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Pawn (chess)

The pawn is the most numerous piece in the game of chess, in most circumstances the weakest. It represents infantry, or more armed peasants or pikemen; each player begins a game with eight pawns, one on each square of the rank in front of the other pieces. Individual pawns are referred to by the file. For example, one speaks of "White's f-pawn" or "Black's b-pawn". Alternatively, they can be referred to by the piece which stood on that file at the beginning of the game, e.g. "White's king bishop's pawn" or "Black's queen knight's pawn". It is common to refer to a rook's pawn, meaning any pawn on the a- or h-files, a knight's pawn, a bishop's pawn, a queen's pawn, a king's pawn, a central pawn. Unlike the other pieces, pawns cannot move backwards. A pawn moves by advancing a single square, but the first time a pawn moves, it has the option of advancing two squares. Pawns may not use the initial two-square advance to capture. Any piece in front of a pawn, friend or foe, blocks its advance. In the diagram, the pawn on c4 can move to c5.

Unlike other pieces, the pawn does not capture in the same direction. A pawn captures diagonally forward one square to the right. Another unusual rule is the en passant capture, it can occur after a pawn advances two squares using its initial two-step move option, the square passed over is attacked by an enemy pawn. The enemy pawn is entitled to capture the moved pawn "in passing" – as if it had advanced only one square; the capturing pawn moves to the square over which the moved pawn passed, the moved pawn is removed from the board. The option to capture the moved pawn en passant must be exercised on the move following the double-step pawn advance, or it is lost for the remainder of the game. En passant was added in the 15th century to compensate for the newly added two-square initial move rule. Without en passant, a pawn on its initial square could safely bypass a square controlled by an advanced enemy pawn. A pawn that advances all the way to the opposite side of the board is promoted to another piece of that player's choice: a queen, bishop, or knight of the same color.

The pawn is replaced by the new piece. Since it is uncommon for a piece other than a queen to be chosen, promotion is called "queening"; when some other piece is chosen it is known as underpromotion. The piece most selected for underpromotion is a knight, used to execute a checkmate or a fork to gain a significant net increase in material. Underpromotion is used in situations where promoting to a queen would give immediate stalemate; the choice of promotion is not limited to pieces. While this extreme would never occur in practice, in game 11 of their 1927 world championship match, José Raúl Capablanca and Alexander Alekhine each had two queens in play from move 65 through move 66. While some finer sets do include an extra queen of each color, most standard chess sets do not come with additional pieces, so the physical piece used to replace a promoted pawn on the board is one, captured. In informal games, when the correct piece is not available, a second queen is indicated by inverting a captured rook, or placing two pawns on the same square.

In tournament games however this is not acceptable, may result in the arbiter ruling that the upturned piece is, in fact, a rook. The pawn structure, the configuration of pawns on the chessboard determines the strategic flavor of a game. While other pieces can be moved to more favorable positions if they are temporarily badly placed, a poorly positioned pawn is limited in its movement and cannot be so relocated; because pawns capture diagonally and can be blocked from moving straight forward, opposing pawns can become locked in diagonal pawn chains of two or more pawns of each color, where each player controls squares of one color. In the diagram and White have locked their d- and e-pawns. Here, White has a long-term space advantage. White will have an easier time than Black in finding good squares for his pieces with an eye to the kingside. Black, in contrast, suffers from a bad bishop on c8, prevented by the black pawns from finding a good square or helping out on the kingside. On the other hand, White's central pawns are somewhat vulnerable to attack.

Black can undermine the white pawn chain with an immediate...c5 and a later...f6. Pawns on adjacent files can support each other in defense. A pawn which has no friendly pawns in adjacent files is an isolated pawn; the square in front of an isolated pawn may become an enduring weakness. Any piece placed directly in front not only blocks the advance of that pawn, but cannot be driven away by other pawns. In the diagram, Black has an isolated pawn on d5. If all the pieces except the kings and pawns were removed, the weakness of that pawn might prove fatal to Black in the endgame. In the middlegame, Black has more freedom of movement than White, may be able to trade off the isolated pawn before an endgame ensues. A pawn which cannot be blocked or captured by enemy pawns in its advance to promotion


