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Payne–Aldrich Tariff Act

The Payne–Aldrich Tariff Act of 1909, named for Representative Sereno E. Payne and Senator Nelson W. Aldrich, began in the United States House of Representatives as a bill raising certain tariffs on goods entering the United States; the high rates angered Republican reformers, led to a deep split in the Republican Party. President William Howard Taft called Congress into a special session in 1909 shortly after his inauguration to discuss the issue. Thus, the House of Representatives passed a tariff bill sponsored by Payne, calling for reduced tariffs. However, the United States Senate speedily substituted a bill written by Aldrich, calling for fewer reductions and more increases in tariffs, it was the first change in tariff laws since the Dingley Act of 1897. An additional provision of the bill provided for the creation of a tariff board to study the problem of tariff modification in full and to collect information on the subject for the use of Congress and the President in future tariff considerations.

Another provision allowed for free trade with the Philippines under American control. Congress passed the bill on April 9, 1909; the bill states it would "take effect the day following its passage." President Taft signed the bill at 5:05 PM on August 5, 1909. The Payne Act, in its essence a compromise bill, had the immediate effect of frustrating both proponents and opponents of reducing tariffs. In particular, the bill angered Progressives, who began to withdraw support from President Taft; because it increased the duty on print paper used by publishers, the publishing industry viciously criticized the President, further tarnishing his image. Although Taft met and consulted with Congress during its deliberations on the bill, critics charged that he ought to have imposed more of his own recommendations on the bill such as that of a slower schedule. However, unlike his predecessor, Taft felt that the president should not dictate lawmaking and should leave Congress free to act as it saw fit. Taft signed the bill.

The debate over the tariff split the Republican Party into Progressives and Old Guards and led the split party to lose the 1910 congressional election. The bill enacted a small income tax on the privilege of conducting business as a corporation, affirmed in the Supreme Court decision Flint v. Stone Tracy Co.. Aldrich, Mark. "Tariffs and Trusts and Middlemen: Popular Explanations for the High Cost of Living, 1897–1920." History of Political Economy 45.4: 693–746. Barfield, Claude E. "" Our Share of the Booty": The Democratic Party Cannonism, the Payne–Aldrich Tariff." Journal of American History 57#2 pp. 308–23. in JSTOR Coletta, Paolo Enrico. The Presidency of William Howard Taft Detzer, David W. "Businessmen and Tariff Revision: The Payne–Aldrich Tariff of 1909." Historian 35#2 pp. 196–204. Fisk, George. "The Payne-Aldrich Tariff," Political Science Quarterly 25#1 pp. 35–68. "Western Range Senators and the Payne–Aldrich Tariff." Pacific Northwest Quarterly: 49–56. in JSTOR Gould, Lewis L. "New Perspectives on the Republican Party, 1877–1913," American Historical Review 77#4 pp. 1074–82 in JSTOR Solvick, Stanley D. "William Howard Taft and the Payne-Aldrich Tariff."

Mississippi Valley Historical Review pp. 424–42 in JSTOR. Taussig, Frank W; the Tariff History of the United States, pp. 361–408

Amherst Villiers

Amherst Villiers was an English automotive and astronautic engineer and portrait painter. He designed a land speed record-breaking car for Malcolm Campbell, developed the supercharged "Blower Bentley", driven by Henry Birkin and by James Bond. Charles Amherst Villiers was born in London on 9 December 1900, the son of Ernest Amherst Villiers and the Hon. Elaine Augusta Guest, he was educated at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Villiers began his automotive career modifying Brescia Bugattis and supercharging a Vauxhall for racing driver Raymond Mays, he designed the Napier-Campbell Blue Bird which Malcolm Campbell used to break the land speed record in 1927 with an average speed of 174.88 mph. The'Blower Bentley' was developed in'Bentley Boy' Henry'Tim' Birkin's workshop in 1929, using an Amherst Villiers supercharger bolted to the front of a Bentley 4½ Litre, to boost its maximum power in the production version to 175 brake horsepower; the first of five racing specials was the Brooklands-designed Bentley Blower No.1, which had an output of 242 brake horsepower.

