Peace churches are Christian churches, groups or communities advocating Christian pacifism or Biblical nonresistance. The term historic peace churches refers only to three church groups among pacifist churches—Church of the Brethren; the definition of "peace churches" is sometimes expanded to include Christadelphians and others who did not participate in the conference of the "historic peace churches" in Kansas in 1935. The peace churches agree. Whether physical force can be justified, either in defending oneself or others, remains controversial. Many believers adhere to a moral attitude of nonresistance in the face of violence. However, these churches do concur that violence on behalf of nations and their governments is contrary to Christian morality. Among all Christian denominations, there have always been groups of members who advocate nonviolence, but certain churches have supported it since their foundation. Besides the three historic peace churches, they include the Amish, Old Order Mennonites, Conservative Mennonites, Old German Baptist Brethren, Old Order River Brethren, the Brethren in Christ, others in the Anabaptist tradition.
The largest Pentecostal church, the Assemblies of God, abandoned pacifism around the time of the Second World War. These groups have disagreed, both internally and with each other, about the propriety of non-combatant military roles, such as unarmed medical personnel, or performing non-battlefield services that assist nations in wartime, such as manufacturing munitions. One position might argue that Jesus would never object to helping people who are suffering, while another might object that doing so contributes indirectly to violence by freeing other people to engage in it. At one time, active membership in and acceptance of the beliefs of one of the peace churches was required for obtaining conscientious objector status in the United States, hence exemption from military conscription, or for those in the military, honorable discharge, but after a series of court rulings, this requirement was dropped. In the United States, one may now claim conscientious objector status based on a personal belief system that need not be Christian, nor based on religion.
Peace churches those with sufficient financial and organizational resources, have attempted to heal the ravages of war without favoritism. This has aroused controversy, as when the Quakers sent large shipments of food and medicine to North Vietnam during the Vietnam War, to U. S.-embargoed Cuba. The American Friends Service Committee and the Mennonite Central Committee are two charitable denominational agencies set up to provide such healing. In the 1980s, the Quakers and Mennonites came together to create Christian Peacemaker Teams, an international organization that works to reduce violence and systematic injustice in regions of conflict; this was motivated by the desire for Christians to take peacemaking as as soldiers and governments take war-making. The Christadelphians are one of only a small number of churches whose identity as a denomination is directly linked to the issue of Christian pacifism. Although the grouping which took the name "Christadelphian" had separated from the Campbellite movement in Scotland and America after 1848, it was conscription in the American Civil War which caused their local church in Ogle County, Illinois, to register as conscientious objectors in 1863 under the name "Christadelphians."
When the First World War was imminent Christadelphians in the British Empire took the same stance, though faced military tribunals. During the Second World War Christadelphians were exempted and performed civil work – though some of the small number of Christadelphians in Germany were imprisoned and one executed; the position was maintained through Vietnam War and today. The Doukhobors are a Spiritual Christian denomination. On 29 June 1895, the Doukhobors, in what is known as the "Burning of the Arms", "piled up their swords and other weapons and burned them in large bonfires while they sang psalms"; the Emmanuel Association, the Brethren in Christ and Christ's Sanctified Holy Church are denominations in the holiness movement known for their opposition to war today. The Emmanuel Association, for example, teaches: We feel bound explicitly to avow our unshaken persuasion that War is utterly incompatible with the plain precepts of our divine Lord and Law-giver, with the whole spirit of the Gospel.
Therefore, we can not participate in war activities, or compulsory training. Adventists had sought and obtained exemption as conscientious objectors in 1864, the Seventh-day Adventist Church from 1914 has a long history of noncombatancy service within and outside the military. In practice today, as a pastor from the Seventh-Day Adventist church comments in an online magazine runs by members of the Seventh-Day Adventist church: "Today in a volunteer army a lot of Adventist young men and women join the military in combat positions, there are many Adventist pastors electing for military chaplaincy positions, sup
In 2013 the foremost competition in athletics was the 2013 World Championships in Athletics in Moscow. The International Association of Athletics Federations will hold two other global level competitions this year: the 2013 IAAF World Cross Country Championships and the 2013 World Youth Championships in Athletics; the IAAF World Cross Country Championships will return after its move to a biennial format. The Diamond League enters its fourth year as the foremost seasonal field series. Canada Summer Games Chinese National Games German Championships Italian Championships Italian Indoor Championships Japanese Championships USA Track and Field Championships nb1 Tyson Gay, with 9.75 seconds, had a faster 100 m in 2013, but was disqualified due to doping. Nb2 Bernard Koech, with 58:41 minutes, had a faster half marathon time but this was set on an aided San Diego course, not eligible for record purposes. Nb3 Priscah Jeptoo, with 65:45 minutes, had a faster half marathon time but this was set on an aided course at the Great North Run, not eligible for record purposes.