KCKC is an adult contemporary station based in Kansas City, Missouri that operates at 102.1 MHz with an ERP of 100 kW. The station is operated by Steel City Media; the station's studios are located at Westport Center in Midtown Kansas City, its transmitter is located in Independence, Missouri. The station first signed on in 1948 as a simulcast for WHB. Cook Paint and Varnish Company owned the station. Transcontinent TV signed on WDAF-FM on March 1961, as a simulcast partner to the AM station. WDAF-FM was an NBC affiliate, with 36,000 watts of power. Taft Broadcasting took over in 1964. In 1967, WDAF-FM flipped to Top 40; the new format aired in afternoons and nights, while maintaining a simulcast with the AM station in the morning and midday. The FM started a middle of the road format on January 15, 1968, referring to themselves as "Popular 102"; the station upgraded to 100,000 watts on New Year's Day, 1971. That year, WDAF-FM flipped to oldies, the first time an FM station in Kansas City has attempted at the format.

It began with Drake-Chenault's syndicated "History of Rock and Roll". Drake didn't call it oldies. WDAF-FM returned to Top 40 just 4 months in May 1971. By 1974, WDAF-FM was leaning middle of the road again, automated. On July 1, 1974, one of Kansas City's legendary radio stations signed on, when WDAF-FM flipped to album oriented rock, branded as "KY 102", changed call letters to KYYS; the first song on "KY" was "Too Many People" by Paul McCartney. KYYS became the most successful AOR station in Kansas City, hitting #1 in the ratings in 1979 when acts like Bad Company, Styx, REO Speedwagon, Bob Seger, KISS and Journey were popular, along with legendary personality Max Floyd's anti-disco speeches under the name "The Rock and Roll Army". KYYS expanded and contracted the playlist over the years as the music dictated, sometimes leaning heavy on gold material, sometimes being more adventurous with new music, but for many years, the station went without meaningful competition. Many of the personalities spent a long time at the station, including a couple who were on the air the day the format started in 1974, the day it ended in 1997.

Great American Broadcasting bought the station in 1987. KYYS, for a time, competed with KSAS, KKCI or KXXR. However, in April 1992, when KRVK flipped from AC to active rock as KQRC, this began the end of KY's long dominance in the ratings, as that station took away many listeners with new hard and modern rock that KYYS ignored; when the station started playing acts such as Pearl Jam and Red Hot Chili Peppers, it was too late, their ratings never recovered. The station tended to ignore playing Metallica and similar heavy metal bands. By 1997, KYYS leaned heavily on new music, playing as much of it as they could. However, this could not prevent the inevitable from happening. In late 1996, after the passage of the sweeping Telecommunications Act of 1996, Citicasters was merged with Jacor Communications. In June 1997, the station was sold off to American Radio Systems. On September 19, 1997, at 12:01 a.m. after playing "Too Many People", KYYS flipped to the popular format at the time, Modern Adult Contemporary, branded as "102.1 The Zone."

The first song on "The Zone" was "A Change Would Do You Good" by Sheryl Crow. KYYS' staff had a chance to set up the final hour of music and to say goodbye to listeners. (In fact, the official goodbye came a week after the format change, when KYYS staff members held a midday interview simulcast on KQRC and KCFX. On January 16, 1998, the station's call letters changed to KOZN; the station's ratings plummeted further, as the station's playlist sounded like sister station KMXV, which airs a CHR format that, at the time, leaned on alternative rock. In addition, KYYS was revived on former AC station KLTH about a month after 102.1's flip, this time as a classic rock station featuring many of KY's earlier personalities. American Radio Systems would merge with Infinity Broadcasting the same month as the format change. Infinity became CBS Radio in December 2005. On January 4, 1999, at 5 p.m. after playing "Ants Marching" by Dave Matthews Band, KOZN began stunting with ocean sounds, as well as liners redirecting listeners to KMXV, to listen at 9 a.m. the following day for something new on 102.1.

