Oceanic art or Oceanian art comprises the creative works made by the native peoples of the Pacific Islands and Australia, including areas as far apart as Hawaii and Easter Island. Specifically it comprises the works of the two groups of people who settled the area, though during two different periods and they would in time however, come to interact and together reach even more remote islands. The area is broken down into four separate regions, Micronesia, Australasia. The former two share a common culture of the Lapita, while the latter two comprise settlers of the first wave of people into the area. All of the regions in times would be affected by western influence. In more recent times, the people of Oceania have found an appreciation of their regions artistic heritage. The artistic creations of people varies greatly throughout the cultures. The subject matter typically carries themes of fertility or the supernatural, Art such as masks were used in religious ceremonies or social rituals. Petroglyphs, painting, wood carving, stone carving, Art of Oceania properly encompasses the artistic traditions of the people indigenous to Australia, New Zealand, Pacific Island and Lebanon Dahia.
The ancestors of the people of these came from Southeast Asia by two different groups at separate times. The first, an Australoid people and the ancestors of modern-day Melanesians and Australian Aboriginals, came to New Guinea, the Melanesians expanded as far as the northern Solomon Islands by 38,000 BC. The second wave, from Southeast Asia, would not come for another 30,000 years and they would come to interact and together reach even the most remote Pacific islands. These early peoples lacked a system, and made works on perishable materials. By 1500 BC the Lapita culture, descendants of the wave, would begin to expand. At around the time, art began to appear in New Guinea. The period from 1000 BC on, the Lapita people would consolidate and begin to create the contemporary Polynesian cultures of Samoa and they would from there venture further out into the Pacific and settle the Marquesas and northern Cook Islands between 200 BC and 1 AD. Starting around 1100 AD, the people of Easter Island would begin construction of nearly 900 moai.
At about 1200 AD, the people of Pohnpei, a Micronesian island, would embark on another construction, building Nan Madol, a city of artificial islands
African art is a term typically used for the art of Sub-Saharan Africa. Often, amateur observers tend to generalize traditional African art, the definition may include the art of the African diasporas, such as the art of African Americans. Despite this diversity, there are some unifying artistic themes when considering the totality of the culture from the continent of Africa. The term African art does not usually include the art of the North African areas along the Mediterranean coast, for more than a millennium, the art of such areas had formed part of Islamic art, although with many particular characteristics. The art of Ethiopia, with a long Christian tradition, is different from that of most of Africa. Masks are important elements in the art of many peoples, along with human figures, direct images of deities are relatively infrequent, but masks in particular are or were often made for religious ceremonies, today many are made for tourists as airport art. African masks were an influence on European Modernist art, which was inspired by their lack of concern for naturalistic depiction, since the late 19th century there has been an increasing amount of African art in Western collections, the finest pieces of which are now prominently displayed.
Many West African figures are used in rituals and are often coated with materials placed on them for ceremonial offerings. The Mande-speaking peoples of the region make pieces from wood with broad, flat surfaces and arms. In Central Africa, the main distinguishing characteristics include heart-shaped faces that are curved inward and display patterns of circles, eastern Africans, in many areas shorter of large timber to carve, are known for Tinga Tinga paintings and Makonde sculptures. There is tradition of producing textile art, Modern Zimbabwean sculptors in soapstone have achieved considerable international success. Southern Africas oldest known clay figures date from 400 to 600 AD and have heads with a mixture of human. An example would be Dan artistry as well as its presence in the Western African diaspora, emphasis on the human figure, The human figure has always been the primary subject matter for most African art, and this emphasis even influenced certain European traditions. Another common theme is the inter-morphosis of human and animal, visual abstraction, African artworks tend to favor visual abstraction over naturalistic representation.
This is because many African artworks generalize stylistic norms, emphasis on sculpture, African artists tend to favor three-dimensional artworks over two-dimensional works. Even many African paintings or cloth works were meant to be experienced three-dimensionally, distinct from the static form of traditional Western sculpture African art displays animation, a readiness to move. For example, traditional African masks and costumes very often are used in communal, ceremonial contexts, in African thought, the three cannot be differentiated. Nonlinear scaling, Often a small part of an African design will look similar to a larger part, louis Senghor, Senegals first president, referred to this as dynamic symmetry
The Newburyport/Rockport Line is a branch of the MBTA Commuter Rail system, running northeast from downtown Boston, Massachusetts towards Cape Ann and the Merrimack Valley, serving the North Shore. The first leg serves Chelsea, Swampscott, from there, a northern branch of the line serves Hamilton, Ipswich and Newburyport. The line branches east from Beverly, serving Manchester, Gloucester, a bicycle coach is offered on the Rockport branch during the summer. The Eastern Route main line between Boston and Portsmouth, New Hampshire opened in 1836 as the Eastern Railroad, ferries were used to transport passengers between the East Boston terminal and Boston proper. The line was extended to Portland, Maine, in 1842 under an agreement with the Boston. The Gloucester Branch was constructed in 1847, but despite local support, in 1854, with the opening of the Grand Junction Railroad, the Eastern Railroad acquired direct access to downtown Boston. This access was more convenient than its previous access, which required using the Saugus Branch or the South Reading Branch Railroad.
