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A pawnbroker is an individual or business that offers secured loans to people, with items of personal property used as collateral. The items having been pawned to the broker are themselves called pledges or pawns, or the collateral. While many items can be pawned, pawnshops accept jewelry, musical instruments, home audio equipment, video game systems, gold, televisions, power tools and other valuable items as collateral. If an item is pawned for a loan, within a certain contractual period of time the pawner may redeem it for the amount of the loan plus some agreed-upon amount for interest; the amount of time, rate of interest, is governed by law and by the pawnbroker's policies. If the loan is not paid within the time period, the pawned item will be offered for sale to other customers by the pawnbroker. Unlike other lenders, the pawnbroker does not report the defaulted loan on the customer's credit report, since the pawnbroker has physical possession of the item and may recoup the loan value through outright sale of the item.

The pawnbroker sells items that have been sold outright to them by customers. Some pawnshops are willing to trade items in their shop for items brought to them by customers. In the west, pawnbroking existed in the Ancient Greek and Roman Empires. Most contemporary Western law on the subject is derived from the Roman jurisprudence; as the empire spread its culture, pawnbroking went with it. In the East, the business model existed in China 1,500 years ago in Buddhist monasteries no different from today, through the ages regulated by Imperial or other authorities. In spite of early Roman Catholic Church prohibitions against charging interest on loans, there is some evidence that the Franciscans were permitted to begin the practice as an aid to the poor. Pawn brokerage arrived in England with William the Conqueror. In 1338, Edward III pawned his jewels to raise money for his war with France. King Henry V did much the same in 1415; the Lombards were not a popular class, Henry VII harried them a good deal.

In 1603 an Act against Brokers was passed and remained on the statute-book until 1872. It was aimed at the many counterfeit brokers in London; this type of broker was evidently regarded as a fence. Crusaders, predominantly in France, brokered their land holdings to monasteries and diocese for funds to supply and transport their armies to the Holy Land. Instead of outright repayment, the Church reaped a certain amount of crop returns for a certain amount of seasons, which could additionally be re-exchanged in a type of equity. A pawnbroker can be a charity. In 1450, Barnaba Manassei, a Franciscan friar, began the Monte di Pietà movement in Italy, it provided financial assistance in the form of no-interest loans secured with pawned items. Instead of interest, the Monte di Pietà urged borrowers to make donations to the Church, it spread through Italy to other parts of Europe. The first Monte de Piedad organization in Spain was founded in Madrid, from there the idea was transferred to New Spain by Pedro Romero de Terreros, the Count of Santa Maria de Regla and Knight of Calatrava.

The Nacional Monte de Piedad is a charitable institution and pawn shop whose main office is located just off the Zócalo, or main plaza of Mexico City. It was established between 1774 and 1777 by Pedro Romero de Terreros as part of a movement to provide interest-free or low-interest loans to the poor, it was recognized as a national charity in 1927 by the Mexican government. Today it is a fast-growing institution with over 152 branches all over Mexico and with plans to open a branch in every Mexican city; the pawning process begins. Common items pawned by customers include jewelry, collectibles, musical instruments and firearms. Gold and platinum are popular items—which are purchased if in the form of broken jewelry of little value. Metal can still be sold in bulk to a bullion dealer or smelter for the value by weight of the component metals. Jewelry that contains genuine gemstones if broken or missing pieces, have value; the pawnbroker assumes the risk. However, laws in many jurisdictions protect both the community and broker from unknowingly handling stolen goods.

These laws require that the pawnbroker establish positive identification of the seller through photo identification, as well as a holding period placed on an item purchased by a pawnbroker. In some jurisdictions, pawnshops must give a list of all newly pawned items and any associated serial number to police, so the police can determine if any of the items have been reported stolen. Many police departments advise burglary or robbery victims to visit local pawnshops to see if they can locate stolen items; some pawnshops set up their own screening criteria to avoid buying stolen property. The pawnbroker assesses an item for its condition and marketability by testing the item and examining it for flaws, scratches or other damage. Another aspect that affects marketability is the supply and demand for the item in the community or region. In some markets, the used goods market is so flooded with used stereos and car stereos, for example, that pawnshops will only accept the higher-quality brand names.

