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Pax Romana

The Pax Romana is a 200-year-long period in Roman history, identified with increased and sustained inner hegemonial peace and stability. It is traditionally dated as commencing from the accession of Caesar Augustus, founder of the Roman principate, in 27 BC and concluding in 180 AD with the death of Marcus Aurelius, the last of the "good emperors". Since it was inaugurated by Augustus with the end of the Final War of the Roman Republic, it is sometimes called the Pax Augusta. During this period of 207 years, the Roman Empire achieved its greatest territorial extent and its population reached a maximum of up to 70 million people – a third of the world’s population. According to Cassius Dio, the dictatorial reign of Commodus followed by the Year of the Five Emperors and the crisis of the third century, marked the descent "from a kingdom of gold to one of iron and rust"; the Pax Romana is said to have been a "miracle" because prior to it there had never been peace for so many centuries in a given period of history.

However, Walter Goffart wrote: "The volume of the Cambridge Ancient History for the years A. D. 70–192 is called'The Imperial Peace', but peace is not what one finds in its pages". Arthur M. Eckstein writes that the period must be seen in contrast to the much more frequent warfare in the Roman Republic in the 4th and 3rd centuries BC. Eckstein notes that the incipient Pax Romana appeared during the Republic, that its temporal span varied with geographical region as well: "Although the standard textbook dates for the Pax Romana, the famous “Roman Peace” in the Mediterranean, are 31 BC to AD 250, the fact is that the Roman Peace was emerging in large regions of the Mediterranean at a much earlier date: Sicily after 210, the Italian Peninsula after 200; the concept was influential, the subject of theories and attempts to copy it in subsequent ages. Arnaldo Momigliano noted that "Pax Romana is a simple formula for propaganda, but a difficult subject for research." In fact, the "Pax Romana" was broken by the First Jewish–Roman War, the Kitos War, the Bar Kokhba Revolt, the Roman–Parthian War of 58–63, Trajan's Roman–Parthian War of 113, the Dacian Wars, various battles with Germanic tribes, including the Teutoburg Forest, Boudica's war in Britain in AD 60 or 61.

The Pax Romana began when Octavian defeated Mark Antony and Cleopatra in the Battle of Actium on 2 September 31 BC and became Roman emperor. He became first citizen. Lacking a good precedent of successful one-man rule, Augustus created a junta of the greatest military magnates and stood as the front man. By binding together these leading magnates in a coalition, he eliminated the prospect of civil war; the Pax Romana was not immediate, despite the end of the civil wars, because fighting continued in Hispania and in the Alps. Augustus closed the Gates of Janus three times, first in 29 BC and again in 25 BC; the third closure is undocumented, but Inez Scott Ryberg and Gaius Stern have persuasively dated the third closure to 13 BC with the commissioning of the Ara Pacis. At the time of the Ludi Saeculares in 17 BC the Concept of Peace was publicized, in 13 BC was proclaimed when Augustus and Agrippa jointly returned from pacifying the provinces; the order to construct the Ara Pacis was no doubt part of this announcement.

Augustus faced a problem making peace an acceptable mode of life for the Romans, at war with one power or another continuously for 200 years. Romans regarded peace, not as an absence of war, but the rare situation which existed when all opponents had been beaten down and lost the ability to resist. Augustus' challenge was to persuade Romans that the prosperity they could achieve in the absence of warfare was better for the Empire than the potential wealth and honor acquired when fighting a risky war. Augustus succeeded by means of skillful propaganda. Subsequent emperors followed his lead, sometimes producing lavish ceremonies to close the Gates of Janus, issuing coins with Pax on the reverse, patronizing literature extolling the benefits of the Pax Romana. After Augustus' death in AD 14, most of his successors as Roman emperors continued his politics; the last five emperors of the Pax Romana were considered the "Five Good Emperors". Roman trade in the Mediterranean increased during the Pax Romana.