In the 1970s, the B&M passenger service - which by that time was almost exclusively commuter service - began to become financially unviable until the MBTA subsidized, and acquired, the services. The line beyond Newburyport was abandoned in 1982, commuter service had been cut back from Newburyport to Ipswich in 1976, in 1998, service was restored to Newburyport at a cost of $46 million. In the late 1980s, the MBTA planned to construct a park, a $400,000 planning study was funded in February 1988, the proposed $11 million station would have had 1,000 parking spaces and opened in late 1991. The station was not built, instead, a high-level platform, the new $34.2 million bridge, which was completed nine months ahead of schedule, eliminated the 5 miles per hour speed restriction on the old bridge. Two other bridges are in planning for major modification, the Beverly Drawbridge spanning the Danvers River will undergo a multi-year reconstruction process. The abutments of the approach spans will be repaired, followed by a 21-day service shutdown in mid-2017 for the replacement of the swing bridge section.
The MBTA Board approved the $16.2 million contract in February 2016, the Gloucester Drawbridge over the Annisquam River consists of a steel drawbridge and western approach span with a timber trestle for the eastern approach. It was built in 1911, modified in 1932, and substantially repaired in 1984-85 and it will be completely replaced with a modern box beam bridge on steel piles. By February 2016, bidding was planned to begin by June for the four-year, then-$34 million project, as of October 2016, bidding on a $48 million contract is expected to begin in December 2016. The station was estimated to cost $12.2 to $13.8 million, two possible locations were considered, one with access from Laurel Street and the platform running to the north, and one with access from Ocean Avenue and the platform running to the south. None of the projects in the DEIS or MIS was actually due to lack of funding, except for parking structures at Salem
James Bard was a marine artist of the 19th century. He is known for his paintings of watercraft, particularly of steamboats and his works are sometimes characterized as naïve art. Although Bard died poor and almost forgotten, his works have become valuable. Bard had a brother and they collaborated on earlier works. James Bard and John Bard were born in 1815 in New York City and their father was Joseph Bard, who had been born in England. Their mother was Nellie Purvis Bard, who had born in Scotland. They had at least two brothers, two sisters and one younger sister, Margaret. Sometime before 1843, Bard married Harriet DeGroot, who was six years older than he was and they had six children, but between 1843 and 1856 five of them died. Harriets brother, Albert DeGroot, became a captain and a wealthy man. The first known picture by the Bard brothers is of the steamboat Belona, James continued to work with John through the 1830s and into the 1840s. It is not possible to tell which portions of the work were done by each brother and their joint works are signed J & J Bard or J & J Bard, Picture Painters.
No work survives signed by John alone, but there are several signed Jas. Bard and they began dating their work by 1836. When their father died in 1838, they were listed in the New York directory for the first time as painters and their works in the 1830s were watercolor. They began improving their technique and moving into oil painting as a medium by the 1840s, the last known joint paintings by the brothers were dated 1849. These were of the steamboats Wilson G. Hunt and Senator, after these paintings, there is no further indication of John Bards participation. It has been suggested that he went to the gold rush, John is known to have been admitted to the Blackwell Island alms house, apparently in poor health. He died on October 18,1856, and was buried in a grave in Green-Wood Cemetery in Brooklyn. The break into works done alone by James Bard is marked by the oil paintings of the steamboats Ocean and Boston in March 1850, the 1850s were a boom-time for ship construction in New York, and Bard received many commissions from owners of newly built vessels
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings and other physical structures. Architectural works, in the form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements, Architecture can mean, A general term to describe buildings and other physical structures. The art and science of designing buildings and nonbuilding structures, the style of design and method of construction of buildings and other physical structures. A unifying or coherent form or structure Knowledge of art, technology, the design activity of the architect, from the macro-level to the micro-level. The practice of the architect, where architecture means offering or rendering services in connection with the design and construction of buildings. The earliest surviving work on the subject of architecture is De architectura. According to Vitruvius, a building should satisfy the three principles of firmitas, venustas, commonly known by the original translation – firmness, commodity.