The Blower Bentley's never won a major race. In 1930 he bought from the Air Ministry one of the Gloster IV biplanes, used by the RAF High Speed Flight as practice machines for the Schneider Trophy, he was planning to install an unsupercharged geared Napier Lion racing engine and remove the floats for an attempt to break the world air speed record, but the plans did not come to fruition. In 1936 Villiers developed a 120/130 hp four-cylinder aero engine, the Amherst Villiers Maya I; the engine was first tested in a B. A. Eagle and in Villiers' own Miles Whitney Straight, but did not go into production. During the Second World War he served as a ferry pilot. After the war he joined the "Brain drain" of scientists and engineers moving to the United States to work on the space programme, he became a portrait painter in New York, his portraits of his friends Ian Fleming and Graham Hill hang in the National Portrait Gallery in London. In Fleming's first James Bond novel, Casino Royale, Bond drives a 4.5-litre Bentley with the Amherst Villiers supercharger.

Charles Amherst Villiers married, Maya de Lisle Adam. After they were divorced he married Juanita Lorraine Brown. Juanita Lorraine Brown Villiers and Charles Amherst Villiers had two children, Charles Churchill Villiers and Veronica Jane Villiers, he died on 12 December 1991. Kenny, Paul; the Man Who Supercharged Bond: The Extraordinary Story of Charles Amherst Villiers. Sparkford: Haynes Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84425-468-2. Official Author Website

Pedro Cubilla

Pedro Ramón Cubilla Almeida was a Uruguayan football player and coach. Pedro Cubilla started his career as a professional playing for Uruguayan clubs Nacional, Peñarol, Rampla Juniors and Liverpool de Montevideo in the Primera División Uruguaya, he continued his international career in Argentina playing for Huracán between 1963–1964 and Quilmes in 1966 in the Primera División Argentina after being transferred from River Plate in 1965, where he spent a year inactive due to an injury. He returned to Uruguay in 1967 where he played for C. A. Defensor. In 1968, he was transferred for the former NASL Canadian team Toronto Falcons coached by the legendary Ladislao Kubala, he played for the Uruguay national football team, taking part of a European tour previous to the 1962 FIFA World Cup in Chile. His career as a professional coach includes Uruguayan clubs Fénix, Huracán, Rampla Juniors, Central Español and Huracán Buceo. Internationally he coached Chilean Santiago Morning, Paraguayan Club Olimpia, Ecuadorian Deportivo Quito and C.

S. Cartaginés of Costa Rica. Pedro Cubilla worked together with his younger brother Luis as the Assistant Coach for Uruguayan clubs Nacional, Peñarol, Paraguayan Club Olimpia and the Uruguay national football team. In 1998, he was named president of the Uruguayan National Association of Football Trainers. Besides football he had a passion for painting, he created many paintings containing scenes of the Afro-Uruguayan candombe culture, tango bars and portraits. Art of Pedro Ramon Cubilla

List of governors of California

The governor of California is the chief executive of the California state government, whose responsibilities include making annual State of the State addresses to the California State Legislature, submitting the budget, ensuring that state laws are enforced. The governor is the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces; the current governor is Gavin Newsom, in office since 2019. Thirty-nine people have served over 40 distinct terms. Leland Stanford founded Stanford University in 1891. Earl Warren Chief Justice of the United States, won an election with the nominations of the three major parties – the only person to run unopposed for governor of California. Ronald Reagan, president of the Screen Actors Guild and President of the United States, Arnold Schwarzenegger both came to prominence through acting. Gray Davis, the 37th governor of California, was the second governor in American history to be recalled by voters; the shortest tenure was that of Milton Latham, who served only five days before being elected by the legislature to fill a vacant United States Senate seat.

The longest tenure is that of Edmund Gerald "Jerry" Brown, Jr. who served as governor from 1975 to 1983 and again from 2011 to 2019. He is the son of former governor Edmund Gerald "Pat" Brown, Sr. who served from 1959 to 1967. For the governors prior to statehood, see the List of Governors of California before admission. California was obtained by the United States in the Mexican Cession following the Mexican–American War. Unlike most other states, it was never organized as a territory, was admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850; the original California Constitution of 1849 called for elections every two years, with no set start date for the term. An amendment ratified in 1862 increased the term to four years, the 1879 constitution set the term to begin on the first Monday after January 1 following an election. In 1990, Proposition 140 led to a constitutional amendment implementing a term limit of two terms. Jerry Brown was able to be elected to a third term in 2010 because his previous terms were before the term limit was enacted.