Alternatively, a customer may offer to pawn an item, difficult to sell, such as a surfboard in an inland region, or a pair of snow

Mexican hornshark

The Mexican hornshark is a bullhead shark of the family Heterodontidae. This shark is grey-brown in color, with black spots scattered on body, it has a cylindrical trunk, conical head, small spiracles behind the eyes. The snout of the Mexican hornshark is round and blunt. Like all members of the order Heterodontiformes, this shark has fin spines in front of both of its dorsal fins; the first dorsal fin originates before the pectoral fins, while the second dorsal fin originates behind the pelvic fins. The Mexican hornshark reaches a maximum length around 70 cm, but reaches between 50 and 60 cm on average. Young hornsharks hatch around 14 cm. Mexican hornsharks are distributed throughout the coast of the Eastern Pacific around southern Baja California, as far south as Peru; the rocky bottoms, coral reefs, sandy areas of the littoral zone create the habitat of this hornshark. The Mexican hornshark can be found at a maximum depth of 50 m, but is found down to 20 m. Like all members of the order Heterodontiformes, the Mexican hornshark is oviparous.

After an unknown gestation period, the female attaches an unknown number of spiral-shaped egg cases to rocks on the sea floor. The length of the incubation period of these egg cases is unknown. Not much about the feeding habits of the Mexican hornshark is known, but it most feeds on shelled invertebrates; because of its size, this shark poses no danger to humans. Because of its recent discovery and lack of research, the Mexican hornshark is listed as Data Deficient by the IUCN Red List; this shark is not considered to have commercial value, but it is at risk nonetheless because it is taken as bycatch by fishing operations that use bottom gillnets. Mexican hornsharks caught as bycatch are either used in fishmeal. If released back into the water, these sharks are hardy enough to survive, but many discarded hornsharks are left on beaches to die. Overall, the threat to Mexican hornsharks is considerable, as their range is restricted and they are caught

An Emotional Fish

An Emotional Fish is an alternative rock band from Dublin, Ireland. An Emotional Fish were formed in 1988, consisted of Gerard Whelan, Enda Wyatt, Martin Murphy and David Frew, their musical influences include The Clash, The Doors, David Bowie, Iggy Pop, T. Rex. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, An Emotional Fish were signed to Mother Records in Ireland, Warner Bros Records in Europe, Atlantic Records in America, they were signed to Atlantic by Ahmet Ertegun after seeing them play a sold-out concert at the Baggot Inn. An Emotional Fish supported U2 and Simple Minds on tours of Europe supporting Blondie, Depeche Mode and others; the vocalist Gerard Whelan met bassist Enda Wyatt in a band. Whelan joined the band. After the break-up, Whelan and Wyatt formed their own band, they performed alone, recorded their works on a four-track tape recorder. After a year, Whelan brought his friend David Frew into the band. Whelan and David Frew had lived in the same housing estate. In 1988, they decided to name the band An Emotional Fish.

For a few months, they performed with a drum machine, but soon added drummer Martin Murphy as the final member of the group. In 1989, they signed to independent Mother Records to release their first single "Grey Matter", it was followed by "Celebrate". It peaked at No. 46 in the UK Singles Chart in June 1990, where it remained in that listing for five weeks. College radio stations began to pick up the song, it received significant airplay, reached the Top 5 in the US Modern Rock Tracks chart. Atlantic Records signed the band, re-released "Grey Matter" in the US. Atlantic released their debut album internationally. "Celebrate" was covered in Italian by the singer-songwriter Vasco Rossi in his 1993 album Gli Spari Sopra which went platinum 10 times. The song lyrics are a phonetic translation of the original. After a tour to support the debut album, An Emotional Fish returned to the studio to record Junk Puppets; the songs were recorded over eight months, four of the songs were produced by David A. Stewart.

In 1993, the album was released, An Emotional Fish opened for U2 on the Zoo TV Tour. In 1994, the band were signed to German label ZIX Records and their third album Sloper was released in Europe; the album was released in the US two years later. David Frew performed on The Marigolds Abbey Street EP, released in 1998. More he has been playing with former Marigolds frontman Paul Woodward. David performed a series of low key gigs in Scotland at the end of 2011. In 2002, Whelan created a new band, Jerry Fish & The Mudbug Club, with a new style and musical presence, where he can still be seen to work with Enda Wyatt. Enda Wyatt founded Jerry Fish & The Mudbug Club, with Jerry Fish co-writing the first album “Be Yourself” and three songs on the second album “The Beautiful Untrue”. In 2012 Enda worked with The Radiators From Space to produce the album Sound City Beat, he has written and produced three albums with Veshengro, a folk project with Nick Malicka, entitled “Trees in Your Window”, “After Rain” and “Lost Times”.