An equivalent in modern English would be, Durability – a building should stand up robustly, utility – it should be suitable for the purposes for which it is used. Beauty – it should be aesthetically pleasing, according to Vitruvius, the architect should strive to fulfill each of these three attributes as well as possible. Leon Battista Alberti, who elaborates on the ideas of Vitruvius in his treatise, De Re Aedificatoria, saw beauty primarily as a matter of proportion, for Alberti, the rules of proportion were those that governed the idealised human figure, the Golden mean. The most important aspect of beauty was, therefore, an inherent part of an object, rather than something applied superficially, Gothic architecture, Pugin believed, was the only true Christian form of architecture. The 19th-century English art critic, John Ruskin, in his Seven Lamps of Architecture, Architecture was the art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by men. That the sight of them contributes to his health, power.
For Ruskin, the aesthetic was of overriding significance and his work goes on to state that a building is not truly a work of architecture unless it is in some way adorned. For Ruskin, a well-constructed, well-proportioned, functional building needed string courses or rustication, but suddenly you touch my heart, you do me good. I am happy and I say, This is beautiful, le Corbusiers contemporary Ludwig Mies van der Rohe said Architecture starts when you carefully put two bricks together. The notable 19th-century architect of skyscrapers, Louis Sullivan, promoted an overriding precept to architectural design, function came to be seen as encompassing all criteria of the use and enjoyment of a building, not only practical but aesthetic and cultural
The decorative arts are arts or crafts concerned with the design and manufacture of beautiful objects that are functional. It includes interior design, but not usually architecture, the decorative arts are often categorized in opposition to the fine arts, painting, drawing and large-scale sculpture, which generally have no function other than to be seen. The distinction between the decorative and the arts has essentially arisen from the post-Renaissance art of the West. This distinction is less meaningful when considering the art of other cultures and periods. For example, Islamic art in many periods and places consists entirely of the arts, often using geometric and plant forms. The distinction between decorative and fine arts is not very useful for appreciating Chinese art, and neither is it for understanding Early Medieval art in Europe, large-scale wall-paintings were much less regarded, crudely executed, and rarely mentioned in contemporary sources. They were probably seen as a substitute for mosaic, which for this period must be viewed as a fine art.
The term ars sacra is sometimes used for medieval Christian art done in metal, textiles, illuminated manuscripts have a much higher survival rate, especially in the hands of the church, as there was little value in the materials and they were easy to store. Most European art during the Middle Ages had been produced under a different set of values. The lower status given to works of art in contrast to fine art narrowed with the rise of the Arts and Crafts Movement. This aesthetic movement of the half of the 19th century was born in England and inspired by William Morris. The movement represented the beginning of an appreciation of the decorative arts throughout Europe. Many converts, both professional artists ranks and from among the intellectual class as a whole, helped spread the ideas of the movement. The influence of the Arts and Crafts Movement led to the arts being given a greater appreciation and status in society. Until the enactment of the Copyright Act 1911 only works of art had been protected from unauthorised copying.
The 1911 Act extended the definition of a work to include works of artistic craftsmanship
It has a long history, ranging from the beginnings of human habitation in Japan, sometime in the 10th millennium BC, to the present. Japan has been subject to invasions of new and strange ideas followed by long periods of minimal contact with the outside world. Over time the Japanese developed the ability to absorb, the earliest complex art in Japan was produced in the 7th and 8th centuries in connection with. After the Ōnin War, Japan entered a period of political, social, in the state that emerged under the leadership of the Tokugawa shogunate, organized religion played a much less important role in peoples lives, and the arts that survived were primarily secular. Painting is the artistic expression in Japan, practiced by amateurs. Until modern times, the Japanese wrote with a rather than a pen. With the rise of popular culture in the Edo period, a style of woodblock prints became a major form, Japanese ceramics are among the finest in the world and include the earliest known artifacts of their culture.
In architecture, Japanese preferences for natural materials and an interaction of interior and exterior space are clearly expressed and they built simple houses of wood and thatch set into shallow earthen pits to provide warmth from the soil. They crafted lavishly decorated pottery vessels, clay figurines called dogū. The next wave of immigrants was the Yayoi people, named for the district in Tokyo where remnants of their settlements first were found. These people, arriving in Japan about 350 BC, brought their knowledge of rice cultivation, the manufacture of copper weapons and bronze bells. The third stage in Japanese prehistory, the Kofun period, represents a modification of Yayoi culture, the period is named for the large number of kofun megalithic tombs created during this period. In this period, diverse groups of people formed political alliances, typical artifacts are bronze mirrors, symbols of political alliances, and clay sculptures called haniwa which were erected outside tombs. The transmission of Buddhism provided the impetus for contacts between China and Japan.