The 1849 constitution created the office of lieutenant governor, who, in cases of vacancy in the office of governor, becomes governor. The governor and lieutenant governor are not elected on the same ticket. List of Governors of California before admission List of Governors of California by age Spouses of the Governor of California List of California state legislatures General Constitutions Specific Office of the Governor of California

Annie St John

Annie St John was a British television broadcaster. From Blackpool, she attended Blackpool Collegiate Grammar School for Girls and the Rose Bruford Drama School, she worked as a mahout at the Blackpool Tower Circus and in repertory theatre in Bolton and the Young Vic in London. St John first made her name on television in 1978 as a hostess on the first two series of the networked YTV game show 3-2-1, before joining HTV West in 1981 as a continuity announcer and newsreader, her popularity in the Westcountry was as such that viewers launched a Save Our Annie campaign when she left the station in 1983 to join Tyne Tees Television in Newcastle. During her time at Tyne Tees, St John continued to freelance for HTV West and for London Weekend Television, she returned to HTV permanently in 1987. As well as announcing duties, St. John presented various regional programmes including Ask Oscar, a weekly What's On programme, It's Nearly Saturday and the advice series Problems. By the late 1980s, St John had become one of the main anchors of the nightly regional news programme, HTV News, alongside Bruce Hockin and Richard Wyatt, while continuing her continuity role.

She presented a request show for the independent local radio station Radio West. In November 1990, St John took a lethal overdose of champagne and drugs at her flat in Baltic Wharf, Bristol, she was found semi-conscious and naked on a bed by HTV director of programming Derek Clark and a staff rigger following concern from colleagues when St John failed to turn up for work. On Monday 10 December 1990 – 38 days after the overdose - St John died in hospital at the age of 36, she had been married to actor Michael St John, for 14 years. The inquest into her death recorded a verdict of suicide. Annie St John on IMDb

Eberhard Wenzel

Eberhard R. Wenzel was a public health researcher, a co-founder of the WWW Virtual Library: Public Health, an advocate of the socio-ecological view of health promotion as described in the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, he was a Senior Lecturer of International Health at Griffith University, Deputy Director of Queensland Centre for Public Health. Griffith University's "Eberhard Wenzel Scholarship for International Public Health" and The Australian Health Promotion Association's "Eberhard Wenzel Memorial Oration" are named in his honour. Born in Heringen, West Germany, Wenzel worked as a researcher and consultant at various universities and institutes in Germany, in the fields of educational technology, media didactics and sociology, he worked in collaboration with the World Health Organization, European Centre for Social Welfare Training and Research and several other organisations researching health education and health promotion. He moved, first to the Philippines where he taught at the University of the Philippines, to Australia as a lecturer at Griffith University in Brisbane.

Eberhard Wenzel co-founded the Public Health section of the World Wide Web Virtual Library, which during the period in which he moderated it, earned a rating of the best in the field by the medical journal The Lancet. Throughout 2001, Eberhard Wenzel shared his battle with cancer by setting up a "healing circle" and "The Big C Report" on his website, his last entry occurred on 17 September that year. His website, which contains more than 800 separate pages covering a wide range of topics, has been preserved as it was on 17 September 2001 as a memorial to his life and work. Bültemeier, C. Franzkowiak, P. Hildebrandt, H. & Wenzel, E. Gesundheitsbewußte Trends und Projekte in den Alltagskulturen Jugendlicher und junger Erwachsener im Alter von 12–25 Jahren. Studie im Auftrag der Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung. Heidelberg Langer, H. & Wenzel, E. Gesundheitsförderung am Arbeitsplatz. Dokumentation von Projekten und Angebote für Betriebe.. Köln Wenzel, E. Smoking and health. A cultural approach for an educational programme.

Paper on behalf of WHO Clearinghouse on Smoking and Health and the International Union for Health Education, Regional Office for Europe. Cologne Wenzel, E. Entwicklung eines Hessischen Programms zur Gesundheitsförderung. Bericht über eine Klausurtagung des Hessischen Ministers für Arbeit, Umwelt und Soziales, November 1984. Köln Wenzel, E. "Let's go shopping." Health workshops for youth.. Cologne Wenzel, E. Methodology for the design and evaluation of extension programmes. Paper carried out on behalf of UNESCO, Division of Science and Environmental Education and Health Education. Cologne Eberhard Wenzel's website Curriculum Vitae 2005 Eberhard Wenzel Memorial Oration Eberhard Wenzel Scholarship for International Public Health