Season's best listsRorick, Jim. 2013 World Comprehensive List - Men. Track and Field News. Retrieved on 2015-02-07. Rorick, Jim. 2013 World Comprehensive List - Women. Track and Field News. Retrieved on 2015-02-07
The 20,000 metres race walk is a racewalking event. The event is competed as a track race. Athletes must always keep in contact with the ground and the supporting leg must remain straight until the raised leg passes it. 20,000 metres is 12.4274 miles. This distance is not raced at high level international competitions but part of South American Championships in Athletics and individual national championships. Top level senior athletics racewalking events feature 20 km road distance. On May 7, 1994, Bernardo Segura of Mexico set a new 20,000 m race walk world record in Fana in a time of 1:17:25.6. The all-time women's 20,000 m race-walk record is held by Olimpiada Ivanova of Russia, at 1:26:53.2. Correct as of 15 August 2018. Below is a list of other times equal or superior to 1:20:41.6: Nick A'Hern walked 1:20:18.5. Correct as of May 2019. Below is a list of other times equal or superior to 1:32:26.0: Sandra Arenas walked 1:31:46.9. Marina Smyslova walked 1:32:16.5
An Irish Section 110 special purpose vehicle or section 110 company, is an Irish tax resident company, which qualifies under Section 110 of the Irish Taxes Consolidation Act 1997 for a special tax regime that enables the SPV to attain "tax neutrality": i.e. the SPV pays no Irish taxes, VAT, or duties. Section 110 was created in 1997 to help International Financial Services Centre legal and accounting firms compete for the administration of global securitisation deals, by 2017 was the largest structured finance vehicle in EU securitisation. Section 110 SPVs have made the IFSC the third largest global Shadow Banking OFC. While they pay no Irish tax, they contribute €100 million annually to the Irish economy in fees paid to IFSC legal and accounting firms. In June 2016, it was discovered that US distressed debt funds used Section 110 SPVs, structured by IFSC service firms, to avoid Irish taxes on €80 billion of Irish domestic investments; the cost to the Irish exchequer has been material. Despite the scale of the avoidance, Irish Revenue attempted no investigation or prosecution.
The Irish Government's response to the scandal in 2016–2017 was unusual, closing some loopholes but leaving others open, including a five-year capital gains tax exemption to aid alternative restructuring. The affair is a source of dispute; the abuses were discovered because Section 110 SPVs file public accounts with the Irish CRO. In 2018, the Central Bank of Ireland upgraded the L–QIAIF, to give the same tax-free structure on Irish assets held via debt as the Section 110 SPV, but without having to file public accounts with the Irish CRO. Academic research in 2016–2018, showed IFSC Section 110 SPVs are unregulated, operating like brass plate companies with low supervision from the Revenue or the Central Bank of Ireland, it showed Section 110 SPVs were used by sanctioned/prohibited Russian banks. A June 2017 study published in Nature listed Ireland as one of the global Conduit OFCs which use SPVs to route funds to tax havens. In March 2018, the Financial Stability Forum showed SPVs had made Ireland the 3rd largest Shadow Banking OFC.
In June 2018, tax academics showed Ireland was the world's largest tax haven. While Ireland had created securitisation SPVs from 1991 onwards for their emerging International Financial Services Centre, Section 110 of the 1997 Taxes and Consolidation Act introduced more advanced SPVs to enable the IFSC complete in the global securitisation market; the new Section 110 SPV was tax neutral, which meant that with appropriate financial structuring, no Irish taxes would apply inside the new Irish Section 110 SPV. Full tax neutrality was available as standard in the offshore financial centres who had zero domestic taxes; as tax havens however, their reputation, a restricted network of global tax treaties, made less acceptable to the banks who originate securitisation SPVs. Onshore competitors, like Luxembourg and the Netherlands, used a civil law legal system less favored by securitisation originatorsIrish companies had access to the EU's network of tax treaties in a preferred common law legal system.