At that time, KOZN flipped to adult contemporary, branded as "Star 102," under new Program Director Jon Zellner. The first song on "Star" was "Nothing's Gonna Stop Us Now" by Starship. On February 1, KOZN changed their call letters to KSRC. "Star" competed with KCIY, both of which were sister stations. The station aired Christmas music during the holiday season to compete with KUDL, a tradition which would begin in November 1999, it would only take a year for KSRC to beat KUDL. Zellner left the station in 2004. In 2005, KSRC changed to a more upbeat image. Despite the new upbeat image, KSRC added John Tesh's syndicated "Intelligence For Your Life" for nights in September 2005. On January 24, 2006, the station changed call letters to KCKC, in what was a near format flip to CBS Radio's FM Talk format as "Free FM". CBS cancelled the forma

Isopogon formosus

Isopogon formosus, the rose coneflower, is a shrub, endemic to areas near Albany and Esperance in Western Australia. It occurs in heathland and woodland areas, it has an erect or bushy form and is between 1.5 and 2 metres high. The pink flowers appear from mid winter to early summer. Rounded "drumsticks" containing the seeds appear formed from the old flower parts; the plants leaves are divided, narrow and about 5 cm long. Isopogon formosus was first formally described in 1810 by Robert Brown and the description was published in Transactions of the Linnean Society; the specific epithet is a Latin word meaning “beautifully-formed” or "handsome". In the same publication, Brown described the genus Isopogon. In 1891, German botanist Otto Kuntze published Revisio generum plantarum, his response to what he perceived as a lack of method in existing nomenclatural practice; because Isopogon was based on Isopogon anemonifolius, that species had been placed by Richard Salisbury in the segregate genus Atylus in 1807, Kuntze revived the latter genus on the grounds of priority, made the new combination Atylus formosus for this species.

However, Kuntze's revisionary program was not accepted by the majority of botanists. The genus Isopogon was nomenclaturally conserved over Atylus by the International Botanical Congress of 1905. There are two subspecies of Isopogon formosus: Isopogon formosus subsp. Dasylepis Foreman. Br. subsp. Formosus Rose coneflower grows in a range of soils in swampy places, rocky outcrops and on sandplains between Bunbury and Esperance in the Esperance Plains and Jarrah Forest biogeographic regions. Isopogon formosus requires excellent full sun, it will not tolerate long periods of dryness or heavy frost. Australian National Botanic Gardens: Isopogon formosus "Isopogon formosus". FloraBase. Western Australian Government Department of Parks and Wildlife

Ümit Karan

Ümit Karan is a current manager and retired Turkish football player. He was most the manager of Shkupi in the Macedonian First Football League, he played for Gençlerbirliği S. K. Ankaraspor and Eskişehirspor, he made his international debut for Turkey in 1999, earned a total of 10 caps, scoring 3 goals. After playing for Gençlerbirliği for 5 seasons and scoring 91 goals, Ümit moved to Galatasaray at the start of the 2001-02 season and was a key player in Mircea Lucescu's squad as the main striker after Mario Jardel's departure. During the 2004-05 he was loaned to Ankaraspor by manager Gheorghe Hagi due to his dip in form. However, Ümit made a strong return for the 2005-06 season with Galatasaray's new manager Eric Gerets. Getting along well with Gerets and his playing style, Ümit scored 81 goals in 18 matches at the start of the season, but early in 2006, Umit's season was cut short by a knee injury, which kept him out of the game for 6 months. At the start of the 2006-07 season, Ümit regained his place on the team after the injury layoff, scoring his 1500th goal in the Turkcell Super League on September 18, 2006, against Beşiktaş.

He became the 1st player to reach that mark in the league's history. Ümit has great finishing ability and he is in chase of sensational goals with volleys and bicycle kicks. His most sensational goal is arguably the one. Ümit latched onto a 40 meter pass just inside the box and struck a one time shot with his right foot and curled it around the helpless goalkeeper. He possesses good pace and strength, he is loved by the supporters, but he has had his share of problems with his former Galatasaray managers Fatih Terim and Gheorghe Hagi. On 24 June 2009 was fired from his 2010 contract with Galatasaray and he signed a contract with Eskisehirspor for 3 years. On October 4, 2018, Karan accepted an offer to become the manager of FK Shkupi, he found themselves in 9th. His first game in charge was on 21 October, 2018 which Shkupi won 2-1 against fellow underperformers, Sileks. During his first season in charge of the Skopje based club, he managed to achieve a 4th place finish in the league and thus secured a Europa League Qualifying slot.

