit suicide together. After ingesting pills, the couple is seen observing the landscape. Zula suggests they depart from view. Cold War grossed $4.6 million in the United States and Canada, $14.8 million in other territories, for a worldwide total of $19.4 million. In the film's opening weekend in the United States it made $54,353 from three theaters, an average of $18,118 per venue.
In its sixth weekend of release, following its three Oscar nominations, the film made $571,650 from 111 theaters. On review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating of 92% based on 216 reviews, an average rating of 8.16/10. The website's critical consensus reads, "With a brilliantly stark visual aesthetic to match its lean narrative, Cold War doesn't waste a moment of its brief running time — and doesn't skimp on its bittersweet emotional impact." Metacritic gives the film a weighted average score of 90 out of 100, based on 45 critics, indicating "universal acclaim". Giuseppe Sedia of the Krakow Post wrote, "...less hieratic than Ida, Cold War has a lot to offer to the audience. Maybe Pawlikowski would have not won Best Director Award at Cannes if it wasn't for the sumptuous acting displayed in this cruel, jazz-drenched and Mizoguchi-esque tale of two lovers". List of submissions to the 91st Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film List of Polish submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film Official website Cold War on IMDb Cold War at Metacritic Cold War at Rotten Tomatoes Cold War at Box Office Mojo
Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky, sometimes transliterated Dostoyevsky, was a Russian novelist, short story writer, essayist and philosopher. Dostoevsky's literary works explore human psychology in the troubled political and spiritual atmospheres of 19th-century Russia, engage with a variety of philosophical and religious themes, his most acclaimed works include Crime and Punishment, The Idiot and The Brothers Karamazov. Dostoevsky's oeuvre consists of 11 novels, three novellas, 17 short stories and numerous other works. Many literary critics rate him as one of the greatest psychologists in world literature, his 1864 novella Notes from Underground is considered to be one of the first works of existentialist literature. Born in Moscow in 1821, Dostoevsky was introduced to literature at an early age through fairy tales and legends, through books by Russian and foreign authors, his mother died in 1837 when he was 15, around the same time, he left school to enter the Nikolayev Military Engineering Institute.
After graduating, he worked as an engineer and enjoyed a lavish lifestyle, translating books to earn extra money. In the mid-1840s he wrote his first novel, Poor Folk, which gained him entry into St. Petersburg's literary circles. Arrested in 1849 for belonging to a literary group that discussed banned books critical of Tsarist Russia, he was sentenced to death but the sentence was commuted at the last moment, he spent four years in a Siberian prison camp, followed by six years of compulsory military service in exile. In the following years, Dostoevsky worked as a journalist and editing several magazines of his own and A Writer's Diary, a collection of his writings, he began to travel around western Europe and developed a gambling addiction, which led to financial hardship. For a time, he had to beg for money, but he became one of the most read and regarded Russian writers. Dostoevsky was influenced by a wide variety of philosophers and authors including Pushkin, Augustine, Dickens, Lermontov, Poe, Cervantes, Kant, Hegel, Solovyov, Sand and Mickiewicz.
His writings were read both within and beyond his native Russia and influenced an great number of writers including Russians like Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn and Anton Chekhov as well as philosophers such as Friedrich Nietzsche and Jean-Paul Sartre. His books have been translated into more than 170 languages. Dostoevsky's parents were part of a multi-ethnic and multi-denominational noble family, its branches including Russian Orthodox Christians, Polish Roman Catholics and Ukrainian Eastern Catholics; the family traced its roots back to a Tatar, Aslan Chelebi-Murza, who in 1389 defected from the Golden Horde and joined the forces of Dmitry Donskoy, the first prince of Muscovy to challenge the Mongol authority in the region, whose descendant, Danilo Irtishch, was ennobled and given lands in the Pinsk region in 1509 for his services under a local prince, his progeny taking the name "Dostoevsky" based on a village there called Dostoïevo. Dostoevsky's immediate ancestors on his mother's side were merchants.
His father, Mikhail Andreevich, was expected to join the clergy but instead ran away from home and broke with the family permanently. In 1809, the 20-year-old Mikhail Andreevich Dostoevsky enrolled in Moscow's Imperial Medical-Surgical Academy. From there he was assigned to a Moscow hospital, where he served as military doctor, in 1818, he was appointed a senior physician. In 1819 he married Maria Nechayeva; the following year, he took up a post at the Mariinsky Hospital for the poor. In 1828, when his two sons and Fyodor, were eight and seven he was promoted to collegiate assessor, a position which raised his legal status to that of the nobility and enabled him to acquire a small estate in Darovoye, a town about 150 km from Moscow, where the family spent the summers. Dostoevsky's parents subsequently had six more children: Varvara, Lyubov, Vera and Aleksandra. Fyodor Dostoevsky, born on 11 November 1821, was the second child of Dr. Mikhail Dostoevsky and Maria Dostoevskaya, he was raised in the family home in the grounds of the Mariinsky Hospital for the Poor, in a lower class district on the edges of Moscow.
Dostoevsky encountered the patients, who were at the lower end of the Russian social scale, when playing in the hospital gardens. Dostoevsky was introduced to literature at an early age. From the age of three, he was read heroic sagas, fairy tales and legends by his nanny, Alena Frolovna, an influential figure in his upbringing and love for fictional stories; when he was four his mother used the Bible to teach him to write. His parents introduced him to a wide range of literature, including Russian writers Karamzin and Derzhavin. Although his father's approach to education has been described as strict and harsh, Dostoevsky himself reports that his imagination was brought alive by nightly readings by his parents; some of his childhood experiences found their way into his writings. When a nine-year-old girl had been raped by a drunk, he was asked to fetch his