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Peach

The peach is a deciduous tree native to the region of Northwest China between the Tarim Basin and the north slopes of the Kunlun Mountains, where it was first domesticated and cultivated. It bears an edible juicy fruit called a nectarine; the specific name persica refers to its widespread cultivation in Persia, from where it was transplanted to Europe. It belongs to the genus Prunus which includes the cherry, apricot and plum, in the rose family; the peach is classified with the almond in the subgenus Amygdalus, distinguished from the other subgenera by the corrugated seed shell. Due to their close relatedness, the inside of a peach stone tastes remarkably similar to almond, peach stones are used to make a cheap version of marzipan, known as persipan. Peaches and nectarines are the same species though they are regarded commercially as different fruits. In contrast to peaches, whose fruits present the characteristic fuzz on the skin, nectarines are characterized by the absence of fruit-skin trichomes.

China produced 58% of the world's total peaches and nectarines in 2016. Prunus persica grows up to 7 m wide. However, when pruned properly, trees are 3–4 m tall and wide; the leaves are lanceolate, 7 -- 16 cm long, 2 -- pinnately veined. The flowers are produced in early spring before the leaves; the fruit has yellow or whitish flesh, a delicate aroma, a skin, either velvety or smooth in different cultivars. The flesh is delicate and bruised in some cultivars, but is firm in some commercial varieties when green; the single, large seed is red-brown, oval shaped 1.3–2 cm long, is surrounded by a wood-like husk. Peaches, along with cherries and apricots, are stone fruits. There are various heirloom varieties, including the Indian Peach, or Indian Blood Peach, which arrives in the latter part of the summer, can have color ranging from red and white, to purple. Cultivated peaches are divided into clingstones and freestones, depending on whether the flesh sticks to the stone or not. Peaches with white flesh are sweet with little acidity, while yellow-fleshed peaches have an acidic tang coupled with sweetness, though this varies greatly.

Both colors have some red on their skin. Low-acid white-fleshed peaches are the most popular kinds in China and neighbouring Asian countries, while Europeans and North Americans have favoured the acidic, yellow-fleshed cultivars; the scientific name persica, along with the word "peach" itself and its cognates in many European languages, derives from an early European belief that peaches were native to Persia. The Ancient Romans referred to the peach as malum persicum "Persian apple" becoming French pêche, whence the English peach; the scientific name, Prunus persica means "Persian plum", as it is related to the plum. Fossil endocarps with characteristics indistinguishable from those of modern peaches have been recovered from late Pliocene deposits in Kunming, dating to 2.6 million years ago. In the absence of evidence that the plants were in other ways identical to the modern peach, the name Prunus kunmingensis has been assigned to these fossils. Although its botanical name Prunus persica refers to Persia from where it came to Europe, genetic studies suggest peaches originated in China, where they have been cultivated since the neolithic period.

Until it was believed that the cultivation started c. 2000 BC. More recent evidence indicates that domestication occurred as early as 6000 BC in Zhejiang Province of China; the oldest archaeological peach stones are from the Kuahuqiao site. Archaeologists point to the Yangtze River Valley as the place where the early selection for favorable peach varieties took place. Peaches were mentioned in Chinese writings and literature beginning from the early 1st millennium BC. A domesticated peach appeared early in Japan, in 4700–4400 BC, during the Jōmon period, it was similar to modern cultivated forms, where the peach stones are larger and more compressed than earlier stones. This domesticated type of peach was brought into Japan from China. In China itself, this variety is attested only at a date of c. 3300 to 2300 BC. In India, the peach first appeared during the Harappan period, it is found elsewhere in Western Asia in ancient times. Peach cultivation reached Greece by 300 BC, it is claimed that Alexander the Great introduced the fruit into Europe after he conquered the Persians, although there is no historical evidence for this belief.

Peaches were, well known to the Romans in the 1st century AD, were cultivated in Emilia-Romagna. Peach trees are portrayed in the wall paintings of the towns destroyed by the Vesuvius eruption of 79 AD, while the oldest known artistic representations of the fruit are in two fragments of wall paintings, dated to the 1st century AD, in Herculaneum, now preserved in the National Archaeological Museum in Naples; the peach was brought to the Americas by Spanish explorers in the 16th century, made it to England and France in the 17th century, where it was a prized and expensive treat. The horticulturist George Minifie brought the first peaches from England to its North American colonies in the early 17th century, planting them at his Estate of Buckland in Vi

Deepa Narayan

Deepa Narayan is an author and social scientist, having authored or co-authored more than 15 books including Chup: Breaking The Silence About India's Women. She is an independent advisor for poverty and poverty and has experience working for the World Bank, United Nations and various NGOs, she has been listed as one of the top 100 Global Thinkers by Foreign Policy magazine in 2011 and as a top 100 Disruptive Heroes by Hacking Work. Deepa Narayan has a PhD in Anthropology; this includes titles which have been authored, co-authored or edited by Deepa Narayan: Chup: Breaking The Silence About India's Women Empowerment and Poverty Reduction: A Sourcebook Ending Poverty in South Asia: Ideas That Work Moving Out of Poverty: Volume 1. Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives on Mobility Moving Out of Poverty: Volume 2. Success from the Bottom Up Moving Out of Poverty: Volume 3; the Promise of Empowerment and Democracy in India Moving Out of Poverty: Volume 4. Rising from the Ashes of Conflict Measuring Empowerment: Cross-disciplinary Perspectives Moving Out of Poverty

Gennaro Lombardi

Gennaro Lombardi was an Italian immigrant who moved to the United States in 1897, known for opening the first pizzeria in the United States, Lombardi's. He opened a small grocery store in New York City's Little Italy. An employee of his, Antonio Totonno Pero an Italian immigrant, began making pizza for the store to sell, their pizza became so popular that Lombardi opened the first US pizzeria in 1905, naming it Lombardi's. Although Lombardi was influenced by the pies of Naples, he was forced to adapt pizza to Americans; the wood-fired ovens and mozzarella di bufala were substituted with coal powered ovens and fior di latte, so began the evolution of the American Pie. In 1924, Totonno left Lombardi's and followed the expanding New York City Subway lines to Coney Island, where he opened Totonno's. Italian-American cuisine New York-style pizza