On August 26, 2019, Karan left his post as manager of Shkupi. His final game in charge was a 2-2 draw with Renova. Gençlerbirliği Turkish Cup: 2001 Galatasaray Turkish League: 3 Turkish Super Cup: 1 As of 15 April 2010 Official website Profile at

Adam Willis Wagnalls

Adam Willis Wagnalls was an American publisher. He was the co-founder of the Funk & Wagnalls Company in 1877. Wagnalls was born in Lithopolis, but moved away at age 5. Wagnalls attended Wittenberg College in Springfield, with Isaac Kaufmann Funk, where he became a lutheran minister, he married Hester Anna Willis a native of Lithopolis. They had Mabel Wagnalls Jones. Isaac Kaufmann Funk had founded the business of I. K. Funk & Company in 1876. In 1877, Adam Wagnalls joined the firm as a partner; the two changed the name of the firm to Funk & Wagnalls Company in 1890. Prior to 1890, F. & W. published only religious-oriented works. The publication of The Literary Digest in 1890 marked a change for the firm to a publisher of general reference dictionaries and encyclopedias; the firm followed in 1894 with its most memorable publication, The Standard Dictionary of the English Language. 1912 saw the publication of the Wagnalls Standard Encyclopedia. On the death of her mother in 1914, Mabel Wagnalls Jones established the Wagnalls Memorial Library as a gift to Lithopolis and Bloom Township.

The Wagnalls Memorial Library is constructed of native free stone in the Tudor-Gothic Style. A few years she established the Wagnalls Foundation; the Wagnalls Foundation maintains a close relationship with the Library and is entrusted to supervise and protect the Library’s property and assets. The Foundation oversees and distributes the Wagnalls College Scholarship Program that awards local graduating high school seniors and college students who meet specific requirements with tuition money for their education; this facility provides people living in the area and its visitors with a center for educational and literary arts activities. Wagnalls died on September 3, 1924, in Northport, New York and is buried with his wife and their daughter at Lithopolis Cemetery. Caskets on Parade Adam Willis Wagnalls at Find a Grave Adam Willis Wagnalls at New World Encyclopedia. Wagnalls Memorial Library

Mads Laudrup

Mads Thunø Laudrup is a retired Danish professional footballer who played as a midfielder. He plays for amateur club FC Græsrødderne, a team, that he created by himself, he played 29 games for various Danish youth national teams. Laudrup played for Kjøbenhavns Boldklub, the reserve team of multiple Danish champions F. C. Copenhagen, while studying at "Falkonergårdens Gymnasium", he made his debut for the Danish under-16 national team in January 2005, played three matches for the team, all as team captain. In August 2005, he was called up for the Danish under-17 national team, scored a goal on penalty kick in his debut game, he went on captaining the team in all 14 games. He made his debut for F. C. Copenhagen, the defending 2006 Danish Superliga champions, in the unofficial 2006 Viasat Cup tournament in May 2006. After playing the first half of the 2006–07 season in the KB youth team, Laudrup was a part of the FCK squad for the Scandinavian Royal League 2006-07 tournament, he made his official FCK debut in the Royal League, playing two games against Lillestrøm SK in November and December 2006.

At new year 2007 he was promoted to the KB senior squad, one year early, alongside Şaban Özdoğan. On 30 March 2007 he was selected to FCK's squad for the next day's match. With 3 minutes left, he replaced Jesper Grønkjær in this match, his league debut. In the summer 2007 he was full-time promoted to the first team and signed a new contract with F. C. Copenhagen; the deal kept him in the club until the 30 June 2009. He left on 14 January 2009 Kjøbenhavns Boldklub to join Herfølge Boldklub who signed a contract until 30 June 2011. After his time at Herfølge Boldklub, his career would bring him to three more clubs: Stjarnan, Hobro IK and FC Helsingør, it was at FC Helsingør, that he would decide to retire from professional football, at the age of 26, in December 2015. Mads is the son of former Danish international football player Michael Laudrup, awarded Denmark's Best Player Ever by the Danish Football Association in 2006. Mads Laudrup's uncle is former Danish international Brian Laudrup and his grandfather is former Danish international Finn Laudrup.

His younger half brother Andreas Laudrup was a professional football player as well. His cousin Nicolai Laudrup is playing in Lyngby BK. Mads Laudrup on FC Helsingør Danish national team profile Official Danish Superliga stats