Peace Concluded

Peace Concluded, 1856 is a painting by John Everett Millais which depicts a wounded British officer reading The Times newspaper's report of the end of the Crimean War. It was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1856 to mixed reviews, but was endorsed by the critic John Ruskin who proclaimed that in the future it would be recognised as "among the world's best masterpieces"; the central figure in the painting is a portrait of Millais's wife Effie Gray, married to Ruskin. It is now in the Minneapolis Institute of Arts. There is some evidence that Millais intended the painting to be satirical - an attack on pampered officers who were allowed to go home for so-called "urgent private affairs", while ordinary soldiers were forced to live in poor conditions in the Crimea; when the war ended, the satire seemed obsolete, so he changed it to a portrayal of a wounded officer recuperating at home. The officer is depicted lying with an Irish wolfhound at his feet, while his wife rests on the sofa, on his lap.

He has put aside a chapter of William Makepeace Thackeray's novel The Newcomes, which shares the story of a pious military man and his family, to read the newspaper. The two children have been playing with a wooden box in the form of Noah's ark, a popular toy in this period, it contains models of various animals. Each animal symbolises one of the combatants in the Crimean war; the Gallic rooster is the symbol of France. The child at the left has just picked a dove from the box; the rich fabric of the mother's dress creates a large red patch under suggestive of blood. The girl on the right holds up her father's campaign medal, looking at him questioningly. In the background is a print by James Heath of The Death of Major Peirson by John Singleton Copley, depicting the death of a British officer defending Jersey during the Battle of Jersey. Ruskin's elaborate praise of the painting emphasised Millais's increasing mastery of colour, which the critic compared to Titian. Other critics were less impressed.

An opponent of the Pre-Raphaelites stated that the "coats, trousers" all had more vitality than the people. Some of Millais's Pre-Raphaelite colleagues disliked the picture. Critics were befuddled as to the physical and apparent emotional closeness of the parents. "The agroupment of the two principle figures, although probable incident, is not easy. We first lost the extremities of the husband and have to look for them beyond the wife, the question arises as to what she is seated on--being upheld by a supposition that she occupies a mysterious space at the edge of the sofa." Upon further research it is possible that part of their closeness represents the closeness of Millais and Gray, as the painting and their first anniversary share the same date. There is evidence that this was not the first time that Millais has inserted his own personal life into one of his paintings


Microwork is a series of small tasks which together comprise a large unified project, are completed by many people over the Internet. Microwork is considered the smallest unit of work in a virtual assembly line, it is most used to describe tasks for which no efficient algorithm has been devised, require human intelligence to complete reliably. The term was developed in 2008 by Leila Chirayath Janah of Samasource. Microtasking is the process of splitting a large job into small tasks that can be distributed, over the Internet, to many people. Since the inception of microwork, many online services have been developed that specialize in different types of microtasking. Most of them rely on a voluntary workforce composed of Internet users from around the world. Typical tasks offered are repetitive but not so simple. Good candidates for microtasks have the following characteristics: They are large volume tasks They can be broken down into tasks that are done independently They require human judgementIt may be known as ubiquitous human computing or human-based computation when focused on computational tasks that are too complex for distributed computing.

Microtasks are distinguished from macrotasks, which can be done independently. They require a fixed amount of time and they require a specialized skill; the wage paid can range from a few cents per task to hundreds of dollars per project. Amazon Mechanical Turk allows workers to choose and perform simple tasks online, reporting directly through the platform to receive payments in exchange. A task can be as complex as algorithm writing or as simple as labelling photos or videos, describing products, or transcribing scanned documents. Employers submit tasks and set their own payments, which are pennies for each task; this crowdsourcing project was initiated by Amazon as a way for users to find duplicate webpages, soon it became a service for individuals to contract computer programmers and other individuals to finish tasks that computers are unable to accomplish. Since this project has expanded from its original form. LiveOps uses a distributed network of people to run a "Cloud Call Center", a virtual call center or contact center: contracted workers can answer calls and provide other call center facilities without the need for the physical building or equipment of a traditional call center.

The Red Cross utilized this system during Hurricane Katrina in 2005, to process 17,000+ calls without having to open or hire staff for a call center. A similar model is used by text message question-answering services like 63336. Researchers receive questions as they are submitted. InnoCentive allows businesses to post problems and offer payment for answers; these questions are far less simple than tasks posted on services like Mechanical Turk, the payments are accordingly higher. For example: "Think you can find a way to prevent orange juice stored in see-through bottles from turning brown? There may be $20,000 in it for you."Samasource is a non-profit organization that allows people living in poverty the opportunity to complete microwork for a living wage. The service specializes in online content moderation, digital transcription, data gathering and promotion. Galaxy Zoo is a scientific effort to use online crowdsourcing to classify a large number of galaxies from astronomical images. In 2010, the company Internet Eyes launched a service where in return for a potential reward, home viewers would watch live CCTV streams and alert shop owners of potential theft in progress.

Most uses of microtasking services involve processing data online. These include driving traffic to websites, gathering data like email addresses or, labelling or tagging data online, they are used to translate or transcribe audio clips and pictures, since these are activities that are better suited to humans than computers. These are used both for practical data conversion purposes, but to improve upon and test the fidelity of machine learning algorithms. Identification of pictures by humans has been used to help in missing persons searches, though to little effect. Other than the manipulation of data, these services are a good platform for reaching a large population for social studies and surveys since they make it easy to offer monetary incentives. Companies can outsource projects to specialists on whom they otherwise would have expended more resources hiring and screening; this method of pay per task is attractive to employers. CrowdFlower alone has completed 450 million completed human intelligence tasks between 2007 and 2012.