However, offering Irish companies as vehicles for tax neutral securitisations bought risks to the tax base of the Irish economy as Irish domestic assets and businesses could be repackaged into Section 110 "qualifying assets". Explicit solutions were ruled out as the Section 110 SPV could be challenged as a non-ordinary Irish company, losing tax treaty access. Instead, controls were introduced, that while less explicit, would collectively ensure Section 110 SPVs were confined to global securitisation: While IFSC law firms lobbied for the removal of i. & iii. and exemptions from improvements in Irish company law, these controls seemed to work. There is no record of any entity using Section 110 SPVs to avoid Irish tax on Irish domestic investments or businesses until circa 2012. Note, Irish banks use Section 110 SPVs to raise capital to finance their Irish mortgage books in the global capital markets. However, as the source Irish borrower pays loan interest to the Irish bank, who incurs Irish taxes inside their Irish-taxed corporate bank structure, there is no loss of Irish taxes to the Irish exchequer.
In contrast, if Irish borrowers paid loan interest into a Section 110 SPV, no Irish taxes are paid, causing a permanent loss to the exchequer. Irish anti-avoidance rules, would kick-in and apply Irish withholding taxes of 20% in such situations, but the Irish Revenue would controversially set these anti-avoidance rules aside in 2016. For Irish Section 110 SPVs to be accepted under EU tax treaties, they must to be ordinary Irish resident companies, in Irish and EU Company Law. In this regard, more advanced and/or aggressive Irish tax-neutral vehicles, which are tax-free and can be operated in greater secrecy from public views, such as the Qualifying investor alternative investment fund, or LQIAIFs and QIFs, were not deemed suitable for the global securitisation transaction marketplace; as an ordinary Irish company, a Section 110 SPV takes one of 3 main forms: private limited company. A "qualifying company" under Section 110 of the 1997 TCA means a company which: The list of "qualifying assets" which can be held inside an Irish Section 110 SPV is large (it has been extended with subseq
Rhizobium leguminosarum is a bacterium which lives in a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with legumes, has the ability to fix free nitrogen from the air. R. leguminosarum has been thoroughly studied—it has been the subject of more than a thousand publications. Rhizobium leguminosarum is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium. R. leguminosarum biovar trifolii, R. leguminosarum biovar viciae are the most studied biovars of R. leguminosarum, with certain studies treating R. trifolii as its own species. Research has been carried out into the role that R. leguminosarum could play in promoting growth of canola and lettuce. Type strain of Rhizobium leguminosarum at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase
Ramon H. Durano VI known as Red Durano, is a Filipino politician. A member of the Nationalist People's Coalition, he was elected to the House of Representatives of the Philippines in a 2005 special election, succeeding his brother Joseph Ace Durano as the Representative of the Fifth District of Cebu, following his appointment as Secretary of the Department of Tourism, he served as the Chairperson of the House Committee on Economic Affairs during the 15th Congress and the Chairperson of the House Committee on Basic Education and Culture in the 17th Congress. Additionally, he is the Vice Chairperson of the House Committee on Inter-Parliamentary Relations and Diplomacy and the House Committee on Ways and Means, he is known as the "Father of Cooperativism" in the Fifth District of Cebu. As a political figure, he is the Party President of the local political party, Barug Alang sa Kauswagan ug Demokrasya. Under his leadership, the party has wielded solid support from among the residents of the 5th District of Cebu which comprises Liloan, Carmen, Catmon, Sogod, San Francisco, Tudela and Danao City.
He has authored various legislation aimed at socio-economic development the reclassification of the Camotes Islands from timberland into alienable and disposable in order to usher in unprecedented economic growth. He has extended assistance to families in need during medical emergencies, he allocated appropriations at the Vicente Sotto Memorial Medical Center, Danao Provincial Hospital, Everseley Childs Sanitarium. He extends scholarship to deserving college students and free skills training through the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority, he has ensured the building of roads and community centers in the 210 barangays of his district. Red Durano as he is fondly called by the people finished his bachelor's degree from the College of Notre Dame in Belmont, California, he proceeded to take up a master's degree in Business from the Asian Institute of Management. He took over the family business and made his way to public service, he served for three years as the Vice Mayor of Danao City from 2013 to 2016.
He is the son of Danao City Mayor Ramon "Nito" D. Durano III who served for nine years as the Congressman of the same district, his grandfather, Ramon M. Durano Sr. became the Congressman of the district. He comes from a family of public servants dating back to the early American period down to the present. "Member Information: Ramon H. Durano VI". House of Representatives of the Philippines. Retrieved 2008-03-20