Enda has written and produced four albums with Jangaleros, a space music project with Steve Coakley, “Moonjuice and Meteor Moss”, “Dirty Snowball Recordings”, “Tales of the Adjacent Possible” and “A Glorious Elsewhere”, the latter web only at present. His solo albums include an album of country songs as Wyattsville called “Spirits of the Desert”, a solo CD of songs called “Shadow Horses”, his latest album From Another Time by Enda Wyatt’s 18 Reptiles was released in September 2018 on Vinyl and CD and he is working on new material to be released in 2019. On 30 March 2012 the band played in the Olympia Theatre in Dublin at a concert in aid of Barretstown alongside such other Irish bands as Engine Alley and Republic of Loose. Drummer Martin Murphy died in January 2017. An Emotional Fish, 1990 - UK No. 40 Junk Puppets, 1993 Sloper, 1994, 1996 Celebration Live, 1991 Live Bait, 1991 An Emotional Fish, 1990 - Unofficial website - Jerry Fish official website - Jerry Fish unofficial website Enda Wyatt Jangaleros

The Runes of the Earth

The Runes of the Earth is a fantasy novel by American writer Stephen R. Donaldson, the first book of The Last Chronicles of Thomas Covenant series, it was first published in 2004. Donaldson returns to the Land for the third series of novels based there. We are re-introduced to Linden Avery years after she first encountered Thomas Covenant and was forever changed by the experience. We journey once more to the familiar fantasy world. Linden Avery is now in charge of a clinic for the mentally ill and is responsible, among other things, for caring for Joan Covenant. Roger, son of Thomas and Joan, comes to visit for the first time in many years and seeks to take Joan out of care, claiming that he wants to assume responsibility for the task himself. Roger demands from Linden his late father's white gold wedding ring, which she refuses to relinquish. Linden remains suspicious of his intentions, but she is not able to prevent his forceful removal of Joan at gunpoint, his abduction of Linden's adopted son, Jeremiah.

Casualties mount as Joan is taken and - whilst attempting to intervene - Linden, Joan and Jeremiah are transported to the Land, where they must adjust to its new demands. On return to the Land, she discovers that the people have no knowledge of the Earthpower she had so cherished before; this ancient lore is kept from them by the Haruchai, who have now taken upon themselves total responsibility for the Land's defense, discouraging the learning of Law and any knowledge of Earthpower or the Land's history. They have become the "Masters” of the Land; the Land has been beset by caesures which are strange disruptions created from wild magic by Joan in her madness. Linden takes under her protection an enigmatic character called Anele, who turns out to have been the son of two people that Linden had known centuries before, which appears logically impossible, he is full of Earthpower, as a result of a pregnant Hollian being brought back to life by Earthpower. Linden finds an ally in a Stonedownor, who comes to trust Linden implicitly when she introduces him to his past and the Land, showing him an expression of Earthpower beyond all his previous experience.

The Masters threaten Anele as she seeks to find ways of locating and rescuing her son, a quest she keeps to herself. When a strange storm attacks Liand's village, Mithil Stonedown, he and Linden and Anele take the opportunity to escape the Masters, their escape is compromised when another Master, catches up with them. They believe he has come to recapture them, but he brings timely warning of a huge pack of wolves, pursuing them, they are rescued by a company of Ramen, the traditional servants of the Ranyhyn horses, who seem to have made an odd alliance with the ur‑viles. They are led to the Verge of Wandering - a valley the Ramen come to every couple of generations. Here they meet Esmer, a powerful being who claims to be the son of Cail - an outcast Haruchai - and the merewives, the mysterious Dancers of the Sea. Linden is unsure whether to treat Esmer as a friend or an enemy: He attacks and wounds Stave, but proceeds to help Linden, he uses his strange powers to summon a caesure, allowing Linden and her companions to travel backwards in time to retrieve the lost Staff of Law.

They emerge from the caesure in a Land, still recovering from the Sunbane. After some initial frustration, they find that the Staff is guarded by a group of Waynhim who - not being creatures of Law - are sickening from its influence. Linden uses the Staff to cure the Waynhim, but she and her companions are attacked by Demondim wielding the power of the Illearth Stone. Fearful that the coming battle will alter the Land's history, Linden creates a new caesure and returns herself, her companions, the ur‑viles and Demondim to her own present; when they emerge, they find themselves in the neighborhood of Revelstone, now the stronghold of the Masters. The Haruchai attempt to fight the Demondim. Stave is badly injured, Linden and her companions are forced to retreat to Revelstone. Here Linden meets the Mahdoubt, a mysterious old woman who describes herself only as "a servant of Revelstone"; as the company is enclosed in the Lord's Keep with their foes outside, they see a small group approaching: her son and Thomas Covenant, who has returned to life.