Romans sailed East to acquire silks, gems and spices. Romans benefited from large profits and incomes in the Roman empire were raised due to trade in the Mediterranean; as the Pax Romana of the western world by Rome was contemporaneous to the Pax Sinica of the eastern world by Han China, long-distance travel and trade in Eurasian history was stimulated during these eras. The prominence of the concept of the Pax Romana led to historians coining variants of the term to describe other systems of relative peace that have been established, attempted, or argued to have existed; some variants include: More generically, the concept has been referred to as pax imperia, meaning imperial peace, or—less literally—hegemonic peace. Raymond Aron notes that imperial peace—peace achieved through hegemony—sometimes, but not always—can become civil peace; as an example, the German Empire's imperial peace of 1871 evolved into the lat

List of awards and nominations received by Sarkodie

Ghanaian rapper and hiplife artist Sarkodie has received 87 awards from 158 nominations, including 22 Ghana Music Awards. Makye, his debut studio album, won him three awards at both the 4syte TV Music Video Awards and Ghana Music Awards; the album earned him a nomination at the 2010 MTV Africa Music Awards. Rapperholic, his second studio album, earned him accolades at the 2012 editions of the BET Awards, The Headies, Ghana Music Awards, National Youth Achievement Awards, MOBO Awards, Channel O Music Video Awards. Sarkodie's collaborative album recorded with Jayso, titled T. M. G, earned him an award at the 2013 4Syte TV Music Video Awards, as well as a nomination at the 2013 Ghana Music Awards, he won Best African Act at the 2013 Nigeria Entertainment Awards. The release of Sarkology in 2014 earned Sarkodie several awards, including four Ghana Music Awards, one MTV Africa Music Award, one Independent Music Award, four 4syte TV Music Video Awards, one Headies Award, one Ghana Music Honor, he received a nomination at the 2014 BET Awards and was nominated four times at the 2014 World Music Awards.

Sarkodie won Best West African Act at the 2013 Caribbean African Nations Music Awards. Moreover, he won Best Rap Act at the 2014 African Muzik Magazine Awards, he was honoured by the organizers of the Afrobeats Music Awards for his outstanding contribution to the growth and development of African music globally. Sarkodie won two awards for the singles "Love Rocks" and "Enemies". and base on his consistency in Ghana music Sarkodie won artiste of the decade award in the just ended Vodafone Ghana music awards 2019

Association Internationale de la Mutualité

AIM, the International Association of Mutual Benefit Societies represents health mutual benefit societies and health insurance funds in Europe and worldwide. It is based in Brussels. Through its 61 members from 27 countries, health coverage is provided to over 200 million people in the world and to 160 million in Europe, its members manage compulsory and/or voluntary health insurance and some deliver healthcare and social services through their own facilities. As an international association, AIM is present in Europe, Latin America and the Middle East. AIM was founded in January 1950 at the General Assembly in Paris under the French legal form of Association. By that time, the Association had its headquarters in Geneva, its official statutory name "Association Internationale de la Mutualité" therefore dates back to 1950. Its headquarters were transferred from Geneva to Brussels in 1998. In 2008 AIM changed legal status: it went from an Association under French law to an Association with non-profit orientation under Belgian Law.

The objective of the association in 1950 was–and still is–to defend mutuals’ interests. Among its members are healthcare mutual, but other not-for-profit providers of healthcare coverage and national health funds. AIM’s presidents 2014 – until now: Christian Zahn 2011–2014: Jean-Philippe Huchet 2007–2011: Willi Budde 2005–2007: Maurice Duranton 2002–2005: Ron Hendriks 2000–2002: Ueli Müller 1999–2000: Michel Schmitz 1993–1999: Geert Jan Hamilton 1978–1993: Robert Van den Heuvel 1965–1978: Louis Van Helshoecht 1950–1965: Otto Schmid AIM works with European and international institutions to promote universal access to healthcare and health protection based on solidarity and democracy according to the principles of its members, it is a platform for exchange of best practises within its members. AIM defends the specificity of the mutual model of social and solidarity economy and encourages social innovation, it is a member of Social Economy Europe. AIM members share the mutual values of solidarity and democracy and the principle of not-for-profit orientation Solidarity: AIM members protect their own members without any discrimination on grounds of age or state of health.

Democracy: our members involve their own members in deciding upon services, setting subscriptions and in the governance of their mutuals. Not-for-profit orientation: according to their statutes, AIM's members reinvest any surplus in the benefit of their members. AIM works on several subjects: health, social economy, disease prevention, healthy ageing and fraud in healthcare. To cover all the topics, 12 working groups gather national experts to discuss the issues relevant for its members; the Working Groups are the following: European Affairs Health Systems Reform Disease Management/ eHealth Long Term Care / Healthy Ageing Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Health Technology Assessment Mutual Values Pensions Environment and Health Fraud Education and E-learning Working Group Disease Prevention www.aim-mutual.org