Throughout the 7th and 8th centuries, the focus in contacts between Japan and the Asian continent was the development of Buddhism. The most common designations are the Suiko period, 552–645, the Hakuhō period, 645–710, the earliest Japanese sculptures of the Buddha are dated to the 6th and 7th century. After the Chinese Northern Wei buddhist art had infiltrated a Korean peninsula, many historians portray Korea as a mere transmitter of Buddhism. The Three Kingdoms, and particularly Baekje, were instrumental as active agents in the introduction and formation of a Buddhist tradition in Japan in 538 or 552 and they illustrate the terminal point of the Silk Road transmission of art during the first few centuries of our era
Peabody Museum of Salem
The Peabody Museum of Salem, formerly the Peabody Academy of Science, was a museum and antiquarian society based in Salem, Massachusetts. The Peabody Museum was merged with the Essex Institute to form the Peabody Essex Museum in 1992, the Peabody Academy of Science, successor to the East India Marine Society, was organized in 1868, having received funds. For the promotion of science and useful knowledge in the county of Essex and it was incorporated by Asa Gray, of Cambridge, William C. Endicott, of Salem, George Peabody Russell, of Salem, Henry Wheatland, of Salem, Abner C. Goodell, junior, of Salem, James R. Nichols, perkins, of Newburyport, and S. Endicott Peabody. The academy maintained a museum that displayed animals, fossils and plants, as well as ethnological artifacts such as weapons, tools, statuary, in 1915 the Academy changed its name to the Peabody Museum of Salem. As of 1949 the museum organized its holdings into three departments, maritime history, and natural history, the museums ethnology division included specimens from Hawaii, Marquesas Islands, and New Zealand.
The museum displayed its collections in the East India Marine Hall, Museum staff included Ernest Stanley Dodge and Walter Muir Whitehill. In 1984 the China Trade Museum of Milton, merged with the Peabody Museum, in 1992 the Peabody Museum merged with the Essex Institute to form the Peabody Essex Museum. The East India Marine Hall was built in 1824–25 for the East India Marine Society to house its collection, design of the building has most recently been ascribed to Thomas Waldron Sumner. It stands on the side of Essex Street, and is now integrated into the body of the Peabody Essex Museum. As built, it was a structure, faced in granite on the front. The main facade has been preserved, it has six bays on the main floor. The gable pediment is fully enclosed, with a window in the tympanum. The interior of the building has been altered over the years. The first floor, which was occupied by retail businesses, was adapted as a museum space in 1867–69. As part of this alteration, entrances on the facade were closed off.
The first floor has since been integrated into the newer facilities built by the Peabody Essex Museum in the 2000s
Marine art or maritime art is any form of figurative art that portrays or draws its main inspiration from the sea. Maritime painting is a genre that depicts ships and the sea—a genre particularly strong from the 17th to 19th centuries, as landscape art emerged during the Renaissance, what might be called the marine landscape became a more important element in works, but pure seascapes were rare until later. In this, as in much else and traditional marine painting has largely continued Dutch conventions to the present day. With Romantic art, the sea and the coast was reclaimed from the specialists by many landscape painters, vessels on the water have featured in art from the earliest times. The earliest known works are petroglyphs from 12,000 BCE showing reed boats in the Gobustan Petroglyph Reserve in modern Azerbaijan, which was on the edge of the much larger Caspian Sea. Rock carvings and carved objects depicting ships have been found on islands of the Aegean as well as mainland Greece. The central cult image in Egyptian temples was usually a figure of the god.
Ships sometimes appear in Ancient Greek vase painting, especially relevant in a narrative context. As in Egyptian painting, the surface of the water may be indicated by a series of parallel wavy lines, the water is usually calm, and objects that are submerged, or partly so, may be shown through the water. The large Nile mosaic of Palestrina is a version of such compositions, Marine highlights in Medieval art include the 11th century Bayeux Tapestry showing the Norman Invasion of England. From the 12th century onwards, seals of ports often featured a ship portrait, there was a true seascape, the Voyage of St Julian & St Martha, but both pages were destroyed in a fire in 1904, and only survive in black and white photographs. Scenes of small boats on rivers sometimes feature in the calendar miniatures from books of hours by artists such as Simon Bening. During the Gothic period the nef, a piece of goldsmiths work in the shape of a ship, used for holding cutlery, salt or spices. Initially just consisting of the hull, from the 15th century the most elaborate had masts, sails, as the exotic nautilus shell began to reach Europe, many used these for their hull, like the Burghley Nef of about 1528.
Lower down the scale, interest in shipping was reflected in many early prints of ships. They usually anticipated the low horizon that painting would not achieve until the 17th century, the first print of a naval battle is an enormous woodcut of the Battle of Zonchio in 1499 between the Venetians and the Turks. The only surviving impression is coloured with stencils, most were probably pasted onto walls, the earliest comparable painting to survive comes from several decades later. At the same artists were often involved in the expansion of Western cartography