Linden Avery – doctor Jeremiah – her adopted son Joan Covenant – Thomas Covenant's ex-wife Roger Covenant – Thomas Covenant's now-adult son Anele – deranged, loser of the Staff of Law. The consequence of using both the Staff of Law and white gold is addressed by the main character Linden Avery. Th

Before Present

Before Present years is a time scale used in archaeology and other scientific disciplines to specify when events occurred in the past. Because the "present" time changes, standard practice is to use 1 January 1950 as the commencement date of the age scale, reflecting the origin of practical radiocarbon dating in the 1950s; the abbreviation "BP" has been interpreted retrospectively as "Before Physics". In a convention, not always observed, many sources restrict the use of BP dates to those produced with radiocarbon dating; the BP scale is sometimes used for dates established by means other than radiocarbon dating, such as stratigraphy. This usage differs with the recommendation by van der Plicht & Hogg, followed by the Quaternary Science Reviews, both of which requested that publications should use the unit "a" for year and reserve the term "BP" for radiocarbon estimations; some archaeologists use the lowercase letters bp, bc and ad as terminology for uncalibrated dates for these eras. The Centre for Ice and Climate at the University of Copenhagen has proposed "b2k" as "years before AD 2000", based on the Greenland Ice Core Chronology 2005 time scale.

Radiocarbon dating was first used in 1940. Beginning in 1954, metrologists established 1950 as the origin year for the BP scale for use with radiocarbon dating, using a 1950-based reference sample of oxalic acid. According to scientist A. Currie Lloyd: The problem was tackled by the international radiocarbon community in the late 1950s, in cooperation with the U. S. National Bureau of Standards. A large quantity of contemporary oxalic acid dihydrate was prepared as NBS Standard Reference Material 4990B, its 14C concentration was about 5% above what was believed to be the natural level, so the standard for radiocarbon dating was defined as 0.95 times the 14C concentration of this material, adjusted to a 13C reference value of −19 per mil. This value is defined as "modern carbon" referenced to AD 1950. Radiocarbon measurements are compared to this modern carbon value, expressed as "fraction of modern". "Radiocarbon ages" are calculated from fM using the exponential decay relation and the "Libby half-life" 5568 a.

The ages are expressed in years before present where "present" is defined as AD 1950. The year 1950 was chosen, it marked the publication of the first radiocarbon dates in December 1949, 1950 antedates large scale atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, which altered the global ratio of carbon-14 to carbon-12. Dates determined using radiocarbon dating come in two kinds: uncalibrated and calibrated dates. Uncalibrated radiocarbon dates should be noted as such by "uncalibrated years BP", because they are not identical to calendar dates; this has to do with the fact that the level of atmospheric radiocarbon has not been constant during the span of time that can be radiocarbon-dated. Uncalibrated radiocarbon ages can be converted to calendar dates by means of calibration curves based on comparison of raw radiocarbon dates of samples independently dated by other methods, such as dendrochronology and stratigraphy; such calibrated dates are expressed as cal BP, where "cal" indicates "calibrated years", or "calendar years", before 1950.

Many scholarly/scientific journals require that published calibrated results be accompanied by the name of the laboratory concerned, other information such as confidence levels, because of differences between the methods used by different laboratories and changes in calibrating methods. Ab urbe condita Anno Domini After the Development of Agriculture Anno Hegiri Anno Mundi Before Christ Before Common Era or Before Current Era Common Era or Current Era Cosmic time Holocene calendar years ago Anthropocene

Alexander (Alex Ebert album)

Alexander is the first solo album by American musician Alex Ebert, lead singer of Edward Sharpe and the Magnetic Zeros and Ima Robot. It was released on March 2011 under the Community Records label; the song "Truth" was featured in the season 4 premiere of AMC's Breaking Bad titled "Box Cutter". The lead single “A Million Years” was featured in the season 4 episode "Chuck Versus the Wedding Planner" in the NBC series Chuck. Alex Ebert produced the album during breaks from his work with Edward Sharpe and the Magnetic Zeros and Ima Robot, he played all the instruments on the album himself. Before the release, the entire record was streamed on Alex Ebert, backed up by other members of Edward Sharpe and the Magnetic Zeros, promoted the album in 2011. On July 20, 2011, they performed songs from the album on NPR, Alex described going solo as "addictive." They performed their song "Truth" on Conan on September 12, 2011. Songs from Alexander were played while on tour with Edward Sharpe and the Magnetic Zeros.

Reviews were average for this album. Rolling Stone gave the album two-and-a-half out of five stars, they stated, "the dream-catcher naiveté seems genuine. It's kind of annoying:'Would you call the Earth an asshole for turning round and round?/Ya know it never stays in just one place.' We wouldn't, because unlike some people, we weren't skipping out of science class to do'shrooms." Pitchfork Media mentioned, "Equal parts charming and trying, unequal parts soul and rock and folk, it's an album that's as easy to love as it is to hate. In fact, I can't keep myself from doing both at once", giving the album a rating of 5.9 out of 10. BBC mentioned, "Ultimately this sounds like a side project, which can only be so disappointing when that’s what it is." All tracks are written by Alexander Ebert. Official Site