CrowdFlower operates differently than Amazon Mechanical Turk. Jobs are taken in by the company, they implemented a system called Virtual Play, which allows the users to play free games that would in turn accomplish useful tasks for the company. In 2011 an estimated $375 million was contributed by digital crowdsourced labour; as of November 2009, India and the United States together make up 92% of the workers on Amazon Mechanical Turk with the U. S. making up 56% of these. However, the percentage of Indian Turkers quadrupled in only one year from 2008 to 2009; as of 2009, the Indian Turkers are much younger and more educated than their American counterparts citation needed, with the average age of Indian workers being 26 and American workers being 35. In addition, 45% of the digital

Frances Young

The Reverend Frances Margaret Young, OBE, FBA is a British theologian and Methodist minister. She is Emeritus Professor at the University of Birmingham. Frances Young taught theology at the University of Birmingham from 1971, becoming the Edward Cadbury Professor and Head of the Department of Theology in 1986. During her time at the University, she served as Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Pro-Vice-Chancellor. In 1984, she was ordained as a Methodist minister, has combined preaching in a local Circuit and pursuing her academic career. In 1998, she was awarded an OBE for services to Theology and in 2004, elected a Fellow of the British Academy. In 2005, she retired from the University. On 15 November 2005, she preached at the opening service of the Eighth General Synod Church of England, the first Methodist and the first woman to preach at the five-yearly inauguration ceremony, she delivered her sermon at the Eucharist service at which the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr. Rowan Williams, presided.

She served as editor of volumes 39–43 of the Studia patristica and wrote academic and more popular theological writings, drawing on her work on the New Testament and on Christianity in its formative centuries, but on her experience as the mother of a son, born with profound physical and mental disabilities. For this reason, she worked on the theological and ecumenical dimensions of the L'Arche communities with Jean Vanier, their founder. According to local guides, in August 1965 she became the first woman to climb Ranrapalca in the Peruvian Andes. Young was one of the contributors to The Myth of God Incarnate, alongside Don Cupitt, Michael Goulder, John Hick, Leslie Houlden, Dennis Nineham, Maurice Wiles; this book caused quite a controversy at the time of its publication, as it seemed to cast doubt on the traditional Christian belief in the incarnation. In her essay "Two Roots or Tangled Mess", she criticised her fellow contributor Michael Goulder for presenting a hypothetical reconstruction which had "an exclusive concentration on one or two specific sources" and thus failed to look at the complexity of the borderlines of Judaism.

In "A Cloud of Witnesses", she calls attention to the different forms in which the early Church spoke of Jesus, suggests that the idea of incarnation is part of a symbolic or mythological framework, by which she does not mean the terms are false but rather that "they refer to realities which are... indefinable in terms of human language, in their totality, inconceivable within the limited powers and experience of the finite human mind." Trevor Beeson, in his review in Christian Century found her section one of the most important, saying that her "contribution deserves the most careful examination". In the follow-up volume and Myth, she looked at what kind of "evidence" existed in the sources, showed the strangeness of the language used in her essay "God Suffered and Died", questioned whether traditional concepts of incarnation made sense, whether they tended to docetism, losing sight of the suffering of Christ: "I find myself able to say: “I see God in Jesus,” and “God was in Christ reconciling the world to himself,” and other such traditional statements without having to spell it out in terms of a literal incarnation.

I find salvation in Christ, because in him God is disclosed to me as a “suffering God.” God is not only disclosed in him, nor is revelation confined to “biblical times”. However, after further historical research, when she came to write "From Nicaea to Chalcedon", she remarked that she had changed her views. Other notable theological work includes "The Making of the Creeds" in which she explained how the creeds arose in the struggle to understand ideas of incarnation and trinity: "they were not initially'tests of orthodoxy' but as summaries of faith taught to new Christians by their local bishops, summaries that were traditional to each local church and which in detail varied from place to place", she convincingly explains that, far from being abstract theological mind games, the credal disputes were "fired by concern that the gospel of salvation be safeguarded. At the heart of the life of the church was the belief that salvation was being realised, at the heart of early Christian theology was a sense of the sacramental and spiritual reality of that salvation."

Sacrifice and the death of Christ, Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1975, ISBN 9780664242107 The Myth of God Incarnate, ed. John Hick, London: SCM Press, 1977, ISBN 9780334010654 Incarnation and Myth: The Debate Continued, ed. Michael Goulder, London: SCM Press, 1979, ISBN 9780802811998 Can these dry bones live?: the excitement of theological study, London: SCM Press Ltd, 1982, ISBN 9780334049654 From Nicaea to Chalcedon: a guide to the literature and its background, London: SCM Press, 1983, ISBN 9780334004950 Meaning and Truth in 2 Corinthians, with David F Ford, London: SPCK, 1987, ISBN 9780281043170 The art of performance: towards a theology of Holy Scripture, London: Darton and Todd, 1990, ISBN 9780232517798 Face to Face: A Narrative Essay in the Theology of Suffering, Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1991, ISBN 9780567291776 The Making of the Creeds, London: SCM Press, 1991, ISBN 9780334024880 Virtuoso T