The Peace Corps is a volunteer program run by the United States government. Its official mission is to provide social and economic development abroad through technical assistance, while promoting mutual understanding between Americans and populations served; the program was established by Executive Order 10924, issued by President John F. Kennedy on March 1961 and authorized by Congress on September 21, 1962 with passage of the Peace Corps Act. Peace Corps Volunteers are American citizens with a college degree, who work abroad for a period of two years after three months of training. Volunteers work with governments, non-profit organizations, non-government organizations, entrepreneurs in education, youth development, community health, information technology and the environment. After 24 months of service, volunteers can request an extension of service. Since its inception, more than 235,000 Americans have joined the Peace Corps and served in 141 countries. Following the end of World War II, various members of the United States Congress proposed bills to establish volunteer organizations in developing countries.
In December 1951 Representative John F. Kennedy suggested to a group that "young college graduates would find a full life in bringing technical advice and assistance to the underprivileged and backward Middle East... In that calling, these men would follow the constructive work done by the religious missionaries in these countries over the past 100 years." In 1952 Senator Brien McMahon proposed an "army" of young Americans to act as "missionaries of democracy". Funded nonreligious organizations began sending volunteers overseas during the 1950s. While Kennedy is credited with the creation of the Peace Corps as president, the first initiative came from Senator Hubert H. Humphrey, Jr. who introduced the first bill to create the Peace Corps in 1957—three years before Kennedy, as a presidential candidate, would raise the idea during a campaign speech at the University of Michigan. In his autobiography The Education of a Public Man, Humphrey wrote, There were three bills of particular emotional importance to me: the Peace Corps, a disarmament agency, the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty.
The President, asked me to introduce legislation for all three. I introduced the first Peace Corps bill in 1957, it did not meet with much enthusiasm. Some traditional diplomats quaked at the thought of thousands of young Americans scattered across their world. Many senators, including liberal ones, thought it an unworkable idea. Now, with a young president urging its passage, it became possible and we pushed it through the Senate, it is fashionable now to suggest that Peace Corps Volunteers gained as much or more, from their experience as the countries they worked. That may be true, they made them better. Only in 1959, did the idea receive serious attention in Washington when Congressman Henry S. Reuss of Wisconsin proposed a "Point Four Youth Corps". In 1960, he and Senator Richard L. Neuberger of Oregon introduced identical measures calling for a nongovernmental study of the idea's "advisability and practicability". Both the House Foreign Affairs Committee and the Senate Foreign Relations Committee endorsed the study, the latter writing the Reuss proposal into the pending Mutual Security legislation.
In this form it became law in June 1960. In August the Mutual Security Appropriations Act was enacted, making available US$10,000 for the study, in November ICA contracted with Maurice Albertson, Andrew E. Rice, Pauline E. Birky of Colorado State University Research Foundation for the study. John F. Kennedy was the first to announce the idea for such an organization during the 1960 presidential campaign, on October 14, 1960, at a late-night speech at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor on the steps of the Michigan Union, he dubbed the proposed organization the "Peace Corps." A brass marker commemorates the place. In the weeks after the 1960 election, the study group at Colorado State University released their feasibility a few days before Kennedy's Presidential Inauguration in January 1961. Critics opposed the program. Kennedy's opponent, Richard M. Nixon, predicted it would become a "cult of escapism" and "a haven for draft dodgers."Others doubted whether recent graduates had the necessary skills and maturity for such a task.
The idea was popular among students and Kennedy pursued it, asking respected academics such as Max Millikan and Chester Bowles to help him outline the organization and its goals. During his inaugural address, Kennedy again promised to create the program: "And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you—ask what you can do for your country". President Kennedy in a speech at the White House on June 22, 1962, "Remarks to Student Volunteers Participating in Operation Crossroads Africa", acknowledged that Operation Crossroads for Africa was the basis for the development of the Peace Corps. "This group and this effort were the progenitors of the Peace Corps and what this organization has been doing for a number of years led to the establishment of what I consider to be the most encouraging indication of the desire for service not only in this country but all around the world that we have seen in recent years". The Peace Corps website answered the question "Who Inspired the Creation of the Peace Corps?", acknowledging that the Peace Corps were based on Operation Crossroads Africa founded by Rev. James H. Robinson.
