Pazz & Jop is an annual poll of top musical releases, compiled by American newspaper The Village Voice and created by music critic Robert Christgau. It published lists of the year's top releases for 1971 and, after Christgau's two-year absence from the Voice, each year from 1974 onward; the polls are tabulated from the submitted year-end top 10 lists of hundreds of music critics. It was named in acknowledgement of the defunct magazine Jazz & Pop, adopted the ratings system used in that publication's annual critics poll; the Pazz & Jop was introduced by The Village Voice in 1971 as an album-only poll. Throughout the years, other minor lists had been elicited from poll respondents for releases such as extended plays, music videos, album re-issues, compilation albums—all of which were discontinued after only a few years; the Pazz & Jop albums poll uses a points system to formulate list rankings. Participating critics assigned a number value, ranging from 5 to 30, to each of the albums on their top 10 list, with all 10 albums totaling 100 points.
The singles lists, are always unweighted. The Pazz & Jop was created by Village Voice critic Robert Christgau; the idea behind its name was that, since the words "pazz" and "jop" do not exist, participating critics would judge a musical work on its own merits rather than be distracted by categories and genres. In 1971, English rock band the Who topped the first Jop albums poll with Who's Next; the following year, Christgau left The Village Voice for Newsday, the poll was not conducted again until 1974, when Christgau returned to the Voice and the poll "became an institution", according to fellow Voice critic Chris Molanphy. English singer Ian Dury and his band the Blockheads topped the first singles poll with "Hit Me with Your Rhythm Stick". Bob Dylan and Kanye West topped the albums poll the most number of times, with four number-one albums each. West, in addition, won the singles poll of 2005. Christgau oversaw the Jop poll for more than thirty years. Writing in 2002, author Bernard Gendron cited the lack of overlap between the 1999 poll results and that year's best-selling albums on Billboard's US charts—whereby only five of Pazz & Jop's top 40 appeared in the Billboard list—as indicative of a continued division between the avant-garde aesthetic of cultural accreditation and commercial considerations.
Although Pazz & Jop established itself as a critics' poll with a clear identity, it has attracted criticism for its methodology. Addressing the participants in 2001, Mike Doughty of the New York Press complained: "In the guise of a love of music, you've taken the most beautiful nebulous form of human expression, squeezed it through an asinine points-scoring system specially cooked up for this pointless perennial, forced it into this baffling, heinous chart system."Christgau's tenure as Pazz & Jop overseer came to an abrupt end when he was controversially fired from The Village Voice after a company buy-out in August 2006. In response to his dismissal, several prominent critics publicly announced that they would no longer be turning in their lists for the poll. Regardless, The Village Voice continued to run the feature, with Rob Harvilla succeeding Christgau as music editor and overseer of the poll. Christgau's annual Pazz & Jop overview essay was discontinued and substituted with multiple retrospective articles of the year's music written by a selection of critics.
In 2016, the poll's name was changed from Pazz & Jop to the Village Voice Music Critics Poll by the new owners of the newspaper. Christgau, who had continued to vote in the poll since his departure from the newspaper, expressed dismay at the name change; when the 2016 results were announced in January 2017, the poll had reverted to its Jop name. The Village Voice ceased publication altogether in August 2018. Despite the closure of the newspaper, a Pazz & Jop poll for 2018 was announced on December 20, with Christgau confirming its legitimacy on Twitter; the 2018 poll was published on the Village Voice's website on February 6, 2019. Official Pazz & Jop page at The Village Voice Pazz & Jop polls and essays by Robert Christgau
Hindenburg Kaserne known as Hindenburg Barracks, was a former military garrison, located near in the Zellerau district in the city of Würzburg, in Franconia, Germany. The kaserne, was situated between Mainaustraße and Moscheeweg, it was active as a military base between 1935 and 1993. Construction began on the kaserne in 1934. In 1935 it was named in honor of Paul von Hindenburg, a field marshal who commanded the German army in World War I and, elected as President of the German Reich in 1925. In 1935 the kaserne was given over to the Wehrmacht. Hindenburg Kaserne was occupied by the II Abteilung des Artillerie-Regiments 93 on 12 October 1937; this unit saw action in the Polish Campaign as part of the XVI Army Corps, the French Campaign as part of the IV Army Corps. Following World War II, Hindenburg Kaserne was occupied by the U. S. Army from 1945 until its closure in 1993. After the withdrawal of US forces, the facility has been demolished. For several years the area lay due in part to environmental cleanup efforts.
At the beginning of March, 2012, Freistaat Bayern purchased most of this area for use by the Staatliche Feuerwehrschule Würzburg. As part of the expansion of the school, several practice areas and buildings have been built. Groundbreaking for this €29.5 million construction project was in the summer of 2013. In addition to the fire brigade school, portions of the area along Moscheeweg, Weißenburgstraße and Mainaustraße make up part of the Grüne Mitte Zellerau, an outdoor fitness area and green space
Gmina Głubczyce is an urban-rural gmina in Głubczyce County, Opole Voivodeship, in south-western Poland. Its seat is the town of Głubczyce, which lies 53 kilometres south of the regional capital Opole; the gmina covers an area of 294.33 square kilometres, as of 2007 its total population is 23,997. Gmina Głubczyce is located in the Głubczyce Hook on the Głubczyce Plateau and in the Opawskie Mountains. Gmina Głubczyce is located in the Oder River Basin. Gmina Głubczyce is bordered by the gminas of Baborów, Branice, Głogówek and Pawłowiczki and by the Czech obeces of Krnov, Město Albrechtice, Slezské Rudoltice, Rusín, Bohušov and Osoblaha. Dobrogostów Głubczyce-Las Klisinko Marysieńka, Opole Voivodeship Polish official population figures