John Ewen Davidson was a colonist sugar planter and miller in Queensland. John Ewen Davidson was born as the son of a Scottish merchant, he was educated Harrow School and Oxford, where he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in 1862. He was a member of the Marylebone Cricket Club in London and played one first class match in 1864. After a trip to the West Indies and British Guiana he came to Australia in 1865. There he met pioneer Queensland sugar planter Captain Claudius Whish and visited his farm at Caboolture, where he was shown, how to grow sugar in the climatic conditions of Queensland. A year he began as a sugar planter at Bellenden Plains on the Murray River north of Cardwell in Far North Queensland. According to his own diary entries, Davidson was involved in frequent mass shootings of Aboriginal people in this area as he tried to establish his sugar plantation. In January 1866, he accompanied sub-Inspector Reginald Uhr and his troopers of the Native Police who pursued and shot down "some blacks".
In March, Davidson again participated in a raid on the local people by the Native Police and "no end of bags, fish baskets, spears were brought back" as plunder. Davidson was additionally aided by Inspector John Murray of the Native Police, who would arrive "to clear out the blacks". After his plantation at Bellenden Plains was destroyed by a flood in late 1866, Davidson sold out of the area. Before his departure from the area, Davidson participated in a large punitive expedition against the indigenous people of Goold Island located just north of Hinchinbrook Island. After "dispersing" the "Goold Island niggers", this group "sailed back to Cardwell with a string of canoes". Thus, he relocated to Mackay in 1867 and set-up the cotton and sugar plantation Alexandra together with Thomas Henry Fitzgerald, he investigated new varieties of sugar cane and methods of production and visited many other areas in the world over his career. As Davidson participated in violent raids on a number of Aboriginal camps, he was able to collect Aboriginal artefacts for the British Museum.
In most cases, however and others would burn the weapons and instruments that were left behind after these attacks. He recorded a species of plum tree and was the first Britisher to identify a comet in Queensland with his own telescope, he donated aboriginal artefacts to the Dresden Museum of Ethnology in 1881: A shield found at the Mulgrave River shows an inscription on the handle ‘Australia from Baessler’, an indication that Davidson had teamed-up with the German anthropologist and photographer Arthur Baessler when he travelled in Australia in 1891-1893. From 1881, he part-owned W. Sloane & Co. in Melbourne, which invested in the Mackay sugar industry. It changed its name to Melbourne Mackay Sugar Company in 1882. Subsequently, Davidson managed six estates using the most modern and expensive equipment. After the crisis of the Queensland sugar industry in 1888, Davidson testified to the Royal Commission into the industry that four of the six of his company's estates were idle, he sought protection to protect the fledgling Queensland industry from European bounty-fed beet sugar.
Due to the advent of the Federation and introduction of governmentally supported Central Mills, the cane industry declined and the business of the large sugar estates slowed-down significantly. Around 1900, he returned with his family for his retirement to England, died there at his Oxford home on 2 September 1923
Dhamangaon Railway Vidhan Sabha constituency is one of the 288 Vidhan Sabha constituencies in Maharashtra state in western India. This constituency is part of the eight constituencies located in the Amravati district. Dhamangaon Railway is part of the Wardha Lok Sabha constituency along with five other Vidhan Sabha segments, namely Wardha, Arvi and Hinganghat in Wardha district and Morshi in Amravati district; the Dhamangaon Railway constituency was earlier known as the Chandur Railway Constituency before the Delimitation of Constituencies in 2009. As per orders of Delimitation of Parliamentary and Assembly constituencies Order, 2008, No. 36 Dhamangaon Railway is composed of the following: 1. Nandgaon-Khandeshwar Tehsil, 2. Chandur Railway Tehsil and 3. Dhamangaon Railway Tehsil of the district. 2019: Pratap Arun adsad, BJP 2014: Virendra Jagtap, Indian National Congress 2009: Virendra Jagtap, Indian National Congress 2004: Virendra Jagtap, Indian National Congress 1999: Arun Adsad, Bharatiya Janta Party 1995: Dr. Pandurang Dhole Janata Dal (126 Chandur constituency of Maharashtra 1990: Arun Adsad Bhartiya Janata Party (126 Chandur constituency of Maharashtra 1985: Yashwant Sherekar Indian National Congress 1980: Yashwant Sherekar Indian National Congress 1978: Sudhakar Savalakhe Indian National Congress 1972: Sharad Tasare Indian National Congress 1967: Bhaurao Gulabrao Jadhav Indian National Congress 1962: Bhaurao Gulabrao Jadhav Indian National Congress 1957: Pundalik Ramkrishna Chore Indian National Congress 1951: Pundalik Ramkrishna Chore Indian National Congress 1951: Bhaurao Gulabrao Jadhav Indian National Congress Dattapur Dhamangaon List of constituencies of Maharashtra Vidhan Sabha